How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

I achieved overall a DISTINCTION in unit 8 , this document is very detailed with references included and diagrams. I achieved a distinction first time for this assignment so I highly believe you would achieve the same grade using my work

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  • Uploaded on August 1, 2021
  • Number of pages 16
  • Written in 2021/2022
  • Type Essay
  • Professor(s) Unknown
  • Grade A

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  • Distinction
  • detalied
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  • simple
  • vitamins
  • disorders
  • digestive system
  • carbohydrates
  • stomach
  • Unit 8
  • applied science

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  • Institution PEARSON
  • Study Applied Science 2016 NQF
  • Course Unit 8 – Physiology of Human Body Systems

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More courses for PEARSON > Applied Science 2016 NQF

  • Unit 4 – laboratory techniques and their application
  • Unit 2- practical scientific procedures and techniques
  • Unit 21 – medical physics applications
  • Unit 14 – applications of organic chemistry
  • Unit 6 – investigative project
  • Unit 9 – human regulation and reproduction
  • Unit 10 – biological molecules and metabolic pathways
  • Unit 12 – diseases and infections
  • Unit 17 – microbiology and microbiological techniques
  • Unit 16 – astronomy and space science

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Affiliations

  • 1 Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 2 Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA [email protected]
  • PMID: 25792515
  • PMCID: PMC4426477
  • DOI: 10.15252/embj.201490686

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Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 2 Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Division of Endocrinology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA [email protected]
  • PMID: 25792515
  • PMCID: PMC4426477
  • DOI: 10.15252/embj.201490686

Abstract

As one of the largest and most functionally complex organs of the human body, the intestines are primarily responsible for the breakdown and uptake of macromolecules from the lumen and the subsequent excretion of waste from the body. However, the intestine is also an endocrine organ, regulating digestion, metabolism, and feeding behavior. Intricate neuronal, lymphatic, immune, and vascular systems are integrated into the intestine and are required for its digestive and endocrine functions. In addition, the gut houses an extensive population of microbes that play roles in digestion, global metabolism, barrier function, and host-parasite interactions. With such an extensive array of cell types working and performing in one essential organ, derivation of functional intestinal tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represents a significant challenge. Here we will discuss the intricate developmental processes and cell types that are required for assembly of this highly complex organ and how embryonic processes, particularly morphogenesis, have been harnessed to direct differentiation of PSCs into 3-dimensional human intestinal organoids (HIOs) in vitro. We will further describe current uses of HIOs in development and disease research and how additional tissue complexity might be engineered into HIOs for better functionality and disease modeling.

Keywords: endoderm; intestinal development; organoids; stem cells; tissue engineering.

© 2015 The Authors.

Figures

Figure 1. Generation of HIOs from PSCs

Figure 1. Generation of HIOs from PSCs

Early stages of embryonic development guide the generation…

Figure 2. Unique advantages and limitations of…

Figure 2. Unique advantages and limitations of current intestinal organoid systems

HIOs grown in vitro…

Figure 3. Complexity of the intestine

Figure 3. Complexity of the intestine

The intestine is an assembly of multiple cell types…

Figure 4. Using HIOs to study intestinal…

Figure 4. Using HIOs to study intestinal development and model diseases

HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology Review

The Anatomy and Physiology test is one of the main components of the HESI A2. Because these subjects are so foundational when it comes to understanding the human body and human health, they’re very important to a nursing education, and most nursing schools require their applicants to take this part of the HESI. There are 30 questions on this part of the HESI exam, and the recommended time limit is 25 minutes. Colleges and universities don’t have to adhere to the recommended time limit, but most do. Like every other section of the HESI A2, there are five moot questions on this test. They’re moot because they will have no effect on your score. That’s because Elsevier, the test developer, is trying them out to see if they’ll be added to future versions of the exam. It would be nice if you knew which questions counted and which don’t, but that would defeat the whole purpose of putting them on the exam, so you should treat every question as if it counts.

What’s on the HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology Test?

The study of the different parts of the body, what they do, and where they’re located, constitutes anatomy. Think of it as a kind of geography of the human body. Physiology is the study of how all the different organs, muscles, bones, and every other part of the human anatomy work together to sustain life and health. These are wide ranging and deep subjects, and there’s no way a test with only 30 questions can come close to covering everything you’ll need to know, but you’ll still need to prep and review for this exam thoroughly. While there are only a few questions, relatively speaking, they can be about any subject in physiology or anatomy, so you’ll need to be very knowledgeable to do well on this HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology Test. To become more familiar with these types of questions, we offer free HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology practice questions.

Here are some topics you should be very familiar with before taking the exam:
Major organs – you can probably locate the brain and the heart on a drawing of the human body, but you should also be able to do the same with the liver, the kidneys, the bladder, the stomach, the lungs, the large and small intestines, etc.

Cells and tissues – these are the basic building blocks of the human body, and you’ll need to know the main parts of a cell, what they do, the four main types of tissues, and the characteristics and functions of each type, etc.

Skeletal system – it’s important to know how many bones the human body has, how they work with the other systems of the body, such as muscle and nerves, the names and locations of different bones, what bones are made of, common injuries and illnesses that affect the skeletal system, etc.

Muscular system – you’ll need to be able to identify and name the major muscles of the human body, and describe their functions, the two types of muscle fibers and their characteristics, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the muscular system, etc.

Integumentary system – you’ll need to understand the different parts of the skin and their various functions, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the skin, etc.

Nervous system – you’ll need a solid understanding of the functions and components of the body’s central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, what neurons are and what they do, spinal nerves and cranial nerves, ganglia, the functions of and differences between the voluntary and involuntary nervous systems, neuroglial cells, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the nervous system, etc.

Reproductive system – you’ll want to know the names and functions of the different parts of both male and female reproductive systems, what happens in puberty, differences between adult males and adult females, what testosterone and estrogen are and what they do, the ovarian and menstrual cycles, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the reproductive system, etc.

Respiratory system – important items include: the organs and structure of the respiratory system, the functions of each part and how the whole system works together, Boyle’s law, inspiration and expiration, the respiratory membrane, how blood carries oxygen throughout the body, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the respiratory system, etc.

Cardiovascular system – important items include: the organs and structure of the cardiovascular system, the functions of each part and how the whole system works together, the various parts of the heart and lungs and what each does, the three layers of blood vessels, heart rate and pulse, the path of blood through the heart and through the entire body, veins, arteries, capillaries, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the cardiovascular, etc.

Endocrine system – you’ll need to know what the endocrine system is and what it does, the organs of the endocrine system, hormones and hormone receptors, the structure and functions of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus and how they work together, the major hormones and what they do, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the endocrine, etc.

Digestive system – important items include: saliva and digestive fluids and how they break down foods, the structure and function of the major organs of the system including the stomach, the esophagus, the livers, the gall bladder, the large and small intestines, and the pancreas, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the digestive system, etc.

Renal system – you’ll need to understand the critical role the kidneys play in human health, how urine is formed, acidity and alkalinity, how the kidneys filter the blood, the path of blood to and from the kidneys, and common injuries and illnesses that affect the renal system, etc.

Frankly, that’s a lot of material to cover when you’re reviewing for the HESI A2 Anatomy and Physiology exam. It’s vital to start prepping for the HESI well before you take the test, and to use a systematic and thorough review system. The free HESI Anatomy and Physiology videos at the top of this page are being provided by Mometrix Academy to help make sure you’re well prepared for this difficult exam.

by Mometrix Test Preparation | Last Updated: July 9, 2021

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How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

Studying about the human anatomy and physiology could be daunting since it requires a lot of information to be memorized, more so, to be understood. But it is of utmost importance, as nurses, to know about the functioning of the human body.

To help you understand the concepts, here are some anatomy and physiology nursing mnemonics and tips.

1. Functions of the Bone

The functions of the bones in the human body are abundant and crucial – far above and beyond provision of rigidity. Its functions are further divided into three, namely: mechanical functions which include protection, structure, movement and sound transduction; synthetic function such as blood production; and metabolic functions including mineral, fat and growth storage, acid-base balance, detoxification, and endocrine organ. To summarize these functions, remember the mnemonic “ Some Men Prefer Mini Skirts, But Can’t Find Enough Skin.”

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

2. Facial Bones: “VAIN MM PLZ”

Textbooks differ as to what bones to include in the facial skeleton, making a strict distinction between bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The hyoid, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones are sometimes included, but otherwise considered part of the neurocranium. Others also include bones that can be seen in the frontal aspect of the skull such as the frontal bone. Note VAIN MM PLZ so you don’t miss out any of the facial bones.

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

3. Cranial Bones: “PEST OF”

The neurocranium is comprised of eight bones: occipital, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, sphenoid, ethmoid, and the frontal bone. They form major portions of the skull and protect the brain.

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

4. Layers of the Epidermis

Epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. While epithelium is a layer of cells covering most of the organs separately (eg. epithelium of digestive system and epithelium of respiratory system), the epidermis itself consists of a layer of epithelial cells (epithelium). The mnemonic “ C ome, L et’s G et S un B urned” will let you not forget the layers of the epidermis.

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

5. Functions of the Epithelium: “PASSIFS”

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. It refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make up the outer surface of the body. The cells vary in structure according to their function, which may be protective, secretory, or absorptive. Just remember the mnemonic PASSIFS for its functions.

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

More will be added soon…

Know a few witty nursing mnemonics? If you know a few more mnemonics about this topic, please do share them at our comments section below! Else, there are more nursing mnemonics here.

updated 9:30 AM on Thu, 22 July

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Summary

Unit type: UG Coursework Unit
Credit points: 12

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Unit description

Examines normal physiological mechanisms of human body systems including muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, digestive, immune and reproductive systems. Detailed understandings of cellular mechanisms and homeostatic control developed in Human Physiology I are applied to understanding the normal functioning of the specific organ systems. Develops essential foundational concepts for further studies in health and human sciences.

Unit content

This is the second of two Human Physiology units which must be studied sequentially. This unit covers:

  • Introduction/Muscles
  • Muscles/Control of Body Movement
  • Cardiovascular System – Blood
  • Cardiovascular System – Heart Function and Blood Vessels
  • Respiratory System
  • Gas Transport/Control of Respiration
  • Urinary System
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Balance/Acid-Base Balance
  • Digestive System
  • Metabolism
  • Immune System
  • Reproductive System

Learning outcomes

Unit Learning Outcomes express learning achievement in terms of what a student should know, understand and be able to do on completion of a unit. These outcomes are aligned with the graduate attributes. The unit learning outcomes and graduate attributes are also the basis of evaluating prior learning.

On completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1 identify the normal functioning of smooth and skeletal muscle and the control of body movement
2 explain the mechanisms underlying the normal functions of the muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the regulation of these functions in response to changes in the internal and external environment
3 explain the mechanisms underlying the normal functions of the urinary, digestive, immune and reproductive systems and the regulation of these functions in response to changes in the internal and external environment
4 explain the integration of various body systems in the homeostatic control of regulated variables.

On completion of this unit, students should be able to:

  1. identify the normal functioning of smooth and skeletal muscle and the control of body movement
  2. explain the mechanisms underlying the normal functions of the muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the regulation of these functions in response to changes in the internal and external environment
  3. explain the mechanisms underlying the normal functions of the urinary, digestive, immune and reproductive systems and the regulation of these functions in response to changes in the internal and external environment
  4. explain the integration of various body systems in the homeostatic control of regulated variables.

In this Article

  • Physiology vs. Anatomy
  • What Physiology Tells Us About the Body
  • Physiology in Medicine
  • The History of Physiology

Physiology is the study of how the human body works. It describes the chemistry and physics behind basic body functions, from how molecules behave in cells to how systems of organs work together. It helps us understand what happens in a healthy body in everyday life and what goes wrong when someone gets sick.

Most of physiology depends on basic research studies carried out in a laboratory. Some physiologists study single proteins or cells, while others might do research on how cells interact to form tissues, organs, and systems within the body.

Physiology vs. Anatomy

While human anatomy is the study of the body’s structures, physiology is the study of how those structures work. An imaging scan like an X-ray or ultrasound can show your anatomy, but doctors use other tests — like urine and blood tests or electrocardiograms (EKGs) — to reveal details about your body’s physiology.

What Physiology Tells Us About the Body

Doctors use physiology to learn more about many different organ systems, including:

  • The cardiovascular system — your heart and blood vessels
  • The digestive system — the stomach, intestines, and other organs that digest food
  • The endocrine system — glands that make hormones, the chemicals that control many body functions
  • The immune system — your body’s defense against germs and disease
  • The muscular system — the muscles you use to move your body
  • The nervous system — your brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  • The renal system — your kidneys and other organs that control the fluid in your body
  • The reproductive system — sex organs for men and women
  • The respiratory system — your lungs and airways
  • The skeletal system — bones, joints, cartilage, and connective tissue

For each system, physiology sheds light on the chemistry and physics of the structures involved. For example, physiologists have studied the electrical activity of cells in the heart that control its beat. They’re also exploring the process by which eyes detect light, from how the cells in the retina process light particles called photons to how the eyes send signals about images to the brain.

Physiology revolves around understanding how the human body maintains a steady state while adapting to outside conditions, a process called homeostasis. How do your organ systems keep your temperature relatively stable in different environments? How does your body keep your blood sugar and other chemical levels constant even when you eat different foods? These are the kinds of questions that physiologists aim to answer.

Physiology in Medicine

By shedding light on normal body functions, physiology can teach lessons about what goes wrong in disease. For instance, physiologists have figured out how different types of cells in the pancreas release hormones to control blood sugar levels. That helps doctors understand and treat diabetes.

The field also offers insights into how to make the human body work more efficiently. It’s often part of sports medicine, where knowing how the body adapts to physical challenges helps elite athletes improve their performance, avoid injury, and recover faster.

The History of Physiology

Anatomy is visible, and ancient doctors and scientists studied it through dissections, surgeries, and observation. But how the body actually works is harder to explore. This means that physiology is a more modern science.

Early explanations of how organs or functions of the human body might work were often guesses, based on processes that were familiar to scientists. For example, some thought the formation of an embryo was similar to how milk turns into cheese. Other early scientists compared blood flow throughout the body to weather patterns.

In the 17th century, microscopes helped shed new light on the cells that make up the human body, leading to a new understanding of physiology. More recently, tools like gene sequencing technologies and new types of body scans have given physiologists an expanded vision of the human body.

Sources

American Physiological Society: “What is Physiology?”

Oregon State Open Textbooks: “Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1.1: How Structure Determines Function.”

The Physiological Society: “What is Physiology?”

University of Cambridge: “What is Physiology?”

Advances in Physiology Education: “The “core principles” of physiology: what should students understand?”

Advances in Physiology Education: “Clinical physiology: a successful academic and clinical discipline is threatened in Sweden.”

Horstmanshoff, M., et al. Blood, Sweat and Tears: The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity to Early Modern Europe, BRILL, 2012.

Human anatomy is the scientific study of the body’s structures. Some of these structures are very small and can only be observed and analyzed with the assistance of a microscope. Other larger structures can readily be seen, manipulated, measured, and weighed. The word “anatomy” comes from a Greek root that means “to cut apart.” Human anatomy was first studied by observing the exterior of the body and observing the wounds of soldiers and other injuries. Later, physicians were allowed to dissect bodies of the dead to augment their knowledge. When a body is dissected, its structures are cut apart in order to observe their physical attributes and their relationships to one another. Dissection is still used in medical schools, anatomy courses, and in pathology labs. In order to observe structures in living people, however, a number of imaging techniques have been developed. These techniques allow clinicians to visualize structures inside the living body such as a cancerous tumor or a fractured bone.

Like most scientific disciplines, anatomy has areas of specialization. Gross anatomy is the study of the larger structures of the body, those visible without the aid of magnification (Figure 1a). Macro– means “large,” thus, gross anatomy is also referred to as macroscopic anatomy. In contrast, micro– means “small,” and microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that can be observed only with the use of a microscope or other magnification devices (Figure 1b). Microscopic anatomy includes cytology, the study of cells and histology, the study of tissues. As the technology of microscopes has advanced, anatomists have been able to observe smaller and smaller structures of the body, from slices of large structures like the heart, to the three-dimensional structures of large molecules in the body.

How to study the physiology of digestion in the human body

Figure 1. Gross and Microscopic Anatomy. (a) Gross anatomy considers large structures such as the brain. (b) Microscopic anatomy can deal with the same structures, though at a different scale. This is a micrograph of nerve cells from the brain. LM × 1600. (credit a: “WriterHound”/Wikimedia Commons; credit b: Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Anatomists take two general approaches to the study of the body’s structures: regional and systemic. Regional anatomy is the study of the interrelationships of all of the structures in a specific body region, such as the abdomen. Studying regional anatomy helps us appreciate the interrelationships of body structures, such as how muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other structures work together to serve a particular body region. In contrast, systemic anatomy is the study of the structures that make up a discrete body system—that is, a group of structures that work together to perform a unique body function. For example, a systemic anatomical study of the muscular system would consider all of the skeletal muscles of the body.

Whereas anatomy is about structure, physiology is about function. Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which they work together to support the functions of life. Much of the study of physiology centers on the body’s tendency toward homeostasis. Homeostasis is the state of steady internal conditions maintained by living things. The study of physiology certainly includes observation, both with the naked eye and with microscopes, as well as manipulations and measurements. However, current advances in physiology usually depend on carefully designed laboratory experiments that reveal the functions of the many structures and chemical compounds that make up the human body.

Like anatomists, physiologists typically specialize in a particular branch of physiology. For example, neurophysiology is the study of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and how these work together to perform functions as complex and diverse as vision, movement, and thinking. Physiologists may work from the organ level (exploring, for example, what different parts of the brain do) to the molecular level (such as exploring how an electrochemical signal travels along nerves).

Form is closely related to function in all living things. For example, the thin flap of your eyelid can snap down to clear away dust particles and almost instantaneously slide back up to allow you to see again. At the microscopic level, the arrangement and function of the nerves and muscles that serve the eyelid allow for its quick action and retreat. At a smaller level of analysis, the function of these nerves and muscles likewise relies on the interactions of specific molecules and ions. Even the three-dimensional structure of certain molecules is essential to their function.

Your study of anatomy and physiology will make more sense if you continually relate the form of the structures you are studying to their function. In fact, it can be somewhat frustrating to attempt to study anatomy without an understanding of the physiology that a body structure supports. Imagine, for example, trying to appreciate the unique arrangement of the bones of the human hand if you had no conception of the function of the hand. Fortunately, your understanding of how the human hand manipulates tools—from pens to cell phones—helps you appreciate the unique alignment of the thumb in opposition to the four fingers, making your hand a structure that allows you to pinch and grasp objects and type text messages.