How to conduct a time and motion study

Method study and work measurement is part of work study. Part of method study is motion study, work measurement is also called by the name ‘Time study’. 1 Advantages of Work Study Following are the advantages of work study: 1. It helps to achieve the smooth production flow with minimum interruptions.

What is time and motion report?

iv Summary The Time and Motion Study Report of staff activity in ward 43 and ward 64 consists of five distinct aspects: (1) an evaluation of staff sufficiency, (2) a study on job scope of each position, (3) a comparison of staff performance and efficiency between the two wards, (4) a discussion on room for improvements …

How is time motion study calculated?

Direct time study procedure

  1. Define and document the standard method.
  2. Divide the task into work elements.
  3. Time the work elements to obtain the observed time for the task.
  4. Evaluate the worker’s pace relative to standard performance (performance rating), to determine the normal time.

What is the purpose of motion study?

The main aim of motion study is to find the scheme of least wastage of labour. Subsequently, the scope of Motion Study was enlarged and it was named as Method Study.

What are the four aspects of work study?

Dear Student, Work-Study refers to the various techniques suggested by Taylor for standardisation and simplification of work in terms of setting up of milestones or benchmarks for the various activities. The Work-Study techniques suggested by Taylor include Time Study, Motion Study, Fatigue Study and Method Study.

What is the difference between time & Motion Study?

Time study involves tracking of the time spent in performing each and every activity, whereas motion study involves the determination of all the movements or say physical efforts made by the workers while performing the task. Time study is performed to identify the standard time required in completing the task.

What is work and motion study?

A Brief History  Time and motion study is the scientific study of the conservation of human resources in the search for the most efficient method of doing a task.  Time study began in the 1880s as a means of wage-rate setting by Frederick W.

What are the aims of work study?

Objectives of Work Study • To analyze the present method of doing a job , systematically in order to develop a new and better method • To measure the work content of a job by measuring the time required to do the job for a qualified worker and hence to establish standard time.

What are the aspects of work study?

Work-Study refers to the various techniques suggested by Taylor for standardisation and simplification of work in terms of setting up of milestones or benchmarks for the various activities. The Work-Study techniques suggested by Taylor include Time Study, Motion Study, Fatigue Study and Method Study.

Who is the father of motion study?

Frank B. Gilbreth
Motion study was developed by Frank B. Gilbreth and Lillian M. Gilbreth and consists of a wide variety of procedures for the description, systematic analysis, and means of improving work methods.

What is meant by motion study?

noun. the analysis of industrial or work procedures to determine the most efficient methods of operation. Also: time and motion, time study, motion study.

How to conduct a time and motion study

A time study is an analysis of the production process that is designed to improve efficiency by identifying areas of production where time is wasted. It can be conducted by a firm that specializes in such studies or it may be directed by personnel within a company. Time studies can reduce waste and streamline the production process to make it go by more quickly. Companies of all types and sizes can utilize efficiency studies to improve their performance.

The first step in a time study involves breaking down the process into a series of discrete units that can be studied independently. The administrator of the study analyzes the entire process to pick out the steps, and then looks at each step individually. This includes examining how steps are performed, identifying unnecessary motions and activities that happen during each step, and timing the optimal completion of each step.

Another term for a time study is a time and motion study, in reference to the fact that the motions made at each step are studied as well. Once the entire process has been thoroughly studied, a report can be prepared to detail where areas of inefficiency lie and to provide suggestions for improvement. Improvements can include retraining employees, moving parts of the process around, replacing equipment, and taking other steps to cut down on the time spent at each stage of the process. The time study can also include a metric for evaluating performance afterward to determine whether or not the business is meeting its goals.

The concept of the time study dates to the turn of the 20th century, when workplaces were becoming increasingly repetitive and mechanized. Studies were used to identify areas of the manufacturing process that needed improvement and to make gains in employee efficiency. A number of early pioneers in the manufacturing world were involved in streamlining production processes and developing methods for assessing assembly lines and working environments.

In addition to being used in the business community, time studies can also be applied in other areas. Students sometimes find that breaking studying into discrete tasks and studying the process can help them study more effectively. Likewise, athletes may use a variation of the time study to analyze their workout routines and look for areas where they could benefit from improvement. The same techniques that work in offices and on assembly lines can be applied to other activities in life.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

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Discussion Comments

@simrin, @anamur- I agree with @anamur. I think we should also keep in mind that a lot of these measurements are subjective. There is always an engineer that is heading a time study and he or she determines the standards of work and timing. The time study also helps a company measure the performance of employees and whether they are keeping up.

There is something called the "performance rating," for example. The engineer watches employees work, times them and comes up with the standard time that it takes for an employee to finish a job. How each employee does in comparison to that standard, is their performance rating.

So, that standard is not a random time that the company comes up with. It’s still based on the employees who work there. That’s why I think that a time study is a fair method to measure timing, efficiency and performance. serenesurface July 12, 2011

@simrin– I don’t know about the quality aspect of it. But a time study doesn’t just aim to make things faster. The goal is not to lose out on quality or to put anyone at risk. The goal is to put out the same quality product more efficiently. And if the company sees fit to get rid of a step or two or make some steps simpler, it is actually making the employee’s job easier.

Does a time study ever take into account opinions of employees?

Do you remember the episode in I Love Lucy where she was working at a chocolate factory and the line was moving so fast that she had to eat the chocolates to get rid of them? Or if any of you have watched Food Inc., a similar situation was shown where employees in the meat factory couldn’t keep up with the line which undermined the quality and safety of the meat product.

I guess what I’m trying to get at is whether a study that only considers time and efficiency enough? Of course, timing how a process in a factory works is a good way to improve efficiency and increase profits. But saving that time might reduce the quality of the product or put employees’ or even consumer’s health at risk.

How is this all balanced out? Are employees asked to give opinions? How do time study methods determine potential consequences of these changes?

How to conduct a time and motion study

Crossing an item off from your to-do list washes a sense of accomplishment over you. But on the sight of the unfinished items and a quick glance at the clock, panic crawls its way in. Another day of mad rush impends, to get the piling work done on time and to no satisfaction. You admonish yourself for the inefficiency, thinking that you should have planned and thought this through. And what you thought isn’t far from the truth of what you ideally should have done. How? That’s where Scientific Management and Time & Motion Study come in.

As the name suggests, time & motion study a portmanteau of time-study and motion-study, both of which are scientific studies in search of optimisation of performance by understanding the time and labour required. The great Athenian thinker Socrates once said, “The unexamined life is not worth living”. Primarily employed for repetitive tasks in industries, time-study was developed in the period between the two World Wars by Frederick W. Taylor. It dwells into procedural measurement of time taken for completion of tasks, while also accommodating human activities. Motion study developed by Frank B. Gilbreth and Lillian M. Gilbreth describes, systematically analyses and provides means for improvement of methods. Accompanied by work-simplification — cutting down on redundant and wasteful motions — the combination of the two studies helps in setting time standards along with a wage-incentive system to motivate the workers.

How to conduct a time and motion study

Time-motion study can be simmered down to a systematic investigation and analysis of the number of movements needed to get work done, and the bracket of time that each correct movement consumes. These movements can range from the motions of a secretary through the day such as taking calls, sending emails and scheduling meetings to the motions of an assembly unit of a car company such as reaching, grasping and placing parts of a car. In this way, time-motion study can be used in cafeterias, libraries, banks, department stores and even household work to increase operational efficiency.

The knowledge of time-motion study is used as a tool for better comprehension of scientific management. What is scientific management then? Taylor, the man behind the concept, believed that optimising the way a work is done rather than extracting the best out of the workers could prove to be more efficient. The philosophy of scientific management can be phrased as follows — scientific analysis of the methodology of work and appropriate allocation of labour or tasks. It is to be noted that this ideology was developed in a time when there was no standardisation and motivation, no incentive for more efficient labour. Taylor, who was then a mechanical engineer (understandably interested in efficiency), conducted various experiments in his workplace (the most famous being a shovel design) and studied the most optimal ways in which a work could be done. This led to the framing of the fundamentals of scientific management — Taylorism.

How to conduct a time and motion study

However, Taylorism in the coming days turned out to be a flop. Experts argued that this methodology dehumanised the workforce and converted man to machine by following a reductionist approach to attain optimisation. The implementation seemed to leave no scope for the worker to think or innovate. The counter-argument was that the modern application of this technique was not the same as what Taylor visualised. Here’s what he felt:

“The task is always so regulated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous, instead of being overworked.”

Though both Taylor and the Gilbreths jointly pioneered the concept of scientific management, there were some abstract differences in their approaches. While Taylor’s theory was more focused on achieving maximum efficiency by decreasing the total process time with not much concern for the practical limitations, the Gilbreths gave more importance to the welfare of workers. In Taylor’s theory, which is often quoted to be the “classical perspective” of scientific management, workers have lesser relevance compared to profit.

Regardless of the reception and deficiencies, implementation of scientific management was one of the first instances when process improvement and management were treated as a scientific problem. Ideas from Taylorism were invoked in what resulted in the fourth Industrial Revolution, Industry 4.0, to gain perspectives for Industrial Automation. Although scientific management has evolved by leaps and bounds, one would not be wrong to assume that Taylorism laid the foundation for the large and influential practices of today’s industries.

How to conduct a time and motion study

Pick up just about any time management book and you’ll find a common piece of advice somewhere near the beginning. “Conduct a time and motion study on all of your activities for a week”. This will be accompanied by a nifty table with snappy rows and impressive columns all nicely laid out for you to fill in. The text goes on to ask you to analyze the results of your time study, doesn’t give much more perspective than that.

Indeed understanding time use can be a useful diagnostic tool for understanding productivity. I’ve been running a time study consulting business since 1990, using the innovative TimeCorder device that I invented and launched in 1989. Whether you use a TimeCorder, or an app, or the back of an envelope, or a form from a time management book, understanding something about your time usage can be useful. Only when you measure your productivity can you improve it.

But once you discover that you spend ten hours per week on one of your major activities, what does that mean? Most statistics gleaned from research are only helpful when they are placed in context. How do those ten hours compare to other people who are like you? Perhaps they are similar, but do those people have the same job or family situation? Also, how has the data changed? Are those ten hours going up or down over time? Are there occasional peak periods? If so, what causes them? And how does your time use in one area affect all of the other areas? An illustration of this is when overtime hours are examined. If you work longer hours than usual during a particular week, that time has to come from somewhere else. Something has to give. More work might mean less family time, or less exercise.

When you spend more time on one thing, then some other thing will either disappear completely or become compressed. Time for meals is an example of this. With all those overtime hours, chances are you’re not eating massively lower amounts of food. You may simply be compressing your meal time. Rushed breakfasts, lunch on the go, and fast food for dinner take the place of long lingering meals over a glass of wine and good conversation. Another artifact of large amounts of time use in one area is overlapping activities. More and more you start doing two things at once. So those rushed meals are eaten at your desk or (heaven forbid) in the car while driving to work. Ask a busy mother what keeps her going, and she’ll tell you how she can feed children, speak on the phone and clean dishes, all at once.

Based on our time motion study research, the thing you are most likely to discover is that you spend fewer hours than you might like on your highest priority tasks while spending much more of your time than you would like on low priority tasks. In the work place, those low priority tasks are administrative activities; filing out reports, going to staff meetings, answering routine internal requests and other activities that aren’t part of the main thrust of your job. Outside of work, those lower priority tasks will be household chores, shopping for groceries, minor repairs, laundry, and cleaning up.

So track your time and put it into perspective. You are likely to be surprised about something. Then you have to figure out what to do next. Are you happy with the way things are or do you genuinely want to improve your productivity? A thorough time study analysis leads to insight. And that leads to results. Your time is worth it.

Background: Diagnostic laboratories need automation that facilitates efficient processing and workflow management to meet today’s challenges for expanding services and reducing cost, yet maintaining the highest levels of quality.

Methods: Processing efficiency of two commercially available automated systems for quantifying HIV-1 and HCV RNA, Abbott m2000 system and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan 96 (docked) systems (CAP/CTM), was evaluated in a mid/high throughput workflow laboratory using a representative daily workload of 24 HCV and 72 HIV samples. Three test scenarios were evaluated: A) one run with four batches on the CAP/CTM system, B) two runs on the Abbott m2000 and C) one run using the Abbott m2000 maxCycle feature (maxCycle) for co-processing these assays. Cycle times for processing, throughput and hands-on time were evaluated.

Results: Overall processing cycle time was 10.3, 9.1 and 7.6 h for Scenarios A), B) and C), respectively. Total hands-on time for each scenario was, in order, 100.0 (A), 90.3 (B) and 61.4 min (C).

Conclusions: The interface of an automated analyzer to the laboratory workflow, notably system set up for samples and reagents and clean up functions, are as important as the automation capability of the analyzer for the overall impact to processing efficiency and operator hands-on time.

How to conduct a time and motion study

A significant percentage of the Maintenance, Repairs and Operation budget is spent on janitorial or custodial services. In fact, the average is 30% of an MRO budget is spent on custodial services which is more than the next five expense items combined. It is critical to have a good handle on this expense.

Many property managers struggle with the cost of cleaning. It is an obtuse figure that’s hard to figure out. There are a large amount of variables that go into costing.

  • How much time does it take to clean your property?
  • How much do you need to have cleaned?
  • What are the frequencies of cleaning?
  • What are the types of areas that need cleaning, hard floors verses carpeting etc.?
  • What are the traffic patterns of your facility and how does that effect budgets?

The purchasing process for buying cleaning services is not always simple. Educating yourself on as many methods of costing is important to arm you with the information to ensure you are fully informed when it comes to the largest single expense in the MRO world.

The Challenge of Calculating Cleaning CostsÂ

With so many factors that enter into the budgeting process, it can be challenging to arrive at a formula that can be applied to every building.

It seems like setting that regular monthly budget would be easy enough but it fails more often than people realize. The reason for the struggles are not always apparent, sometimes the scope of work could be not detailed enough or the execution may be wrong. It is important to have a handle on as many components so the correct adjustments can be made.

  • Is the scope of work correct?
  • What are the heavy duty cleaning needs?
  • Are the frequencies correct?
  • Type of flooring and scope of work for the various flooring types
  • Cleaning materials used
  • Tenants use patterns

There are numerous variables that impact cleaning costs. When determining your budget before entering into a contract with a cleaning service supplier, start with the time and motion study.Â

Introducing the Time and Motion StudyÂ

AÂ time and motion study takes individual cleaning jobs and breaks them down into small components and comes up with averages that you can use in order to set up benchmarks for cleaning.

For example, on average it takes 18.5 minutes to vacuum 1000 square feet of carpet with a 14 inch upright vacuum, or 19.50 minutes to vacuum 1000 square feet with a 15 inch upright vacuum. So with a 15 inch vacuum the production rate is 3243sq ft per hour and a 14 inch vacuum it is 2657sq ft per hour. Move to a backpack vacuum with a 20 inch carpet tool, and the production rate goes up to 8000sq ft per hour.

The purpose of the study is to establish a baseline. Using the formula to calculate what it will take to complete a specific job, you get a more accurate estimate of the costs. Â Â But as stated in the example above there is still a great variety in the results even using the time and motion study depending on factors like equipment, etc.

If you’re one of the many property managers that frequently scratch your head wondering, “is this a reasonable price for cleaning services?” this study is a starting point to establish baselines and to adjust your largest single expense item on your MRO budget.

How it Works

The easiest way to analyze your costs is to use a time and motion study template. Excel makes it easy to plug in numbers and churn out the estimate you need. Understanding how this study works will help you calculate your costs more accurately.

Here are the basics that you need to know to get a realistic figure:

1) Start with the days of service. Â How to conduct a time and motion study

For once a week cleanings use 4.33 days per month. If you need twice per week cleanings, use 8.66 days per month. For five days per week, use 21.65 days per month, and so on and so forth.

Using these figures, you will get an average monthly cost of cleaning that’ll accurately fit in with your annual budget.

2) Include a difficulty factor.

Use your best guess to estimate the difficulty factor. The higher the number, the more difficult the cleaning is. For example, cleaning an auto shop where oils and dirt are abundant is more difficult than cleaning an office filled with computer programmers.

Also take into consideration the density of work, layout, location of garbage, number of waste bins, amount and type of garbage generated, etc. Each of these plays a role in how long it takes someone to clean your property.

 3) Calculate the square footage.

 Calculate the square footage of your property as the last step. This should include the total cleanable square footage of your office. For example, if you do not need any of the space outdoors cleaned, do not include that in your square footage analysis.

 4) Add in the dollar rate per hour.

 The spreadsheet calculates the approximate hours based on the data entered using the time and motion study. Put in your hourly rate taking into account overhead, insurance, etc. You then can get a baseline of what your costs may be depending on what the prevailing rate is for the area you are in etc.

 5) Get your total.Â

With all of these costs entered into the excel spreadsheet, you’ll have an approximate budget.  This number will help you determine how reasonable and accurate each bid is that you receive.

If a bid is too low, you’ll know that they do not understand the full scope of work. You can expect those prices to increase once work begins. If the bid is too high, you might want to ask about the pricing to make sure you did not overlook a difficulty factor on your property that will cost you more.

Would you like an editable version of the time and motion study template excel spreadsheet? Download it here.

ConclusionÂ

Finding the right cleaning company is tough if you do not have the right information. You have a lot to consider in addition to the cost.

To help you get a more realistic idea of what it takes to find the right cleaning company for your property, we encourage you to download our free report called Purchasing Strategies for MRO. In it, you’ll get everything you need to make the best decision for your property.

Cleaning and custodial expenses have a large variation depending on the scope of work and many other variables. Use this report to find the most cost-effective approach for your building.

How to conduct a time and motion study

Time and Motion study is an essential process of bringing efficiency in your working style or producing products, transactions etc.

We are living in a world where either you should become more efficient or you add values to you work. If you are thinking to make your bosses happy or you are an analyst. Then this theme is gonna help you in a very smart way.

This Article Covers:
  • What is Time and Motion Study?
  • Time and Motion Study Parameters
  • How Time and Motion Study will work?
  • Steps for Time Study
  • Free Time and Motion Study Excel Template Download
What is Time and Motion Study?

Time and Motion study is basically a concept of listing down, the steps of producing any transactions/products and recording time for these steps. Then we need to identify the steps which either can be automated or eliminated. Here we need to understand few things before we start digging into this concept:

Time and Motion Study Parameters
  • Transaction: Transaction is an activity which is combination of few steps and it gives the final output to your end user. For Examples:— Producing Pizza and delivering it to customer
    – Producing Product
    – Preparing Tea etc.
  • Lead Time: Lead Time is end to end time for producing any transaction For Examples:— Time Taken for Pizza preparation and Delivering it to customer. This time starts when the order is places and ends when this is delivered to customer
  • Cycle Time: When we break steps of producing transaction into different steps and record time for each step is called “Cycle Time”I have divided the Pizza Order and Delivery process into various steps. This will help you to understand the difference between Cycle Time and Lead Time

How to conduct a time and motion study

  • After getting cycle time for each step, we bifurcate these recorded cycle time further into 2 different categories:1. Value Added Step & Time: A step which is required to proceed with a transaction is called Value Added Step. So this step cannot be eliminated or automated because this is must to process step and time taken for this step is called Value Added Time2. Non Value Added Step & Time: A step which is required to proceed with a transaction however this step is an improvement area which we either- Can merge the step with previous or post step
    – Can be automated or eliminated, Hence this is a gonna game changer for making your process efficient and more productive
How Time and Motion Study will work?

Now you should be able to get some idea of Time and motion study.Here we are going to divide the process into different steps and then we need to record time for each step. Then you should look into the opportunities to improve or eliminate. These opportunities can be:

– Repetitive Work Cycles. Could be a small cycle or long cycle time

– Various Non Value Added Steps which can be eliminated or automated

– Reduction of Time can be done for some steps

There are various methods, tools, applications available or you can get a freelancer to design some solution for you to automate those steps.

Once you start improving time on small steps and you will actually start looking your processes closely and you will find different ways of doing things.

Then you will end up becoming more efficient and you can look for other opportunities to work on. This is how you can get the most out of your time

Steps for Time Study
1. Pre Improvement
  • List Down the steps
  • Start Tracking Time for Each Step
  • Once you complete tracking time for each step, categorize them into Value Added or Non Value Added Time
  • Calculate VA Time % (Value Added Time %):= Total VA Time /Total Time Taken to process the transaction * 100
  • List Down all Non Value Added steps in your action items tracker with solution and Closure date
  • Start working on those solutions and track them closely until the final closure
2. Post Improvement
  • Repeat the above steps after implementing solution
  • Calculate the VA Time% again
  • Compare the Pre and Post VA Time %

Now you can see the improvement in your process and you will end up becoming more smart and more efficient

Free Time and Motion Study Excel Template

Here is one more wonderful free tool which makes your life easy. Time & Motion Tracker helps you to track Start and End time of any type of transaction or activity. The good thing is, it is VBA based tool which helps you to protect from manual manipulation in the data by the user. It is also easy to use, just click on Start (shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+A) or Stop (Ctrl+Shft+S) buttons to record the time

Note:
1. If you want to add more columns in the tracker. Click on Reset and add them after column F (Duration)
2. To avoid manual changes in the time tracked; Date, Start Time, End Time and Duration columns have been protected with a password

How to conduct a time and motion study

How to use this tracker:

1. Click on below link and save the hyperlink attachment in your system

Time & Motion Tracker

2. Unzip the file and open
3. Click on ‘START’ or Ctrl+Shift+A when you start your transaction

How to conduct a time and motion study

4. Click on ‘STOP’ or Ctrl+Shft+S when your transaction is complete

How to conduct a time and motion study

5. Transaction ID and Remarks are option fields

How to conduct a time and motion study

6. To reset the tracker and clear the tracked data, click on Reset button

How to conduct a time and motion study

Note:
ExcelSirJi team works hard to help it’s subscribers and visitors to make full use of the free templates.

As part of this objective, you are free to use this template. However to access the VBA code, you may refer the below link to get unprotected version.

How to conduct a time and motion study

Extensive research in the form of time and motion studies to analyse work methods has helped the industry to find better and easier ways to carry out tasks and save time and energy. The time and motion studies for a task calculate how long it takes, on an average, to perform a certain task. This helps in calculating staffing levels. To do a time and motion study, several staff members perform the same task (say, bed-making), one by one, their movements are studies and clocked. The results are compared and an analysis is done as to how long it takes on an average to perform the task. The best practices derived from this study are then used by everyone, so that the resulting performance will be more standardized and more predictable. Any of the methods discussed below can be used by the executive housekeeper to do a time and motion study in her department.

Pathway chart: this technique involves the study of the path covered by the worker in the undertaking and completion of a task. A floor plan of the work area is drawn to scale and fixed to a board on the wall. A long thread is pinned down at the starting point on the plan. The line of motion is marked using this thread-whenever the worker turns, that point is marked with a pin and the thread wound around it. The length of the thread gives an idea of the distance traversed in the completion of the task. The time taken is also noted down. Various pathways are tried out to find the simplest and smallest route to finishing the task successfully. This is done to achieve the least exertion and minimal loss of energy and time. This technique helps pinpoint all movements that can be reduced or eliminated.

Process chart: all tasks, in order to be completed, require a specific process or activity. In this technique, a close study of the process adopted is carried out and the flow of activity closely studied. A record of the time taken to finish the task is kept. All unnecessary movements and steps are then listed down, so as to be avoided in the final process adopted.

Operation chart: this technique helps one track down all wasteful expenditure of time and energy in all activities. The technique requires a detailed study of all the smaller activities making up a work process. The movements of the two hands are studies in great detail and a fine analysis shows where in the job delays are occurring.

Micro-motion film analysis: using a timing device, every activity is filmed. Then a detailed study, especially of the finer movements of the hands and other parts of the body, helps analyse the areas where changes need to be or can be made to carry out the task with the least expenditure of time and energy.

Cyclography: This is also a technique that uses filming. Here, a bulb is attached to the worker’s body (may be the hand, the legs, or the back). As the body or the body part so highlighted moves during the activity, the path taken is lighted by the electric bulb and hence easily captured by slow photography. The analysis of the complete film or the record of movement helps reveal how smooth and rhythmic the movements of the activity are. Thus, the worker may be guided to make the necessary changes.

Chronocyclography: In this technique, a film of the activity is made with small lights attached to the middle finger. The pattern or movement is filmed and finally analysed to find out which movements were unnecessary or arrhythmic and can be eliminated or improved upon