At the heart of academic success in high school, college, and success beyond academics all comes back to one core skill: reading comprehension. While that’s the case, I’ve found there is a big misunderstanding about what really constitutes reading comprehension.
In elementary school between second and fourth grades students are expected to make the shift from learning to read to reading to learn. Reading to learn means both reading for pleasure and making connections between what they’ve read and learned. What I’ve seen, and what you may be seeing in your kids, is that most students go from learning to read to reading for school only.
As students go from book reports in elementary school to essays in middle school, they should make the jump from reading for understanding to greater reading comprehension. That doesn’t happen though. Instead, assessments students take in elementary, middle, and even high school reward reading for basic understanding. For parents who are familiar with Bloom’s Taxonomy, you’ll know remembering and understanding are at the very bottom of the learning pyramid. Those skills reflect a basic understanding only. To really understand something, it’s about developing fluency in what you’ve read. (Bloom’s Taxonomy is so important that it really deserves an entire blog series on its own!)
As schools continuously reward our students for remembering, understanding, and regurgitating, the joy in reading is lost. If your child has stronger reading comprehension skills they will perform better in every way from their 4th grade classroom to advanced topics in their major in college. Approaching reading differently from how it’s approached in school will help your student excel in papers and essays in middle school and high school, and will set them up for success in college.
While it’s always best to start early, it doesn’t matter how old your child is, these five things will let you ensure they are improving their reading comprehension ability and continuously reading to learn.
Start here tonight.
1) Identify an area of interest for your student
Often parents ask me if their student must be reading the New York Times by 8th grade, I would only say yes if their child is interested in what’s happening in current events worldwide. Reading is far more fun when we are engaged in what’s written on the page. Reaching “reading to learn” requires us to start with entry level stuff—and I don’t mean beginner, I mean accessible. Studies have shown that students in middle school can read and comprehend video game guides written at a college level (read more here); that’s just because they’re interested in the material. A good place to start is Barnes and Noble’s magazine section or the local library’s periodicals section. What magazines is your child drawn to?
2) Find some magazine or articles online about the topic.
If your child is reluctant, make sure it’s something they like and, remember that it doesn’t matter how short the readings are to begin. If students are incredibly resistant to your offer, consider using a teacher, a coach, or community leader: an objective third party—even bearing the exact same message—can help a message get sticky.
3) Read the article and ask your child to read the article.
This is the hardest step in the process, and the part that most parents struggle with. (I love hearing from parents about how they got their kids to read, let me know.) You know your child best and you know how to engage them in the reading. Some students respond to “let’s read this together”, others like a recommendation. Use something to tie the article to your child, like a podcast, a story you heard on the radio during a commute, or even a movie your family saw recently. The first time may be the hardest, but with the next step, you can ensure that future recommendations are more fun. And, remember, the goal of these five steps is to move away from reading as another assignment just to answer questions.
4) Discuss the main ideas of the article.
This is where schools go wrong. In school your child has to discuss a book or interesting document, however, schools ask what happened, like the dates and details. This forces your student to read for a quiz or a test. Unlike schools, your goal in this process is to discuss “what’s it about?” without limiting yourself to “what happened?” No matter how old a child is or what they’re reading, this can be done. What’s important about what’s happening in the reading? What’s the point of what’s happening? Can your child infer or make predictions based on what they’ve read? What is the theme? What is the tone? What is the author’s point of view? This is where your dinner table conversations get a lot more fun—you’re not talking about what they read, you’re discussing something because of what they read. Fiction reading for pleasure should be a part of this, but remember to take the conversation beyond what just happened. The best way to set up your child for success in high school and college is with nonfiction readings.
5) Repeat and observe.
Over time, your child will graduate from basic articles to opinion articles and essays; and from fiction to non-fiction books. What did they like about the author’s argument? What would they have changed? How would they refute it? Your child is now forming arguments about things they are interested in based on what they’ve read. They are now miles ahead of the pack.
There are plenty of tools that make reading more accessible to students with learning differences or processing issues, too. Often students with dyslexia will work through the challenges with audiobooks and open source text to speech software. And, this framework of using a child’s interests to develop their interest in reading and reading comprehension doesn’t change.
If you have a story about your child’s reading comprehension development, please share. I love hearing success stories about reading comprehension and how you made it fun and interesting for your child.
Readers at all levels are constantly learning, and sometimes even highly skilled readers are challenged by difficult texts. By setting up strategies to improve your reading comprehension, you can read more effectively and efficiently, and feel less frustrated by difficult topics. There are several key tools that can be used to improve reading comprehension, no matter what your reading level is, although less advanced readers may want to start by building vocabulary and learning about sentence structure, as these two key tools will greatly enhance reading comprehension.
One of the first steps to improve reading comprehension is reading a wide variety of texts, covering a range of subjects. Readers who stick to one type of book or genre often have difficulty reading outside of that genre; individuals who read only science fiction, for example. In this example, you might start expanding your knowledge by reading science books, to get a grounding in the scientific ideas behind science fiction, and then perhaps jump into sociology, history, or other topics which are tangentially related. Track science in the news, so that you become familiar with the news format as well. Try to challenge yourself by reading a different style of writing on a unique topic every day, even if it is merely a brief article.
While reading a challenging text, take notes. Stop to look up words that you do not recognize, and write down their definitions, also using them in a sentence. As you process the text, make notes of what the author is talking about, how he or she is organizing it, and the ideas that it raises for you. Stop periodically to reflect on what you have read so far to make sure that you are grasping it, and do not be afraid to read difficult sections out loud, or to re-read them several times to improve your reading comprehension. Even skilled readers miss crucial points because they race through the text, rather than reflecting on what they read.
You can also use cues that the author leaves to improve your reading comprehension. If you do not already know the parts of speech, learn them so that you can diagram sentences to identify the point that the author is driving at. Get familiar with writing formats, and watch out for important transitional words that imply a summation, a counter argument, a concession, examples, or a comparison. By learning how authors use the language they write in, you can be alert and ready for major points in what you are reading.
Ultimately, the best way to improve reading comprehension is to read more. Set aside time in your day to read, and if you live with others, try to get them reading the same thing, so that you can talk it over amongst yourselves and compare notes on the content. By reading more, you will expose yourself to more styles of writing and subject matter, broadening your horizons as well as expanding your reading comprehension.
Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.
Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.
Developing reading comprehension skills is incredibly important for early readers, starting as early as picture books. As school-aged children get older, it will help them understand textbooks, newspapers, and other more complex texts.
Scholastic offers plenty of grade-appropriate reading comprehension activity books that can help your child practice, but in addition, here are six tips to sharpen reading comprehension skills in your early reader.
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1. Have them read aloud. This encourages them to go slower, which gives them more time to process what they read and in turn improves reading comprehension. Plus, they’re not only seeing the words — they’re hearing them, too! You can also take turns reading aloud.
2. Provide books at the right level. Make sure your school-aged reader gets lots of practice reading books that aren’t too hard. They should recognize at least 90 percent of the words without any help. Stopping any more often than that to figure out a word makes it tough for kids to focus on the overall meaning of the story.
If your child needs help transitioning from picture books to chapter books, try Scholastic’s Branches books, which are designed to bridge that gap for growing readers.
3. Reread to build fluency. To gain meaning from text and encourage reading comprehension, your child needs to read quickly and smoothly — a skill known as fluency. By the beginning of 3rd grade, for example, your child should be able to read 90 words a minute.
Rereading familiar, simple books gives your child practice at decoding words quickly, so they’ll become more fluent in their reading comprehension. Learn more about the multiple benefits of rereading books!
4. Talk to the teacher. If your child is struggling with reading comprehension, they may need more help with building their vocabulary or practicing phonics skills. (This Peppa Pig Phonics Box Set and this Pete the Cat Phonics Box Set are fun ways to help your child build necessary phonics skills.) A teacher can weigh in on the best next steps to take.
5. Supplement their class reading. If your child’s class is studying a particular theme, look for easy-to-read books or magazines on the topic. Some prior knowledge will help them make their way through tougher classroom texts and promote reading comprehension.
6. Talk about what they’re reading. This "verbal processing" helps them remember and think through the themes of the book. Ask questions before, during, and after a session to encourage reading comprehension. (Read about all the questions you should ask during story time here!) For example:
- Before: "What are you interested in about this book? What doesn’t interest you?"
- During: "What’s going on in the book? Is it turning out the way you thought it would? What do you think will happen next?"
- After: "Can you summarize the book? What did you like about it? What other books does it remind you of?"
Shop resources to improve your child’s reading comprehension below! You can find all books and activities at The Scholastic Store.
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By Heather Zielinski
You’ve taken the first step to a new career and a new life — you’re going back to school! If you felt like reading wasn’t necessarily your jam the last time you were in school, it’s okay! We’re here with tips, strategies, and tools for improving your reading comprehension, making you a faster reader who understands more of what you read.
How to Improve Your Reading
Improving adult reading comprehension isn’t hard if you take the right approach. Here are our favorite tools and strategies to become a better reader as an adult.
Read in Smaller Sections
One of the best tips for understanding more of what you read is to simplify long passages by breaking them down into smaller chunks. If you’re reading a long chapter or section, create your own breaks in the text. If you have 10 pages to read, start with two pages. Focus on understanding each section and don’t try to tackle everything at once.
Read for Pleasure
When you think of reading as an adult college student, you may start thinking of reading as hard work. You’ll naturally have improved reading comprehension when you’re reading something that truly interests you. For example, if you like spy novels, romances, magazines about your favorite hobby, or anything else, make time for pleasure reading. This is also one of the best strategies for reading faster as you’re eager to find out what’s coming next when the subject interests you.
Improve Your Vocabulary
A large part of improving your reading is to learn the meaning of more words. This is one of the best strategies for reading better. Whenever you come across a word whose meaning isn’t clear to you, take the time to look it up. You can make building your vocabulary more fun by getting games or apps made for this purpose. For example, WordUp Vocabulary teaches thousands of words in a fun and engaging way.
Listen and Read at the Same Time
Modern technology makes it easy to find audiobooks on apps such as Kindle, Google Books, and many others. While just listening to a book won’t help your reading skills, reading and listening together does help. Amazon offers many deals for buying a Kindle e-book and audiobook together. A free option is to use an app such as Overdrive , which offers both e-books and audiobooks. As you read, pay close attention to the way words are pronounced. Another approach is to listen to a book all the way through and then read it.
Design Your Own Mini-Course
Jumping from one topic to another can make it more difficult to improve your adult reading comprehension. Instead, stick to one topic, preferably one that interests you. It could be gardening, cooking, travel, history, pop culture, sports, or anything that many people write about. Start with something simple such as a short article or content on a website. A children’s book is fine as well. Then work your way up to more complex material on the same topic.
There are Many Ways to Improve Your Reading Comprehension as an Adult
The above are just a few tips for understanding more when you read. With practice, you’ll learn to read faster and remember more. Reading is an important skill when you return to school. SCI offers lots of useful advice for success with online learning . Don’t let uncertainty about your reading skills stop you from pursuing your goals! If you haven’t enrolled because you’re worried about reading or another issue, take a look at SCI’s programs .
Avid reader or not, there are times when we read material of interest with an eagerness to learn, yet end up closing the book or exiting a browser with little recollection of the overall message, let alone key takeaways.
It can be relaxing to open a book and mindlessly read, but when it comes to educational reading, it’s important to consciously work to remember what you are reading. Does that mean viciously studying and trying to understand every other word in front of you? No, that’s probably unnecessary. However, taking a little extra time while you read to ensure you understand the content being communicated, or quickly researching the definition of a word you’re not familiar with can help improve reading comprehension and your ability to master the material.
1) Reading environment.
Find a quiet place to read with minimal internal and external distractions – whether that’s in your car or in a room away from family. Turn off the TV and music.
2) Skim it.
Skim before you read the text word-for-word. If you’re running short on time, becoming a skilled speed-reader will give your subconscious a chance to absorb the main ideas of the text.
3) Visualize it.
Visualize the situations or concepts you are reading about as you go along and draw pictures or diagrams of what the material is depicting.
4) Summarize what you read.
Keep a notepad nearby and physically take notes. Write down what you remember about each paragraph if you need to, or just focus on each chapter. Any detail that pops out at you, record it in your notes.
- Underline or highlight key words or definitions you want to remember
- Afterwards, organize your notes into three sections – primary concepts, secondary concepts, and supporting details.
5) Read out loud.
If you’re an auditory learner, read the material out loud multiple times and record yourself so you can re-listen to the material you want to remember rather than re-reading written notes later.
6) Find a connection.
Associate the material you are reading with an experience or something else you already know. We learn quicker and remember more when we have a personal connection.
7) Become the teacher.
Teach the concepts you have just read to a family member or friend. If you can’t explain it, go back and reread, and possibly take more notes and make mental connections.
8) Grab a highlighter.
Instead of watching TV or playing on your phone, grab a challenging book and highlight the words you don’t understand so you can look them up later. Research has shown that becoming a fluent reader requires that you’re able to recognize most of the words on a page “by sight”.
9) The last paragraph.
The last paragraph of a chapter usually provides the most important take away, so pay extra attention to it to help you remember the overall lesson.
10) Final review.
Once you have finished reading, take a little time to write down what you have learned. Internalizing the information will help you retain it. A review can also help you identify the concepts you still do not fully comprehend so you know what to study further.
Literacy can improve attention span and contribute to your ability to communicate and act efficiently, while improving your intellect. You’ll likely find yourself reading material you have no interest in many times throughout your life, so the ability to scan text could be a really useful skill to have. There really is no loss in becoming a more effective reader and putting forth the effort to improve reading comprehension.
When students have trouble reading, it can affect their performance in many subjects. Poor reading skills and comprehension can lead to frustration, low self-confidence, and poor grades.
But difficulty with reading and with comprehension is something that can be improved with regular practise. By learning to read effectively, your child can build skills that will help improve his or her reading skills and comprehension.
What Is Reading Comprehension?
Reading comprehension is the ability to read a sentence and understand its meaning. It is the ability to look at written words and process the meaning or ideas behind them.
Reading comprehension isn’t just understanding a single word or its meaning—it is the ability to recognize words, sentences, and paragraphs and make sense of the overall meaning.
Many Students Dislike Reading
41% of parents say that their children do not enjoy reading. That’s a lot of kids! And when kids don’t like reading, they are less likely to put the time in to improve. This leads to a cycle of poor reading skills, lowered comprehension, more frustration—and even less love for reading.
So how can we help our children become better readers?
These 12 reading strategies for struggling readers that boost comprehension and reading motivation are the place to start! Check them out below:
12 Strategies To Help Struggling Readers Improve Reading Comprehension
- Find books they’ll like
Sometimes, low reading comprehension comes down to the fact that a student just isn’t interested in what he or she is reading. In fact, 73% of students say they would read more if they could find books they liked. The secret to becoming a better reader is practise—something that is much easier when your child actually likes what he or she is reading.
Hearing the words out loud helps many students gain a better understanding of what they are reading than they are able to get while reading in their head. Encourage your child to read aloud if he or she is struggling with a certain part of a book or a particular word.
Quickly skimming the headings of a book gives students a high-level overview of what they are reading. Your child can use the headings to quickly understand what the reading is about and the main points before he or she actually starts reading.
Revisiting the parts that were confusing for your child (or or that might simply need a quick refresher) can help your child gain a more complete picture of what he or she is learning. This also helps ensure your child is able to understand upcoming material in the text.
If your child has trouble keeping his or her place while reading, use a ruler or finger to make following along easier. This trick can also help students who have dyslexia and struggle with separating lines of text and sentences while reading.
As your child makes his or her way through the reading material, have him or her write down unfamiliar words. Encourage your child to look these words up in a dictionary to learn what they mean. Then, find ways to use them in a sentence that your child makes up him or herself.
When your child has finished reading, talk about what he or she just read together. Ask your child what he or she learned and his or her thoughts. For longer reading materials, like novels for book reports, make discussion questions you and your child can talk about together after each reading session.
When talking about the material with your child, ask him or her to recap and summarize the main points. Explaining what your child learned in his or her own words helps ensure your child understands what was read. It also helps relate the material to what he or she already knows.
Have your child make notes about what he or she doesn’t understand while reading. When your child has a question, encourage him or her to pause and reflect on what he or she has read. If your child still has unanswered questions, have him or her take these to the teacher for extra help.
Some students just aren’t natural readers—they learn better when they see, hear, or write things. If your student struggles with reading, find a format that works better and incorporate that into reading sessions. This could include writing down the main points as he or she reads or visualizing the material by drawing what your child is reading (for older students, this could be a mind map).
If your child is struggling with reading on an ongoing basis, watch for red flags that he or she may have a reading difficulty. Dyslexia is relatively common, with up to 5 students in a classroom suffering from some form of this reading difficulty. If your child seems to struggle with reading without any improvement, it’s important to identify whether he or she has a reading problem so you can take steps to solve it.
Improving your child’s reading skills and comprehension is something that you can do at home each day. For students who need an extra boost, a reading tutor can help improve these skills even more.
For more tips on how to help your child become a better reader, read our blog post on how to encourage good reading habits in kids.
Remember the 1996 John Travolta movie Phenomenon? No? Well, that’s okay – neither do I. But I remember the trailer, in which Travolta gets zapped by an eerie light and wakes up with the power to read 2-3 books a day. Sure, he can do lots of other things, too, like move things with his mind. But it was the speed reading I was most envious of.
As someone who is currently drowning in his massive TBR pile, I’ve wished more than once I could learn how to read faster overnight. No matter how fast of a reader you are, though, I’m willing to bet that at some point in your life you’ve wished you could read even faster. It’s an age-old dilemma for everyone, really: so many books, so little time. How can you get through them more quickly?
You might be tempted to think that if you don’t start early enough, it’s too late. But that’s simply not true, and my own reading life is proof. Last year, I read the most amount of books I ever have, smashing my previous record by ten and surpassing my goal for the year. This was partly because I made more time for reading, but it also wouldn’t have been possible if I hadn’t actually read faster, too.
Lots of speed reading “tips are tricks” skirt the edges of legitimacy. Things like not reading the entire page, or skipping less important chapters, are detrimental to our actual goal of enjoying more books. I’m not so interested in that. Instead, here are some tips for how to read faster that don’t require you to skimp on comprehension:
1. Skim or scan the text first.
I got The Evelyn Wood Seven-Day Speed Reading and Learning Program in high school, thinking it would solve all of my problems. When it suggested skimming all of the text first, I felt had. Doing the same work twice seemed like the opposite of going faster.
But skimming and scanning, two techniques that involve looking only for the most relevant bits of information first, will prime you for what’s to come. Since you’re already familiar with the main parts of the text, you won’t be slowed down by confusing or surprising parts when you come to them in your reading.
Keep in mind that while skimming and scanning works best for non-fiction, it can be applied to fiction too. In a novel, skim the chapter for character development, key points of dialogue, and major plot points. Then read it at a faster pace than you normally would.
2. Stop subvocalizing.
Subvocalization is by far the most common factor in slowing down our reading. It’s how most of us read – by “speaking” the words in our heads. This slows down our reading to speaking speed, which is usually around 300 words a minute. A snail’s pace!
Your eyes and brain are actually able to process words much faster. Just try this as an experiment:
By stopping that voice in your head, you can nearly double your reading pace.
If you’re a subvocalizer, getting yourself to stop is quite the trick to learn how to read faster. I’ve been trying to stop this habit for some time now. The easiest thing to do is to be conscious of it and to distract yourself somehow. You can use your finger to follow the words, listen to music, or chew gum.
3. Read phrases, not words
A similarly difficult skill to learn is how to take in phrases or chunks of text at a time, rather than individual words. But your eye span is actually 1.5 inches long, which means you can read up to nine words at a time!
Looking at every fifth word or so will allow you to take in more at once and cut down on subvocalizing. Just as with everything else, though, it will take some training to do this well. I wouldn’t suggest starting this on really important things like textbooks.
4. Quit Re-reading
One of the biggest time sucks for me while reading was that I was constantly going back to re-read sentences or paragraphs I either didn’t understand or wanted to understand more fully. I thought that if I didn’t fully catch or understand every single line of a novel or text, the entire book wouldn’t make sense.
Eventually, I realized that I wasn’t actually gaining much comprehension when I re-read. The confusing passages or words eventually made sense in context, or they weren’t necessary for my enjoyment of the book.
According to this post by Tim Ferriss, author of The Four-Hour Work Week, “The untrained subject engages in regression (conscious rereading) and back-skipping (subconscious rereading via misplacement of fixation) for up to 30 percent of total reading time.” That’s pretty significant. Let go of having to fully comprehend every single that’s being said or going on, and you’ll stop wasting time re-treading places you’ve already been.
5. Read more
As with all worthy pursuits, reading is a skill that takes time to develop. The more you do it, the better you will become. I used to think that setting daily or yearly reading goals was silly. Reading shouldn’t be a race. But I’ve found that setting goals forces me to carve out more time for reading. And the more books I read, the faster I get at reading them.
Of course, always remember that the best way to enjoy a book is to read at your own pace. While being John Travolta in Phenomenon might sound great, I’d never want to be someone who reads 1800 words a minute just because I can.
Literature is meant to be savored, and if you spend untold hours on a really great story, who cares? There will always be too many books in the world, and only so much time. Better to fully enjoy the books you really want to than try to breeze through a bunch of ones you don’t.
You can find more tips on how to read faster from the Book Riot community here and here.
Reading comprehension is one of the most important concepts for anyone who decides to make their way into the literary world. It is an ability that is acquired and little by little can be trained to be more and more apt and can even make reading easier. You will surely want to know how to achieve this.
It should be noted that all people have a reasonably appropriate level learned in school and from a very young age. But this may not be enough because writers appeal to this ability to transport the reader to new perceptions. Therefore, we want to leave you some tips and guidelines that will be of great help so that you can go from reading to learning by reading.
Why is it so important to have good reading comprehension?
Within the field of leisure, reading is one of the most used resources. You can read in many formats and at any time and moment. But, do you read, or are you just looking at the letters? It is on this point that reading comprehension focuses. A good reader can analyze and synthesize the information provided.
In this way, it is much easier to keep the essential facts and events that occurred earlier in the story. All this is taken care of by the concept we are breaking down, as it provides the ability to be much more attentive. If you want to stop re-reading some pages of your books, you’d better start analyzing them.
Consequently, the importance of this ability lies in its use in different environments, not only recreational reading benefits from it. Undeniably, it is an ability that anyone would like to have and that you can achieve just by following the tips below.
Create a reading routine:
It is understandable that this activity may be done in your leisure time and that this may vary, but the time available is not the important thing. Start each time in the same way. For example, read the last few sentences of the page where you stopped last time. It will help you remember the facts and will be your basis for continuing the story.
Additionally, you can include:
• Elements that help you focus your mind.
• A suitable light.
• A cup of a drink you enjoy.
• A specific place.
The important thing is that your body assumes that you are reading, so your attention will be focused on this activity.
Take the necessary time:
Do not read fragments in minutes that you have free, or you will not remember anything the next time you decide to read. Make sure you have the time to do it. About thirty minutes may be adequate as a minimum space so that you can connect with the story. Also, if you read short sentences, your reading comprehension may not be the most satisfactory.
Research what you don’t understand:
With new technologies, getting out of a doubt is not so complicated. With your cell phone or computer, you can clarify any concept. You can get helpful information to make sense of what you read. But there is a lot of content on the Internet that you can surely take advantage of.
Create your notes and character maps:
Nobody said there were rules for reading. If you are one of those who like to feel part of the story, making maps will be helpful. This technique consists of creating small analyses of the events happening to analyze better those that are about to occur.
Can this learning be applied in other fields?
You may have already realized that reading comprehension goes far beyond the stories of your favorite writers. First and foremost, it is an ability to analyze the texts put in front of you. Therefore, you can apply it to study, work, create content, do college paper help for someone, and much more.
Applied to study, this is a simple way to make the concepts you read fix your mind since you create your analysis. In addition, you acquire the ability to link knowledge quickly. This is because, in your mind, the data of interest remain.
Concerning work, this can make it easier to read contracts, assignments, and much more to make you the best you can be. Finally, as you can see, by practicing and preparing properly, you will get results that will go a long way.
At what age is it good to start fostering this skill?
Some believe that reading comprehension should be encouraged from childhood because it helps us to be much more critical and analytical. It is best to do this once the child has learned to read and has at least the basics of this concept already ingrained.
It could be said that adolescence is the best time to improve this skill. This is because the adolescent mind usually already has enough information to create comparisons and analyses. Of course, some children manage to master this interpretation incredibly, even at an early age. In the end, the ideal will be that each person contains his or her level of understanding according to his or her needs.