How to write a criticizing letter

At some stage in the writing process, most writers want feedback on their work. But not all kinds of feedback are productive.

Here are some tips on how to organize a helpful critique and how to get the most out of feedback on your work.

How to Write a Critique: The Critiquer’s Role

As a critiquer, your job is to understand the writer’s goals and help the writer achieve them.

Every writer has a different voice and approach. It is sometimes tempting to change someone else’s piece to make it more like something YOU would have written. Instead, help the writer produce the best possible version of what THAT WRITER is trying to write. Consider the piece on its own terms and help it fulfill its potential.

How to Write a Critique: Before the Critique

Before preparing a critique, we suggest reading the piece several times, taking notes on each reading. Each reading will give you different insights that can benefit the author.

  1. First, read the piece through from beginning to end, simulating the experience of an ordinary reader. Take notes on your first impressions before reading the piece again. This first step is important because your perspective will change during a second reading. Your interpretation of the piece’s beginning will be colored by your knowledge of the end.
  2. Read the piece at least once more and take notes again. Subsequent readings will help you develop a global vision of the work’s structure and notice additional details.

With each reading, you will have a better perspective on the piece’s structure, but you will be in a worse position to judge the unfolding of information and to identify points of confusion.

How to Write a Critique: Suggested Critique Format

Below is a format that we have found to work well for giving critiques.

  1. First, summarize and interpret. At this first stage, you are not judging the piece or offering suggestions. You are just telling the author what you think it is about, and what you think it is trying to do. This is important because it tells the author how well he or she has succeeded in communicating.It also tells the author if you have understood the piece correctly. If so, the author will take your feedback more seriously. If not, the author knows that any suggestions that follow may actually be based on a misunderstanding of the piece. The author may therefore need to discount these suggestions and work instead on more successfully communicating his or her vision.
  2. Second, say what you think is working well. Positive feedback can be as useful as criticism. Point out the best parts of the piece and the strengths of the author’s writing. This can help the author write more “best parts” in the future and develop his or her individual talent.Starting with positive feedback also makes it easier for the author to listen to criticism later without becoming defensive or discouraged.
  3. Third, give constructive criticism. Make sure that criticism is respectful and delivered in a form that allows the author to make specific improvements.Authors tend to have high emotional stakes in their work, and may at some level confuse criticism of a story or a poem for criticism of their talent or vision. It is therefore especially important to make your comments as specific as possible and keep them clearly focused on the piece, rather than the author. Give examples from the piece whenever possible to show your points.

How to Write a Critique: Do’s and Don’ts

  • Read the piece several times ahead of time
  • Try to experience the piece as an “ordinary reader” before you consider it as an author or editor
  • Try to understand the author’s goals
  • Be specific in your feedback and provide relevant examples
  • Impose your own aesthetics, tastes, or world view
  • Rewrite the story the way yOU would have written it
  • Discourage the author
  • Offer criticisms that are too general to help the author make specific improvements

How to Write a Critique: The Author’s Role

We suggest that the author try not to talk at all during an oral critique except to ask clarifying questions at the end (if the author didn’t hear or understand something, he or she can ask the critiquer to repeat or expand on it).

There is a natural tendency for authors to try to explain their work, particularly if they see that the critiquer has not understood it the way they intended. But the author’s responses can influence the direction of the critique. The critiquer can end up commenting on the author’s explanation of the work, rather than what the author has actually written. The critique can even turn into a debate.

How to Write a Critique: Advice on Receiving a Critique

If you’re on the receiving end of a critique, focus on listening and understanding the feedback you receive. You don’t have to agree with it. You won’t have to follow any of the suggestions you’re given.

In fact, some of the suggestions you get are likely to be not-so-useful. You will have to sort them out from the useful ones and make your own decisions. But save this sorting-out for later. Otherwise, the sorting-out process will interfere with your ability to listen. And you’ll probably do a better job of sorting out the good advice from the bad if you take some time first to digest everything.

Take careful notes on ALL the feedback and ask questions if there’s something you don’t understand. Don’t argue with the critiquer or defend your piece. Don’t even try to explain it.

After the critique, we suggest taking a break before you try to sort the feedback out. Getting a critique can be hard. Relax a little afterwards. Go out with some friends; watch TV; get a good night’s sleep. It will improve your perspective.

This break might last twenty-four hours or a couple of weeks — however long you need to get some emotional distance on the process. Then take a fresh look at what you’ve written. Reread your notes on the critique.

Which suggestions do you agree with? Which ones do you want to ignore? If you’re not sure about a suggestion, do some experimental rewriting. Try it out. There’s no risk. If you don’t like the result of the revision, you can always trash it and go back to the original version.

Remember: you’re the author. You’re the one in charge here.

How to Write a Critique: Next Steps

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Critique letters, most commonly written in creative writing and composition classes, are an opportunity to offer feedback to your classmates on what is and isn’t working in an essay or story. Successful letters contain a balanced evaluation of how well the piece responds to the assignment; they define its strengths and weaknesses and offer suggestions on how to improve the next draft.

Explore this article

  • Evaluate the Purpose
  • Share the Strengths
  • Discuss the Weak Points
  • Make Suggestions

1 Evaluate the Purpose

Opening your letter with a description of the piece’s main objective or story line can help the author see whether readers are correctly perceiving the message. If you’re reading a short story, you might give a brief summary of the piece, then talk about what the intended emotional and thematic effects seem to be. A critique letter for a persuasive essay, by contrast, might restate the paper’s thesis, then discuss the main points the author uses to argue his perspective. If you are unclear about what the piece is saying, craft a sentence that explains what you think the main point or theme might be.

2 Share the Strengths

Discussing specific things that are working in the story or essay can build goodwill with the author. Describe the piece’s strengths using specific, objective language. If you’re critiquing a short story, rather than saying you “liked” the main character, you might say, “The protagonist is a complicated, fascinating character.” Giving examples from the writing itself shows the author you have given careful attention to the piece and have his best interests in mind. Reading the essay twice before you begin writing can give you a better understanding of what the piece is saying and what moments are most significant.

3 Discuss the Weak Points

Arrange your criticisms of the piece from most important to least important. If a short story is composed of a series of scenes and descriptions with no unifying plot structure, mention that first. If you’re critiquing an essay that lacks a thesis statement, begin your letter by pointing this out. Use a thoughtful tone, but be honest about what isn’t working. Placing the focus on what needs to be improved rather than discussing what’s “bad” about the piece is most helpful to the writer as he revises the essay.

4 Make Suggestions

Offering specific ideas for improving the piece can give the author a possible direction for resolving the concerns you’ve brought to her attention. For each weakness you discuss, offer one suggestion for what the author can do to correct the problem. For the story without a plot structure, you might point out a section where a potential conflict between the characters seems to bubble under the surface and suggest the author develop it further. Likewise, the essay without a thesis might have a particular section with a strong argument that could be expanded into its own paper. Refer the author to applicable sections of the piece so she can review them in conjunction with your comments.


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Writing Tips

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Monday, March 4, 2019

How I Write an Editorial Letter or Critique Letter

As a lot of you know, I work as an editor and part of the job is writing editorial letters or critique letters. This may not be included in all types of editing (such as copyediting), but it plays an important role with content or developmental or substantive edits or manuscript evaluations (depending on the definition of each of those, because you will find variations within the writing industry). If you don’t know what any of those edits are, relax. The letter is essentially what it sounds like, a document full of feedback from the editor.

There are a lot of editors in the world and each one likely has his or her own approach to editing. Today I want to share mine.

I always do an editorial letter for a content edit (which is about what the story is) and I often do one for a line edit (which is how the story is told). So let’s get started.

First, when reading through the manuscript, I keep another document open to take notes on anything that I suspect might need to be in the editorial letter. Depending on how deep of an edit and what kind of edit the author wants, I may also be putting in comments on the actual manuscript for specific parts of the story. I watch for repeating problems (and repeating strengths).

My advice: If you’re an editor, make sure you are paying attention to the writer’s strengths in addition to weaknesses.

Some people have the school of thought that the only helpful feedback is negative feedback. But I strongly, strongly believe in also giving positive feedback. Only giving negative feedback gives the writer a skewed perspective of their work.

With that said, there are a few occasions where I might give only negative feedback–such as a piece that has already been edited multiple times and is already at a professional level and just needs some tightening up.

For more on my take on positive feedback, you can see my post, “The Real Reason You Need to Give Positive Feedback.”

Once I’ve finished reading through the manuscript and taken notes, I usually go back and look at the (email) conversation I had with the writer about what they wanted. For example, if one writer told me they were worried they had problems with info-dumps, I would double check to make sure I took notes on that. At this point, I may email the writer and ask any follow-up questions I have.

Now it’s time for the letter.

Some editors believe in being brutal in their honesty.

It’s not that I’m sugar-coating, it’s that I don’t believe being “brutally honest” is the most accurate or helpful form of communication. True, refined communication comes from being honest and clear without becoming antagonistic. After all, as the editor, I’m on the writer’s side. I’m helping them.

So I like to address the positives and negatives as clearly as possible.

Depending on how long and comprehensive the letter is, it can be rather overwhelming to the writer initially. This is because I’m speaking to an entire manuscript in one document. Some writers may want to read through it bits at a time.

The shortest critique letter I’ve done for a novel was 4.2k words. Most I’ve done are between 7k and 11k.

Every letter I write is written to that specific writer. I don’t use generic paragraphs that I copy and paste into the document. I might have similar sentences or similar greeting passages that I’ve tweaked, but overall, I’m writing fresh.

Now, it’s important to know that this doesn’t mean that editors who copy and paste certain paragraphs in are bad. They might be explaining the exact same thing to multiple writers. The reason I don’t need to do this, is because if I need to explain something generally, I usually have an article on my site I can send them to. This means I can use those for reference and then in the letter talk about how that article applies specifically to their story.

In the letter, I almost always make sure I address these elements: setting, character, plot, and theme. I usually add “treatment” as well (how the story is told on the page); even if it’s a straight up content edit, I still like to address things generally, like chosen viewpoint, under that category.

I also usually include these other things: arcs, pacing, conflict, audience appeal, and emotional appeals.

For more of what I may include in each edit, you can simply look at my editing site.

UPDATE: I also have this list of evaluation questions I ask, which is broken down into categories.

In the letter, I typically like to separate the “strengths” from the “concerns”–mainly because this was how I was taught, and I think it’s easier on the writer, because they know what to expect.

Worth noting is that the “concerns” almost always take up more space than the “strengths” because they naturally require more explaining.

Now, here is a short sample letter (remember how I said these can go up to 11k words or more? Yeah, I’m not going to post a full sample in here because of that). It’s a conglomerate of actual paragraphs I’ve written that I tweaked or repurposed into a sample letter.

A critique paper is an academic writing genre that summarizes and gives a critical evaluation of a concept or work. Or, to put it simply, it is no more than a summary and a critical analysis of a specific issue. This type of writing aims to evaluate the impact of the given work or concept in its field.

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💁 What Is a Critique Paper?

A critique is a particular academic writing genre that requires you to carefully study, summarize, and critically analyze a study or a concept. In other words, it is nothing more than a critical analysis. That is all you are doing when writing a critical essay: trying to understand the work and present an evaluation. Critical essays can be either positive or negative, as the work deserves.

👣 How to Write a Critique Essay: Main Steps

Starting critique essays is the most challenging part. You are supposed to substantiate your opinion with quotes and paraphrases, avoiding retelling the entire text. A critical analysis aims to find out whether an article or another piece of writing is compelling. First, you need to formulate the author’s thesis: what was the literary work supposed to convey? Then, explore the text on how this main idea was elaborated. Finally, draft your critique according to the structure given below.

Step 1: Critical Reading

1.1. Attentively read the literary work. While reading, make notes and underline the essentials.

1.2. Find or formulate the author’s thesis.

1.3. Make a summary or synopsis of the analyzed text.

Step 2: Analyzing the Text

After the reading phase, ask yourself the following questions:

Step 3: Drafting the Essay

Finally, it is time to draft your essay. First of all, you’ll need to write a brief overview of the text you’re analyzing. Then, formulate a thesis statement – one sentence that will contain your opinion of the work under scrutiny. After that, make a one-paragraph summary of the text.

You can use this simple template for the draft version of your analysis. Another thing that can help you at this step is a summary creator to make the creative process more efficient.

Critique Paper Template

👀 Critical Essay Types

You can evaluate the chosen work or concept in several ways. Pick the one you feel more comfortable with from the following:

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There are also different types of critiques. The University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, in the article “Writing critiques,” discusses them as well as the appropriate critique language.

📑 Critique Paper: Format & Structure

The main parts of good critical response essays are:

Critique Paper Introduction

The introduction is setting the stage for your analysis. Here are some tips to follow when working on it:

Critique Paper Body

The body of the critique contains the supporting paragraphs. This is where you will provide the facts that prove your main idea and support your thesis. Follow the tips below when writing the body of your critique.

Critique Paper Conclusion

Finally, you will need to write a conclusion for your critique. The conclusion reasserts your overall general opinion of the ideas presented in the text and ensures there is no doubt in the reader’s mind about what you believe and why. Follow these tips when writing your conclusion:

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For more details on how to write a critique, check out the great critique analysis template provided by Thompson Rivers University.

If you want more information on essay writing in general, look at the Secrets of Essay Writing.

📚 Critique Essay Examples

With all of the information and tips provided above, your way will become clearer when you have a solid example of a critique essay.

Below is a critical response to The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.

When speaking of feminist literature that is prominent and manages to touch on incredibly controversial issues, The Yellow Wallpaper is the first book that comes to mind. Written from a first-person perspective, magnifying the effect of the narrative, the short story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman introduces the reader to the problem of the physical and mental health of the women of the 19th century. However, the message that is intended to concern feminist ideas is rather subtle. Written in the form of several diary entries, the novel offers a mysterious plot, and at the same time, shockingly realistic details.

What really stands out about the novel is the fact that the reader is never really sure how much of the story takes place in reality and how much of it happens in the psychotic mind of the protagonist. In addition, the novel contains a plethora of description that contributes to the strain and enhances the correlation between the atmosphere and the protagonist’s fears: “The color is repellent, almost revolting; a smoldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight” (Gilman).

Despite Gilman’s obvious intent to make the novel a feminist story with a dash of thriller thrown in, the result is instead a thriller with a dash of feminism, as Allen (2009) explains. However, there is no doubt that the novel is a renowned classic. Offering a perfect portrayal of the 19th-century stereotypes, it is a treasure that is certainly worth the read.

If you need another critique essay example, take a look at our sample on “The Importance of Being Earnest” by Oscar Wilde.

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Seeing an example of a critique is so helpful. You can find many other examples of a critique paper at the University of Minnesota and John Hopkins University. Plus, you can check out this video for a great explanation of how to write a critique.

An art critique paper involves a comprehensive analysis and assessment of an artwork. Though this looks a bit complicated, the task doesn’t require a lot of time if you have sufficient critique writing skills. It’s an interesting assignment for students of art colleges as well as high schoolers. All you need is to study some art critique examples and learn some effective techniques. It will help make your essay creative and attention-grabbing.

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This article by Custom-writing experts will show you how to write an art review and criticism. It will serve as a guideline for your excellent paper! On the page, you will see all the basic information as well as tips and art critique templates.

🎨 Art Critique: Basic Information

Critical analysis of artwork stimulates and encourages the discussion of art. When you write it, you express your opinion. And when you receive a critique, you learn from others. Every person evaluates art differently. Some pay extra attention to the color scheme and composition. Others appreciate realistic qualities in artworks. And some people look for expressiveness and emotion.

You may think that because of these differences, we can’t objectively critique art. Luckily, there is an accepted way to conduct a formal analysis of an artwork. It’s called Feldman’s method, and it consists of four elements: description, analysis, interpretation, and judgment. More information on these elements can be found in section 3.

👣 How to Write an Art Critique Step by Step

STEP #1. Create an outline before you start writing.

It will help you develop the structure of your essay. In the draft, answer these questions:

What do you want to write about?
What are the key points?
What evidence supports your ideas?

STEP #2. Decide on what info about the artwork you will need.

Then use credible sources to collect all the necessary data.

STEP #3. Provide a clear thesis statement.

A thesis here would be the main idea that would reflect your vision of an artistic piece. Don’t underestimate the importance of a thesis! It will guide you through writing the entire essay. It will also help your readers understand your art criticism better.

STEP #4. Note your first spontaneous reaction to the artwork.

By the end of the process, you may better understand your first impression or even change your mind!

STEP #5. Write the main body using Feldman’s method.

Study the artwork and assess its content, as well as its purpose. Explain which features of the piece of art you spot as the most exciting and less successful. Find more information on the elements of the method below.

STEP #6. Write your conclusions about the artwork.

They should base on all the information you have gathered.

🔬 Feldman’s Method: 4 Art Critique Elements

To write a perfect art critique paper, use the four elements mentioned before: description, analysis, interpretation, and judgment. Understanding these elements will allow you to evaluate any artwork thoroughly and objectively.

When you start writing a critique, remember that a useful analysis provides your view of the object’s strong and weak attributes.

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Given the cautions provided in the previous sections against inflationary rhetoric and hyperbolic praise in letters, some attention to the role of criticism—or perceived criticism—is critical.

One study from the field of psychology—where one must assume that honest assessment is held in high value—is instructive. In a large survey where 98 percent of the respondents were doctoral-level psychologists evaluating students for potential clinical practice, a “nontrivial minority” of respondents said they would not include negative evaluation of students even with knowledge of negative behavior. Specifically, 12.4 percent said they would exclude mention of problems of alcohol or drug abuse, and 43.2 percent said they would not mention anxiety or depression. In the same study, a sample of 116 psychologists who had recently read reference letters said that negative characteristics were infrequently described. Readers of letters in this study assessed that “writers feel more obligated to the student than to the letter recipient” (31).

Certainly, the face-to-face factor plays a strong hand in this dynamic. It’s difficult to look at a student, agree to write a letter, then feel we’ve turned our back on the student by articulating criticism. We also know that letter evaluators actually read with a great deal of sophistication and subtlety when trying to sniff out negative comments (in contrast, praise is read rather simplistically, one could argue). As an example, one study found that negative comments in letters could be grouped into five categories: relative progress (“he’s come a long way”), disadvantaged background (“she’s overcome cultural obstacles”), explicitly negative (“his work is competent but not distinguished”), remediative (“improvement is needed”), and inconspicuously ambiguous (“she is aware of her strengths and weaknesses but won’t take on things she’s unqualified to do”) (32). With such possibilities open to broad reader interpretation, we have to assume that even a minor comment can be interpreted and remembered as definitive and potentially damaging, even in an otherwise positive letter.

Red Flags and Omissions

Plenty of writers—intentionally or otherwise—wave red flags to their readers as they write letters. These red flags might take the form of distancing (with the writer taking pains to show limited knowledge of the student), a critical incident ambiguously offered (a student being called initially aggressive, then “winning over” the writer) (32), or the presentation of so many irrelevancies (either about the student or the recommender) that readers feel there is something to hide. One study published in the journal Academic Emergency Medicine tied the issue of veracity directly to authorship: “Veracity requires that authors avoid sins of omission and commission, understatements as well as overstatements” (12).

One of the loudest ways some writers criticize, or seem to, is through omission. Studies in the medical field in particular show that there is a finely tuned radar for what is not said in a letter. If one has a sense that the writer kept mum about important information, one assumes that something negative is lurking between the lines. “One of the most challenging features of letters of recommendation for medical faculty is the growing tendency not to state the negative, but merely to fail to state the positive” (17). In fact, in one study of letters for surgical residencies, “The commonly used phrase, ‘If I can provide any additional information, please call . . .’ was almost uniformly identified as a strong negative comment” (33). Such red flags and omissions don’t always exclude a candidate, of course, but they can do so in the hands of a hasty reviewer, or they can require readers to take extra time with an application to sort through the writer’s intentions.

Cross-Cultural Factors

An associate professor at Duke University once “pumped up the volume” in a letter sent to a university in Great Britain, calling a student “outstanding.” Soon he received a call from the search committee, asking if the letter had been forged. “It was so hyperbolic in their eyes that they couldn’t believe it,” the professor said (25). He found what many have described anecdotally—that British evaluators lend more credibility to a letter that is not inflated, and even includes at least one criticism. This is especially relevant when one knows that a British evaluator will be part of the process, as with the Marshall and Rhodes scholarships.

One study that compared recommendation letters from four countries found that the letters all seemed to have the same purpose, but that “the ways that writers from different cultures express support vary a great deal” (34). Another study involved only a small statistical sample, but the researchers noted that “even letters from Canada were less hyperbolic than those from the USA” (16).

Reasons and Ways to Criticize

Despite all the concern raised here about the damning power of criticism, we must remember to keep perspective and recognize that the mentor/student relationship often does involve honest critique. I’m reminded of my early days as a fiction writer, where I gained the most help from one challenging mentor (who was, perhaps significantly, British) who wrote at the end of a clever but vacant piece of mine, “You’re very clever, now why don’t you write me some fiction?” I am also reminded of numerous examples where I have given honest criticism about students verbally during interviews or background checks, and in writing amidst an otherwise positive letter, and those students still landed the desired opportunities. My hope and belief is that the criticism lent more credibility to my overall evaluation, and that the evaluators put it into the proper context.

To criticize artfully and kindly when writing letters, consider these practices:

  1. See if the application materials call for criticism. Many times, a statement will be provided to the referee also inviting your assessment of a candidate’s weaknesses. Take this as a sign that careful critique is desirable, and even cite that statement as you give the critique. Consider this especially when there are cross-cultural factors at work, or when you’re recommending a student in a field with a strong sense of hierarchy.
  2. Limit your criticism to one paragraph (probably late in the letter) rather than pepper it throughout, and be direct and affirmative as you offer it rather than ambiguous, avoiding comments that seem to be veiled criticisms. Even phrases such as “To the best of my limited knowledge” or “I suspect that” could be read as negative no matter what praise follows. Better to say “his research skills are not yet proven with lab experience” or “her teaching could be improved with a higher level of confidence.”
  3. Avoid highly negative comments (looked on with as much suspicion as exaggerated praise), hedges, unexplained asides, and irrelevancies.
  4. Discuss your criticisms with the student, note the response you get, and indicate right in the letter that this discussion and response took place.
  5. Openly tie your criticism to your sense of ethics as a letter writer (as detailed in the next section). Define yourself as a holistic evaluator.

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Conclusions are often considered the most difficult part of an essay to write. However, they are also one of the most important aspects of a paper because they provide clarity and insight into the topic. In this article, we’ll explain when and how to write a conclusion, list the different types of conclusions, detail what to include and what to avoid, give an outline you can use in your next essay and provide some examples of both effective and ineffective conclusion paragraphs.

When to use a conclusion

Conclusions should be put to use any time you are writing an essay, report or article that proposes or explores an idea, issue or event. This idea is referred to as a thesis statement and it provides the structure and motivation for the entire piece. In other words, it answers the “why.” A conclusion, on the other hand, addresses the “so what” by clarifying the point of the essay and offering the reader a solution, question or insight into the subject matter that reiterates why they should care.

How to write a conclusion

An effective conclusion is created by following these steps:

Restate the thesis: An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point.

Reiterate your supporting points: Aside from restating your thesis, you should also reiterate the points that you made to support it throughout the paper. But instead of simply repeating the paper’s arguments, summarize the ideas.

Make a connection between your opening and closing statements: It’s often effective to return to the introduction’s themes, giving the reader a strong sense of conclusion. You can accomplish this by using similar concepts, returning to an original scenario or by including the same imagery.

Provide some insight: Your conclusion should leave the reader with a solution, an insight, questions for further study or a call to action. What are the implications of your argument? Why should anyone care? You’ll want to answer these types of questions here and leave your audience with something to think about.

Types of conclusion

Though different sources cite various types of conclusions, all of them serve one of these three primary functions:

Summarization: This style is often used when writing about technical subjects with a more clinical tone, such as surveys, definitions and reports. Because it paraphrases the major ideas of the essay, it is most often used in longer pieces where readers will need a reminder of the essay’s main points. As such, it should avoid reflexive references or subjective ideas (like “in my opinion” or “I feel”).

Editorialization: Editorialization is primarily used in essays where there is a controversial topic, a personal connection or an appeal to persuade the reader. This style incorporates the writer’s commentary about the subject matter and often expresses their personal investment in the issue being discussed. This type of conclusion will use an anecdote and a conversational tone to draw attention to concerns, interpretations, personal beliefs, politics or feelings.

Externalization: Frequently used in essays that approach a particular issue that is a part of a much more complex subject, an externalized conclusion provides a transition into a related but separate topic that leads readers to further develop the discussion. In fact, it’s often thought of as a new introduction that includes another thesis entirely, allowing for development into another potential essay.

What to avoid

Here are a few things to avoid when writing your conclusion:

Avoid introducing the thesis, new ideas or evidence for the first time. If new points are made in your conclusion, take them out and try to incorporate them into one of the body paragraphs in your essay.

Make sure you are using a tone that is consistent with the rest of the paper.

Beginning the conclusion with phrases like “in closing,” “in summary” or “in conclusion” is somewhat redundant and unnecessary, so avoid using them.

What to include in a conclusion

A conclusion’s job is to reiterate the arguments and thesis of the essay. In other words, it provides a sense of closure and suggests that you have accomplished the goal of the piece. Here are some key aspects to include in your conclusion to ensure its effectiveness:

End the essay on a positive note

Communicate the importance of your ideas and the subject matter

Provide the reader with a sense of closure

Reiterate and summarize your main points

Rephrase and then restate your thesis statement

Conclusion outline

This is where you repeat your thesis statement. Make sure it is rephrased to avoid redundancy.

Paraphrase the major points and arguments that you made throughout the paper.

Explain the significance of the ideas and how they all connect.

This is where you connect back to a point, image or anecdote that was made in the introductory paragraph.

It is your final word on the subject and gives the reader a sense of closure.

Good example

Here is an example of an effective conclusion paragraph:

“Though there has been much debate on the subject, it is clear that democratic leadership is the best form of management for the modern workplace. This is made evident by the fact that over the course of the last century, employees have become increasingly more educated and competent. Additionally, there is a growing emphasis on independence, creativity and free thought, meaning that team members are realizing that they have something worthwhile to contribute that could provide a meaningful perspective. It is because of these reasons that democratic leadership, where input and conflicting opinions are welcome, should be adopted in a majority of organizations.”

Poor example

This is an example of an ineffective conclusion:

“In conclusion, Abraham Lincoln was the best president because he was really honest and abolished slavery.”

Here are some of the ways that this conclusion is lacking:

This example is too short. An effective conclusion will be a full paragraph that details the argument’s supporting points.

Though two supporting points are given, they are vague. An effective conclusion should cite concrete details.

Beginning a conclusion with a phrase like “in conclusion” is superfluous.

What is a Resignation Letter?

A resignation letter is an official letter Business Letter Format A business letter should always follow a certain format and structure to ensure it is received as professional and up-to-standard. While there are many sent by an employee to their employer giving notice they will no longer be working at the company Companies Lists of the main players in corporate finance. We’ve got lists of the most important financial services companies, banks, institutions, accounting firms, and corporations in the industry. Browse these guides to prepare for a career in financial services and start networking today to accelerate your career . In other words, it’s an official form of quitting. The goal of a letter of resignation is to create an official record of notice, provide details about the employee’s last day, outline any next steps, and maintain a positive relationship with the employer. Use CFI’s free resignation letter template to quit as professionally as possible.

How to write a criticizing letter

Tips for Writing a Resignation Letter

The general consensus on letters of resignation is, the shorter the better. There is no need to provide a long-winded explanation of why you are quitting. Instead, it’s best to be direct, professional, and outline any important information about the termination process.

Here are some helpful tips for writing your resignation letter:

  • Be direct and to the point – mention that you are quitting in the first paragraph (or even the first sentence)
  • Be professional – do not use it as an opportunity to complain, insult, or criticize the company or other employees
  • Give notice of your last day – provide the specific date you are agreeing to work until
  • Provide information about the transition – you may offer to help find your replacement, or agree to finish certain projects and tasks before your last day
  • Proofread and spell check – be sure to thoroughly proofread the letter before submitting to make sure all information is accurate and there are no typos
  • Seek legal advice – depending on the nature of your position, you may wish to seek professional legal advice about your resignation process

How to write a criticizing letter

How to use a Resignation Letter Template

You may wish to use this resignation letter template to help you efficiently write your letter.

To use this template effectively, follow these steps:

  1. Copy and paste the resignation letter template into an MS Word Document, Google Doc, or email
  2. Add all your personal details and contact information
  3. Rewrite the paragraphs with your own words describing your situation
  4. Proofread and spell check
  5. Submit the letter via email, mail, or in-person

Resignation Letter Template

Copy and paste the below text into a Word document or an email as the starting point for own letter.

[Your Street Address]

[Your City, State/Province, Country]

[Your Phone Number]

[Your Email Address]

[Employer Contact Name]

[Employer Company Name]

Dear [Employer Contact Name],

[First paragraph: I am writing to provide you with my formal notice of resignation from The Company. My last day will be January 19, 2018, two weeks from today.]

[Second paragraph: This was not an easy decision to make, and I appreciate your support over the course of my employment at The Company. I truly value the experience, training, and knowledge I gained over the past 5 years. It has been a pleasure working with you and the team.

[Third paragraph: Please let me know how I can help during this transition. I wish you all the best as the company continues to grow. ]

[Image of Signature]

How to write a criticizing letter

Download the Free Template

Enter your name and email in the form below and download the free template now!

Resignation Letter Best Practices

When you deliver your resignation letter to your boss it’s important to remember what you should and shouldn’t do. Here are the most important points and best practices to remember.

Be sure to:

  • Deliver both a printed copy with your signature and an email copy
  • Discuss the final details of your employment (the last few days on the job)
  • Offer to help transition the role to someone else at the company
  • Provide the required amount of notice (the number of days will be listed in your original employment agreement)
  • Organize your desk and personal affairs in the event the company asks you to leave immediately

Try to avoid:

  • Criticizing the company or any people that work there
  • Refusing to come in and work for the duration of your notice period (unless you are asked not to come back)
  • Bragging about some amazing new opportunity of a job you found
  • Avoiding your boss and refusing to talk about transition planning
  • Convincing co-workers that they should resign too
  • Spreading rumors or misinformation

Learn more about How to Quit Your Job How to Quit a Job This guide will tell you how to quit a job as professionally as possible. While it may be tempting to have a “mic drop” moment and walk out in triumph, it’s generally not a good idea. To leave your job in the most professional manner, follow the steps below: Check your employment agreement, Speak to your boss and/or .

Examples of Public Resignation Letters

If you’d like to see some high-profile, public examples of resignation letters, Business Insider has compiled a list of the 13 greatest resignation letters of all time. These may serve as an example of what not to do for most people, but they are very entertaining to read, nonetheless. If you have the time, you may enjoy reading these great examples of resignation letters.

Additional Resources

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to writing a resignation letter. To ensure you’re fully prepared for managing your career path, these additional resources will be helpful:

  • Cover Letter Template Use this Cover Letter Template to Get an Interview! A cover letter can make or break a job application so it’s critical to get it right. Whether your letter is being read by HR or the hiring manager directly, there are several important boxes you must tick. This guide provides a free cover letter template and explanation of what you need to know
  • Resume Guides Resume Follow industry guidelines & best practices when submitting your cover letter & resume to a corporate finance job. Download resumes and cover letter templates to be prepared for your job application. These resumes are designed to give you the best shot of being selected for an interview
  • Interactive Career Map
  • How to Get a Job in… How To Follow CFI’s guides on how to get your dream job in corporate finance. CFI guides for careers in investment banking, equity research, credit analysis,

How to write a criticizing letter

It’s no secret that employers want people who are adaptable, can solve problems, and contribute to the organization’s success. The difference between an employee who can do these things and one who can’t come down to one simple thing: they have great critical thinking skills.

So of course you’d want to tout these on your resume and all over your job application materials too. But there’s one problem. Critical skills aren’t always easy to put on paper. But there are a few ‘workarounds’ this post will show you!

What Are Critical Thinking Skills?

Critical thinking skills stand for your ability to rationally process information, find connections between ideas, reflect, and draw conclusions.

As a person with well-developed critical thinking skills, you are good at:

  • Correctly identifying and understanding problems.
  • Analyzing information for relevance and accuracy.
  • Using available information to formulate effective, empathetic, and rational solutions to problems.
  • Identifying logical relationships and patterns between ideas.
  • Recognizing complexity in problems and applying appropriately complex thought processes.
  • Incorporating new information into their decision-making processes.

You use critical thinking skills in the workplace to solve problems, collaborate with others, resolve conflicts, and complete many leadership tasks.

Why Are Critical Thinking Skills In Demand By Employers

The “Future of Jobs 2020” report states that employers listed critical thinking among the top skills and skill groups that will rise in prominence by 2025.

In particular, the top skills employers will be searching for among new hires include:

  • Analytical skills
  • Problem-solving
  • Active learning
  • Self-management

Why do these qualities trump hard skills in demand? Simple! Because they enable effective on-the-job learning.

Employers realize that industries now operate at a breakneck speed with the ‘best practices’ constantly in flux. Respectively, it’s not always easy to find a candidate with the ‘freshest’ set of skills. But it’s easy to nurture such as long as they are good critical-thinkers! For similar reasons, 93% of employers actually state that they value strong critical thinking skills over the candidate’s undergraduate degree.

How to write a criticizing letter

Additionally, critical thinking has emerged as an essential skill because of the sheer volume of data we encounter. Much of this information is accessed online and often comes from questionable sources. It takes a combination of digital literacy and critical thinking skills for workers to discern which information is reliable, and what can be dismissed as pseudo-science, fake news, marketing propaganda, outdated, or speculative. Employers need workers who can fact-check, evaluate, and process this information effectively.

List of Critical Thinking Skills For Your Resume

Let’s be real: you won’t convince hiring managers by simply stating, ‘I have critical thinking skills’ in your cover letter. It’s a fact you need to demonstrate via your duties and accomplishments. The best way to do so is to break down the “critical thinking skills” group into more concrete sub-skills such as:


Analysis stands for your ability to effectively deal with the incoming information and translate it into insights. To analyze things properly, you must know how to source information, verify that it is valid, determine which data is relevant, and take an objective approach to draw conclusions based on that information.


Collaborating with others, discussing problems, and giving and receiving feedback is a critical skill for every hire. Show the employer that you can hold productive exchanges with people who don’t always agree with you, be persuasive, and critically process all the information others are sharing with you.


This skill involves having a heightened awareness of your surroundings, understanding what you observe, and knowing the appropriate action to take. For example, they may notice a downward trend in productivity, and take action to address potential staffing issues.


Inference indicates your ability to draw conclusions based on a limited set of data. For example, the manager of a community pool may infer that an unseasonably hot day will mean that more people will order cold drinks from the concession stand.


Problem-solving skills denote your ability to strategize the best solution to a given problem and evaluate the success of that solution after having implemented it. It requires that you can look at a problem objectively, and think through potential solutions in a methodical manner.

How to Improve Critical Thinking Skills

Critical thinking skills are key for effective collaboration, continuous learning, and personal efficiency. If you feel that your skillset could do with an ‘upgrade’, try the following techniques.

  • Practice information analysis: When trying to solve a problem, focus on getting all the necessary data first. Then, evaluate which ‘intel’ is accurate, important, fit-for-purpose. Toss other findings and work with what’s left.
  • Learn to give recommendations: Recommendations are synthesized findings — a feasible, data- or experience-based solution. Learn to formulate all your recommendations based on the above.
  • Challenge your biases: Everyone is prone to preconceived notions and assumptions. Unfortunately, these get in the way of critical thinking. Learn to recognize your own biases, and make a dedicated effort to put those aside when you innovate and solve problems.


Critical thinking is one of the most important skills to have to ensure your long-term “hire-ability”. Today, these skills are crucial for working with data, solving emerging market problems, and discerning truth from a growing volume of unproven information, circulating online. Tomorrow, critical thinking will become even more important as the future workforce will be primarily focused on “knowledge work”.


How to write a criticizing letter

Elena runs content operations at Freesumes since 2017. She works closely with copywriters, designers, and invited career experts to ensure that all content meets our highest editorial standards. Up to date, she wrote over 200 career-related pieces around resume writing, career advice. more

Whenever you read an essay, use the following questions to guide your response.

First, keep in mind that, although you may not be a writing expert, you are THE reader of this essay and your response is a valid one. I have found that almost every reader, regardless of experience, can identify the primary strength and weakness in an essay, although their method of describing those issues may be different. The author will welcome your response and your ability to explain your reaction in a new way. Although the author is not required to, and really shouldn’t, respond to everything you say, he or she will take your comments seriously and consider how the essays has enlightened or confused you. Therefore, comment freely, although respectfully. Keep in mind that it is better to begin by noting the strengths of the essay before pointing out the areas that need improvement. I would always include a personal response to questions like the following: What about the essay most connects with your experience? Moves you? Provokes you? Entertains you?

So that is how to respond. So how do you critique? For every essay, regardless of the mode, consider the broad categories of content, organization, style, and correctness.

  1. Content: Consider the topic (its appropriateness and interest for the assignment as well as a clear focus suitable to essay length) and the way the topic is developed (clarity sufficiency of its argument, its scope, subcategories, amount and type of examples, anecdotes, evidence, etc.).
  2. Organization: Consider how the essay is introduced and concluded (especially looking for a “frame” to the essay, where the intro and conclusion refer to the same idea), whether the thesis is located in the most helpful place (direct or implied), how the essay is structured, whether the order or extent of development is successful, as well as how individual paragraphs are organized (clear topic sentences, appropriate and concrete evidence, logical organization of evidence).
  3. Style: Style can refer to the overall style of an essay: whether the tone is appropriate (humorous, serious, reflective, satirical, etc.), whether you use sufficient and appropriate variety (factual, analytical, evaluative, reflective), whether you use sufficient creativity. Style can also refer to the style of individual sentences: whether you use a variety of sentences styles and lengths, whether sentences are worded clearly, and whether word choice is interesting and appropriate.
  4. Correctness: Correctness refers to grammar, punctuation, and form of the essay. You do not need to know the exact grammatical term or rule to know when a sentence is not correct. Even though you may not know the term dangling modifier, you could identify that the following sentence is not correct:

Rolling around in the bottom of the drawer, Tim found the missing earring. [certainly the earring was rolling, not Tim!]

You could also easily tell that the following sentence actually contains two sentences that need punctuation between them:

The new manager instituted several new procedures some were impractical. [You need to add punctuation (period) after “procedures” and capitalize “some.”]

Feel free to mark the essay at the point of the error with a specific recommendation (“run-on sentence”) or a general comment (“this sentence sounds wrong to me”). You can also simply put an “X” by any sentence that seems incorrect. See the back of WR for commonly used Correction Symbols.

Further Directions for Specific Assignments

Below are more detailed questions to consider when responding to individual types of essays. First, make sure that you have reviewed the description of the essay mode in the Essay Assignment Guidelines. Use at least one or two of these when responding to an essay. Do not simply answer yes or no; offer specific evidence from the text and elaborate on the reasons behind your answer.

Personal Essay Critique:

  1. Does the writer have a clear but understated purpose to the essay?
  2. Does it avoid being overly moralistic or heavy-handed?
  3. Does the essay contain suspense or tension that is resolved in some way?
  4. Do you have any suggestions for organizing the essay, such as focusing in on one event rather than many, providing more background, turning explanation into action, etc.?
  5. Does the essay make good use of concrete description, anecdote, and dialogue?
  6. Does the essay help you to feel the emotions rather than just describe the emotions of the author?
  7. Does the essay reveal a significant aspect of the writer’s personality?
  8. Does the writer seem authentic?
  9. Is this a passionate piece? Is it creative?

Critical Review Critique

  1. Does a direct thesis convey both the subject and the reviewer’s value judgment?
  2. Does the review provide a summary or description to help you experience the film, music, event, etc.? Note places where the author provides too much or too little detail.
  3. Does the essay clearly identify relevant criteria for evaluation? Are they appropriate, believable, and consistent?
  4. Are any important features of the reviewed subject omitted?
  5. Logos (logic, content): Does the essay provide sufficient, relevant, and interesting details and examples to adequately inform and entertain?
  6. Ethos (author): Does the author’s judgment seem sound and convincing?
  7. Pathos (emotional appeals): Does the author responsibly and effectively utilize emotional appeals to the audience?
  8. Does the author include adequate reference to the opposition and respond to that opposition appropriately?

Information Essay Critique: The questions posed about an informative essay will vary, depending on the purpose and strategy of the essay. The SMGW suggests evaluating for the following issues:

  1. Is topic clearly explained and sufficiently focused?
  2. Does the content fit the audience?
  3. Is it organized effectively?
  4. Are definitions clear?
  5. Are other strategies (classification, comparison/contrast, analysis) used effectively?
  6. Are sources used sufficiently, effectively, and appropriately?

You might also assess the following criteria:

  1. Does the author utilize vivid detail, interesting examples, and lively language?
  2. Does the essay avoid emphasizing judgment over explanation?
  3. Does the essay have a clear focus or implied thesis?

How to write a criticizing letter

When you watch unboxing videos on YouTube, the most horrible products are often the most amusing. However, it’s not always fun when you are on the receiving end of a disappointing product or service. Let’s talk about when and how you should write complaint letters.

For most people, it’s rather rare to write any type of letter. Instead, they may contact the company by phone, online chat, or even social media. But the Federal Trade Commission gives three important reasons to mail complaint letters. They “[put] your complaint on record with the company, [help] preserve any legal rights you may have in the situation, and [let] the company know you’re serious about pursuing the complaint.” You can ask for proof of delivery at the post office so you will have a digital record of your letter arriving at its destination.

Now, let’s break down the components of an effective complaint letter. In essence, they are business letters so you should begin with your address and the date. The name and title of the contact person should come next if you can locate them, otherwise begin with the name of the company and its street address. Finally, after your salutation, you can begin the body of your letter.

Even though you may be angry, the tone of your letter should be respectful and constructive. After all, the person reading the letter may not be directly responsible for the problems you are having. He or she will be more likely to want to help you resolve your issues if you are courteous. Include all relevant details, but be concise.

Information You May Want to Include:

  • Store name and location
  • Your account number
  • Relevant dates, such as when you bought goods or services and when the problem began
  • Names of sellers, customer service representatives, or managers with whom you’ve addressed the issue previously
  • Serial and model numbers
  • Copies of receipts, invoices, and warranties
  • Copies of previous correspondence, such as emails, chat logs, or letters
  • Your contact information

In the body of the letter, the opening sentence should identify your specific complaint. Next, outline what actions you have already taken to resolve it and how you expect the company to address the issue. Use a simple, professional, complimentary close, such as Sincerely or Regards.

Here’s a sample letter:

555 Five Boulevard Austin, TX 73301

Mr. Bob Howard General Manager Products and More 717 Seven Street New York, NY 10012

Re: Account Number 1884434

I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with the Model X tea kettle that I bought on February 28, 2019, at your store located at 1616 Sixteen Avenue. Though the kettle looks fine, it leaks when filled with water. When I attempted to return it to the store on March 2, 2019, the employee on duty, George Burns, told me that he would not accept the item because he didn’t see any damage.

To resolve the issue, I would like you to refund the full amount that I paid ($29.86, including tax) to my Frequent Customer account. I am enclosing a copy of the original receipt.

I look forward to your reply. Please contact me at the address above or by telephone at (555) 555-5555 within the next two weeks.

The best outcome of a complaint letter is a successful resolution. In fact, once companies are aware of problems, they may improve their goods, services, or policies for other consumers too. You are most likely to achieve a positive result if you are courteous and include all the relevant details!

More from #HowToWrite:

How To Write a Book Review

How to write a criticizing letterA deferral letter, or a letter of continued interest, is written in the case when you sought to enter a college or university and were deferred, but nevertheless want to show your interest in successfully entering. As a deferral means you might be accepted to a college or university later, writing a deferral letter increases this chance.

Steps for Writing a College Deferral Letter

  1. Start the letter properly. Specify the detailed contact information of the school/college/university you are sending your letter to, as well as your personal contact information.
  2. Briefly mention the situation you currently are in and what your reasons are for writing the letter. One-two sentences should be enough. This is the introductory part, and the shorter the better.
  3. Explain what makes you think the school/college/university you were applying to is a great match for you. Connect this institution’s classes, programs, professors, and so on to your interests and goals; this will make your motivation look more specific.
  4. Update the admission committee on what you were doing since filing your application form. It should be something important and useful, like attending lectures on the disciplines of your interest, having a part-time job, working as a freelancer, and so on. Writing about unique or at least significant experiences will increase your chances of being admitted.
  5. Double-check your letter for mistakes, typos, and so on. Grammatical mistakes can ruin what you have written.

Key Points to Consider

  1. One of the crucial aspects of writing deferral letters is doing it as soon as possible. It would be perfect if you wrote a deferral letter right after you received a note from the college you wanted to enter.
  2. The length of your deferral letter will not impress anyone, so do not bother making it longer than one page.
  3. Sending a deferral letter via email is a bad idea. Much better would be to make it handwritten on paper, and send it as regular mail. Does it need to be mentioned that your handwriting should be clear and accurate?
  4. Knowing whom exactly your deferral letter should be sent to is a bright idea.

Do and Don’t

Common Mistakes When Writing a College Deferral Letter

– Expressing your frustration with the deferral in the letter.

– Not checking with the educational institution’s policies before sending the deferral letter. Some institutions ask people who are enrolling to not send them deferral letters in case of being postponed.

– Being too emotional, begging the admission committee to accept you, and so on.

A letter to support a visa application can help when someone applies for a visa to enter another country. Often the application is more readily accepted if a relative or a friend who is a citizen of the country requesting to be visited writes this letter.

  • Free Letter For Visa Application For Family [Sample]
  • Letters Of Support And Affidavits Of Support For Immigration
  • Free Immigration Reference Letter for a Friend

Another thing to consider is that by writing the letter, the person may be agreeing to sponsor or provide financial support for the visitor for the duration of their visit.

The letter and any documents that are sent to accompany the letter may need to be notarized. Check to see if this is required by the embassy. Make an extra copy to keep in case the original is not received.

What The Letter Must Contain

The letter to support a visa application must be addressed to the embassy of the country where the visitor lives. This is written at the top of the page on the left side. It can be sent to the person applying for the visa application.

Skip two lines and put the full name of the person writing the letter and their address. Skip two lines and put the letter writers work and home phone numbers and their email address. Skip two lines and add the subject such as “request for a visa for friend”.

How to write a criticizing letter

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Skip one line and put the greeting. Skip a line and begin with the body of the letter This part must include:

  1. The full name of the person who will be visiting as it is written on his or her birth certificate
  2. The person’s date of birth
  3. Their mailing address, physical address if different from the mailing address
  4. Their phone number and any other contact information

The person writing the letter to support a visa application will also need to state the reason for the visit such as business, to visit family, or visiting as a tourist. It will need information that pertains to support they will provide for the visitor.

This includes income if required, the type of housing where the visitor will stay, and who will pay for their expenses while they are there.

Depending on the country, proof of income and bank statements may be required so an attachment with this information will need to be included.

All of this information should be recent. Some countries require a birth certificate or passport to prove the citizenship of the person writing the letter as well.

Sample Letter To Support A Visa Application

Name of the Embassy where the letter is being sent
Address of the Embassy where the letter is being sent

(Senders Name) example: John Smith
(Senders Address) 123 1st Street
City, State 12345

Work Phone Number
Home Phone Number
Email Address

Subject: Request for a visa for family visit, tourism

My name is (example: John Smith). My position is (Title of Job) at (Name of Company), (Address of Company). My yearly income is (Income Amount).

I would like for my (friend, mother and father, sister), (Name of relative or friend), born (Date of Birth of friend or relative) who lives at (Friend or Relative’s Address including Country) to visit me in the United States for (length of time of visit) beginning (the month and year the visit will start).

The reason for (their, his, or her) visit is to spend time with family as well as visit places of interest in the United States.

While visiting (they, he, or she) will stay with (me, us) at (same address as above). I will provide (her, his, or their) living expenses including personal, housing, food, travel, and medical.

I am requesting that a visa be granted to allow (her, him, them) to visit the United States. I will ensure (she, he, they) leave the United States before the stay expires. If you have any questions, please contact me at one of the telephone numbers provided or my email.

Signed full name of letter writer
Printed full name of letter writer



A critique is a detailed analysis or assessment of a piece of work. Written critiques are common in the assessment of art work or literature, although they are frequently used in the analysis of political theory or philosophy. Formal written critiques outline the thesis or purpose for the piece of work and evaluate the author on his effectiveness in matching the purpose. Formal written critiques are important because they provide an alternate viewpoint for others to consider.

Complete a short summary that identifies the author’s purpose for his essay or written work. Beginning your critique with a a summary of the work being assessed provides a reference for the arguments you present in your critique.

State your overall opinion of the work, briefly listing general reasons for your opinions. You will offer more specific details within the critique itself.

Assess the author’s work in terms of content, style, organization and correctness. Answer the following questions: How well does the content fit the purpose for the piece? Does the style fit the audience? Does the organization allow for the information to flow together? Did the author use proper grammar, spelling and punctuation? Offer specific examples from the work to support your arguments.

Offer suggestions for how the author could improve his work. If the author were to do the piece again, what would you have him do differently?

Wrap up the critique by restating the author’s purpose for the written piece and your overall assessment of the work.

A feminist criticism essay is usually a careful analysis of the feminist issues, represented in the book, which are basically concerned with the images of the female characters and their role in the narration. There are a number of standard aspects you can focus on, while exploring the view of the author on women, expressed in his work.

First of all, prepare sketches of the female characters. For this you need to single out all the information the narrator gives us about them – their background, childhood, sexuality, work, and outlook on the world. The better you get to know the characters, the easier it will be to draw conclusions about them.

The second step would be to compare and contrast these female heroines to their male counterparts. Their opposition is of vital importance for feminist criticism. While contrasting them, it is recommended to take into account the historical period of time, depicted in the book, and decide whether the relationship, shown between the male and female characters, was typical for that time or not, and, probably, indicate the reasons for this.
What is more, it can help you learn the views of the writer on the ideal situation with women, as it can give you a key to understanding the female characters. It is also advisable to analyse the conversations between men and women, their attitude to each other and their overall role in the book. Make sure you examine the views that men and women in the book express concerning females.

All in all, the more detailed and argumentative your essay is, the better impression it will produce on the readers. Therefore, examine various aspects and questions, since it will help you get a complete picture of the piece.

Idea of Lottery

Some people like to make a quick buck without toiling much. But the majority work hard to earn a living. Both of them cannot understand the other point of view. Those who don’t like to work cannot understand how the other group can toil all day long just to earn some money when there are…

Human Behavior and Racism Backgrounds

It is absolutely clear that any manifestation of racism bears most negative implications. However, with a closer look and no extra emotional compound, racism can merely be regarded as an idea of diversity, described in respective scientific works. Nevertheless, mentioning any of ethnic, social, political and ideological differences today potentially indicates morbid inequality, violent action,…

Essay about Michael Jordan

When the name of Michael Jordan is mentioned, the first thing to cross everybody’s mind is, of course, basketball. However, it would be unforgivably primitive to describe him simply as a basketball player. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that Michael Jordan represents in himself some unique or almost unique phenomenon that broadens his…

Writing a Motivation Letter for Job can be challenging. The question always remains – what is the best way to write a letter so that I can get this job? No full-proof letter can promise a job, but it can increase the chances.

A Motivational Letter for Job is the best way to highlight your qualities and experiences. It gives a reason to the employer as to why you are the perfect fit for the job. The motivational job letter enhances the resume and increases the chances of landing an interview. Unless mentioned specifically, today, mostly these letters are sent by email.

Also, Checkout for

How to write a criticizing letter

Writing Tips: Format of Motivation Letter for Job

A job application usually comprises of 2 parts – the resume and the motivational letter. The resume describes your skills and experience in brief. But the motivation letter explains in detail the qualifications you have and how you are the most suitable candidate for the job. It also showcases why you want to be a part of the organization. It identifies your relevant skills and matches you to the job.

But for the letter to do its work, it has to be formatted properly. It is a summary of your resume, but needs to be short, precise, and have a formal tone. Here are a few tips on how to write a motivation letter for an internship or jo b:

Details of the job

While applying for a job at a company, try and find out more details about the job so that they can be included in the letter. Ask relevant questions like does the job require teamwork? Does it require frequent traveling? What kind of person is the company looking for? And so on. When you have these answers, you can write important things in the letter like you are a good team player, a leader, or that you love to travel, etc. relevant past experiences can also be mentioned.

Know the company

Find out about the company as much as you can. Visit the company website, its social media handles the recruitment advertisement, other advertisements, and such stuff. Once you know the details about the company, you can tailor the letter accordingly. If you know the thinking and nature of the company, then you can point out similarities between the core values of the company and you.


Once the cover letter is ready, check it more than once. Proofreading does not mean just checking for grammar or typos. Read it well. Every sentence should add something to your application. It should be relevant but not repetitive. Also, do not just re-write the entire resume in the letter? The motivation letter is just a short story.


This may not feel that important, but font style and size should not be played with. Don’t try to be creative with this one. Strictly use a regular font that is simple to read, and the font size should be 10 or 12. I t should not be too small & too large.

Personal details

The main aim of this letter is to further your chances of a job interview and selection. A good application creates a positive pre-interview vibe and helps in turning things to your favor. Offer your details and experiences which show that you are a good candidate and you deserve this job. It should emphasize what you will bring to this job if hired.

Motivation Letter Sample for Job Application Example

A letter of motivation for a job contains your address, the address of the company, salutation, body, and complimentary close with signature. Below given is the motivation letter for the job example for your help.

How to write a criticizing letter

Some of you may have already written this type of academic assignment also known as a response paper. Critique article is the paper to make students highlight their evaluation of a particular article, book, statement, etc. The evaluation may consider different topics and sources including scientific articles, literature or poems. A student needs to show if the author delivers enough arguments to support his or her point of view. Looks pretty tough right? Our useful tips will let you handle the task with ease.

Once you get into details, you will see that the concept of the paper, as well as other papers (like physic paper) is rather simple. This is why most instructors and teachers do not provide additional explanations and requirements. The result of the world totally depends on your ability to stress the key points, problems, and arguments. Even the writing style is not as important as the ability to analyses. The best way is to find an article you like and discuss it with friends or relatives. It will give the writing process a boost of energy. At least, you will define a direction to get started.

Here are some crucial aspects your paper is supposed to provide:

  • It is not a summary. You do not need simply to list the points and problems discovered in the source. The main idea is to critique them. This is actually why the assignment has its name;
  • Another common mistake students make is delivering heir impression instead of arguments to support their point of view. You need to focus on clear evidence and back them up;
  • Do not concentrate on the main idea only. Every event has the cause and result. So, you need to provide the background in addition to the purpose of your critiques.

After we have finally defined the purpose of this academic paper, let’s check the insights and find out some of its samples and APA structure. Our tips will certainly out an ease on your writing process.

How to write a criticizing letter

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Article Critique Example

Article critique samples and examples are a good opportunity to make the writing process faster and simpler. With so many websites providing academic help, you can easily find some solid paper examples as the background for your own work. Do not simply copy those papers. Use them as a guide for your work.

It may help in a great way. Most samples depict a proper formatting manner depending on the style. You can use them as a writing template for APA, MLA, Harvard and other formatting styles. Our paper examples will save your hours and days of desperate writing and look for academic assistance. To ensure good academic results and high grades, download article critique samples here:

APA format article critique

Most instructors care the most about a proper formatting rather than the content. You may have a flawless paper from grammar and spelling perspectives, it may highlight the most genius ideas. However, you will never get a good mark for your work, unless it is properly formatted. As a rule, professor assigns several popular styles including APA, MLA, Harvard and some others. This time we will review the APA format for an article critique. First of all, we will identify the core elements of the paper for an APA structure:

How to write a criticizing letter

How to write a criticizing letter

How to write a criticizing letter

How to write a criticizing letter

1. Introduction. Abstract comes first unless you need to provide a cover page. As a rule, it is 150-250 words long. It should be written on a separate page and contain some core ideas of the major work. Don’t forget a centered “Abstract” title on top of the page;

  • Agreeing with, defending or confirming a particular point of view
  • Proposing a new point of view
  • Conceding to an existing point of view, but qualifying certain points
  • Reformulating an existing idea for a better explanation
  • Dismissing a point of view through an evaluation of its criteria
  • Reconciling two seemingly different points of view

2. Body Paragraphs – it is high time you wrote the main paragraphs of your work. Describe all details you think may help to deliver an argumentative article critique. Highlight methods you use in addition to purposes and causes;

  • Observing and identifying objects for analysis
  • Describing features
  • Defining, referring, classifying, distinguishing, or comparing terms
  • Illustrating or exemplifying a general point to explain or apply it
  • Theorizing about or explaining why things are the way they are
  • Conjecturing or speculating about explanations
  • Evaluating the adequacy of our observations

3. Reference Page is the last element of your paper. It includes the list of sources and works cited in the text. Each reference should be arranged in accordance with APA requirements and include the following:

  • author’s last name
  • initials
  • publication date
  • title
  • source name written in Italics
  • the number of age.

When it comes to in-text citation, APA considers its own format. You need to out the author’s name and publication date in brackets. This style is also known as the author-date system. Do not forget to include the name of the page at the end once you are eager to provide the author’s quote.

Once you properly implement the tips above, you will never find it difficult to write an article critique paper. Here is a template for your APA paper formatting style. Memorize it to avoid time-consuming writing challenges. If you don’t want to deal with this, then just leave us the request ‘I want to pay someone to do my assignment’ and our expert writers will help you to get your assignment done!

Sample Persuasion Letters: In life, convincing someone to encourage them is quite challenging. There are challenges in front of you to persuade someone to overcome their problems and issues. However, it is quite straightforward with a persuasion letter. Persuading someone is challenging until you know a proper format and style of writing. Let’s remind some key points that will help in writing an effective and balanced persuasion. Situations could be different, but the motive and style of writing are the same as that is to convince.

Get Other Types of Letter Writing like Formal, Informal and Different Types of Letter Writing Samples.

How To Write Sample Persuasion Letters?

  • Before you start writing, make sure you have an idea to collect that can be effective and convincing. This will help you know arguments to be added and in sequence.
  • Try and connect your writing goal in an effective and precise way, as it will only help you write a creative letter.
  • You must have a good understanding of the receiver’s thinking. It is to present your point of view effectively in a perfect manner.
  • Describe your point of view in detail and cover counter-arguments in your letter.
  • Present your persuasion letter on the facts and statistics, making your points logical.
  • Persuasion letters are argumentative, but your tone of writing must be straight and polite.
  • It is only possible to convince someone when you know how the recipient takes your advice, either positively or negatively.
  • Always write a thank you as a closing clause for your letter. Never lose hope as the letter will put the receiver into the thought of your points.

The points discussed above are important to consider before starting your letter. Below are the sample letters that were written to help you in such situations and let you know how to handle them.

Sample Persuasion Letters

Below are the sample persuasion letters for your reference:

Persuasion to Government

Dear Receiver name,

I am a resident of Model Town Ludhiana. As Ludhiana is the primary developed city, I am writing this letter to make you aware of rising traffic without proper management.

Due to heavy traffic jam, we cannot reach our workplaces on time which puts a wrong impression on our part. The tremendous increase in traffic has no proper management. Also, the newly completed highway flyovers are stuck and full every time. There is no chance that one can move and reach the workplace on time. We have to face an everyday rush of 2 hours. Truck traffic is the major cause as late-night travel of trucks causes nuisance during nights. We are highly disturbed by this. Another reason for writing this letter is rising accidental situations caused by this traffic jam.

I hope you will look into my request and take action against this problem.

How to write a criticizing letter

Persuasion Letter for A Client

Dear Receiver’s Name,

Since I have joined your company a year back, I have been working very hard on your projects. Also, you have praised me for my good work and for maintaining the company’s reputation. I am writing this letter to remind you of your promise to raise my salary after a year.

As you have promised me to raise the salary after my yearly performance, I request you to consider it kindly. I know I have been on good terms and will be working very hard and never let you down anyhow.

I hope you will look at it and consider it.

How to write a criticizing letter

Sample of Persuasion Letter

Dear Reciever’s Name

As you already know, I am looking for a team to come up and save old lives. On the daily count of deaths, thousands of people die, which is very harsh. I have been dreaming of starting working on saving these lives, and I would like you to be a part of the same. Hence I am writing this letter to you.

I urge you to be a part of this project and ask people to make donations towards this. This project is not led by the government and not funded by them. Thus I would request you to begin with this project and help save lives.

How to write a criticizing letter

Format for Persuasion Letter Along With Instructions

Receiver’s Name and Address

Dear Receiver’s Name (Salutation)

In the beginning, give the reason why you are writing this letter. Give a brief on your thinking about the same problem in some points.

In the second Paragraph, write in detail for each point discussed in the first paragraph. It is basically the body text of the letter. State the problems that you are facing.

In the last paragraph, request the receiver to help you solve the same. Request them why they should join you for the solution. And give a thank you as a closing clause that puts a positive impression in your letter.

(make sure you are writing the entire letter in a positive tone which should not offend the receiver)

Persuasion Letter Example

As we know, money is the basic requirement to fulfill other desires of your life. However, we usually spent most of our life in slaving for others. We kept on working for them, but still, they do not pay good deeds to us. Even many of them do not even appreciate our work.

However, on the next side, you will even find people who have found the best ways to lead their lives.

But this letter is for those who wanted to live their lives on their terms. We generally have good examples of those who work only when they like and when they want. They earn good and fulfil their desires in a go. Those people live their lives as they want and enjoy them.

Here we are to give you tips to be happy and successful always. You will face several problems every year and certain moments when you need assistance. We are ready to help you in such situations and let you live as you like.

How to write a criticizing letter

Persuasion Letter to A Customer

Dear Receiver’s Name,

My experience with several brand shopping on Myntra has led me to write this letter to you and recommend you purchase products on Myntra. The best part is the quality and actual results of the brands.

Myntra is famous for bringing originality to its branded products. There are hardly any chances of objections I could remember. I am a member of the Myntra account for the past 5 years and recommend you the same.

Posted in Growth, Events and Conferences | September 7th, 2020 superadmin –>

Editor’s note: This article was originally posted on September 7, 2016. It has been updated.

Why write a proclamation?

Proclamations serve to signal to citizens that an issue matters. A proclamation can influence policy decisions is an official way for government leaders to make an announcement. Although there are a few steps involved, overall it’s a very easy thing to accomplish (particularly if your association drafts the proclamation for your leaders).

How to write a criticizing letter

The 4-Step Process

1. Write: Outline what you would like the proclamation to say.

2. Contact: Contact your Mayor, Governor, Senator or other government official’s office to request the proclamation.

3. Sign: Meet with the official for the signing of the proclamation and a photo. If this isn’t possible, ask the official if they can provide a photo of the signing.

4. Promote Post the photo on your website and social media as well as distribute a press release.

How to Write a Proclamation

Start with a basic title, which explains the proclamation.

Write Reasoning Statements
Identify the reasons behind your proclamation. Keep it straightforward and simple. Start each statement with “Whereas,” followed by the reason.

Write The Proclamation Statement
Explain what you are proclaiming, based on the above-listed reasons. Start the sentence with “Now, therefore” and be sure to include the author’s name, position, organization, location, and date. This statement should be written in the first person.

Add A Personal Invitation
Underneath the proclamation statement, personally invite readers to support and participate in your proclamation.

Sign And Date The Document
If your organization has an official seal, include it as well.

6 proven ways to simplify membership renewals and improve retention.

Sample Proclamation:

Anytown, USA [Grocery Industry] Support Proclamation

Reason 1
WHEREAS, the [grocery Industry] is integral to the availability of [food and nutrion], and

Reason 2
WHEREAS, the strength of the [grocery industry] is dependent on support from its [customers], and

Reason 3
WHEREAS, the [grocery industry] is partners with both [its vendors] and the [general population], and

How to write a criticizing letter

Reason 4
WHEREAS, the [grocery ndustry] tirelessly provides for and supports their [communities and employees];

Proclamation Statement
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that [Name of Organization, Institution or Official] urges of [Name of Community or County] to support the [grocery industry]; AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that this [Title of Official] is committed to the continued support of [grocery industry].

Personal Invitation
I encourage all citizens to patronize the grocery industry and support their role in our communities and contributions to our economy.

Official Signature and Seal
IN WITNESS WHEREOF I hereunto set my hand and cause the Seal of Anytown to be herein affixed.

American Library Association

Related Articles

Narratives aren’t only for literary bookshelves, and a justification narrative is a type of persuasive writing that’s mostly found in commerce and government. Justification narratives are most often included in budget proposals and grants, but they can also be used to appeal or petition for legislative or policy changes. Learning the key components of a justification narrative can help you to write a stronger proposal and increase the likelihood of persuading your readers. Proper research is essential to building your case.

State Your Claim

A strong justification narrative begins with a brief statement of your claim, which will be the focus of your piece. Your claim should state what change you think should be enacted, what budget requests you have, or what policy you would like to implement. You don’t need to go into the specifics of your argument; you just need to make a strong and clear persuasive statement or request. For example, you could write a justification narrative for your workplace with the claim, “Employees need to have one or more vending machines in the break room.” Keep the claim to a simple statement.

Establish Reasons

Once you state your claim, begin providing the reasoning. For example, if you requested a vending machine for your workplace, provide details about why that’s important, such as providing employees with more snack and drink options. You might say that access to the right snacks can help improve productivity. It is important to frame your argument with your audience in mind. Therefore, in this example, you shouldn’t just talk about why the employees would like the new vending machine; you should say why it will help the company, such as improving its bottom line through increased worker output.

Provide Support

You can make any argument you like to strengthen your proposal, but if you don’t have support for your arguments, your reader will not be convinced that what you say is true. You must provide whatever support you can in the form of statistics, studies and expert opinions. For example, if you are pushing for the new vending machine, you should include studies that show how hunger can impair productivity. If possible, find case studies of companies that provided perks like snacks, cafeterias or vending machines and experienced positive outcomes. The more support you provide, the stronger your justification narrative is.

Discuss Budgetary Issues

Whether you are writing a budget justification narrative or another kind of justification narrative, budgetary issues will often be an important part of the discussion. Include pertinent information about the budget, including what resources will be needed to support your proposal and what impact it will have, such as what revenue it could generate or what other costs it could save. For your vending machine proposal, you could include the cost of the machine versus the revenue it will generate from purchases and the increased profits from projected productivity. Line-item budgetary information should be included where relevant to strengthen your proposal.

  • Kentucky Community and Technical College System: Justification Essay
  • Montana State University: Budget Justification/Narrative Best Practices
  • Appalachian State University: Writing a Budget Justification

Maria Magher has been working as a professional writer since 2001. She has worked as an ESL teacher, a freshman composition teacher and an education reporter, writing for regional newspapers and online publications. She has written about parenting for Pampers and other websites. She has a Master’s degree in English and creative writing.

How to write a criticizing letterMost school papers deal with actual and contemporary problems, with issues which need to be reflected upon and then solved by the society. Another possible object of research for essay writers is a literary work or a work of art. This second type of topic could also be divided into two different versions: the first one is mere description and a short analysis of the work in question; the second version is when one takes the given work of art as a starting point and then begins reflecting upon the issues touched upon by it. This is the essence of writing a critical response; thus your task for writing a critical response will include interpretation of a literary work (a short story, a poem, an essay, etc.) or a work of art in general (a painting, a movie, a play) and its evaluation from your point of view.

The phrase “critical response” may be confusing. You should not think that you must criticize the particular work of art in your critical response. To be critical means that you need to reflect upon the topic and not merely to describe it. What is important is to be able to construct your own representation of the particular work, or one main idea contained in it, thus being able also to offer your solution to the problem concerned. The following tips on how to write a critical response will help you overcome your uncertainty.

How to write a critical response – 5 essential tips

1. Explore your literary work

The preliminary part of your academic assignment is to read the particular literary work (or watch the movie, etc.). Make yourself sure you take notes about everything which impresses you or seems important. Also, write down quotations because thus it will be easier for you to use them in your essay (instead of searching for them again while writing the essay).

2. Understand the main message

Try to catch the message of the particular work. It may be related to issues such as love, friendship, war, education, and so forth. A great literary work would contain several main messages thus you can take one or two of them. You cannot address more than two main ideas in your critical response essay since you will be unable to express your thoughts clearly.

3. Describe the literary work

Present the particular work (novel, play, movie) by putting stress on its plot or characters (or what is depicted in it). Say a little about its creator and its historical background (when it was made, how it was received, etc.).

4. Discern some leading ideas of the work in question

This could be a message formulated by the author, or a question addressed at the reader, or a thesis regarding a given topic. At any rate you should work with ideas. This will allow you more freedom than, let’s say, a mere analysis of the given work. In order to demonstrate that you have grasped the ideas of the author, you need to bring citations or other references to prove your understanding. You cannot simply say what comes to your mind but you should rather assert only things which could be proved.

5. Express your opinion regarding the given issue(s)

This paragraph is logically connected with the latter paragraph. Try to connect them smoothly in your critical response; for example, from expressing the author’s idea you can go on by showing that he/she is/isn’t right in asserting that… (here you put the author’s thesis).

As this part is very important you must not underestimate it. It should make at least 20-25 percent of the total length of the essay. Your critical response essay turns around your personal reception of the particular literary work, thus you cannot pass this important feature. Having finished your essay, do not forget to add a list of titles used during writing as well as revise wisely the grammar and style of the essay.

How to write a criticizing letter

Opinions: as half of the old saying goes, everyone’s got ‘em. Whether it’s on Twitter, on Yelp, or in Facebook posts from your great-aunt’s best friend, we’re constantly subjected to other people’s opinions—so if you want to share your take with a wider audience, it’s worthwhile to think about how to make it stand out. And if you zoom in on an opinion, build it out, and give it structure, you’ve got yourself a review.

You can review basically anything if you find the right outlet for it, but the best way to present your thoughts depends on what you’re writing about and who your audience is. But with most types of reviews, there’s a simple structure you can stick to in order to help you get started:

1 A thesis

Before you write, make sure you know the general message you want to convey. A simple thesis will help keep your review from straying off-topic. This could be as straightforward as “I really liked this meal!” or as complex as “These shoes took a while to wear in.” Think to yourself: If I were telling a friend about this, what would I want their main takeaway to be?

2 Likes and dislikes

In the most glowing review, you may not include any dislikes. If the review is critical, try to find at least one positive to include, just to provide a break in between your incredible zings.

3 Your recommendation

A star rating may be the first thing most people see, but when folks skim your review, they’ll probably check the bottom for an idea of whether or not you’d recommend the meal, album, hike, or movie to others. You could also include a short explanation, like “I knocked it down one star because my utensils were dirty,” or “I’d recommend this play, but only if you’re as big of a musical theater buff as I am.”

If you need more direction, Grammarly has a few great places to start.

Writing a book review? Grammarly has tips and tricks for how to keep your review informative, enlightening, and kind.

Remember that you’re reviewing a book that another human poured their heart and soul into to write. Express your honest opinion, but don’t be nasty about it. Imagine if it were your book being reviewed, how would you want a reader to express their critique?

If you’re writing a movie review, Grammarly can help keep you from getting too stressed about how to rate the film you just watched:

Rather than grasp for an arbitrary value, state plainly what a movie called to mind, or how it didn’t quite land with you, and explain why.

Writing a review of your new favorite restaurant? You may need to paint a bigger picture of your experience than for the review of the tub of cheese puffs you ordered on Amazon.

Avoid vague words and phrases like “The service was bad” or “The pie was great.” Instead, provide specific details like, “The server was friendly but inexperienced and botched our drink order” or “The lemon meringue pie had a wonderfully flaky crust, a tart and tangy filling, and dreamy melt-in-your-mouth meringue.”

No matter what kind of review you’re writing, here are a few more quick tips:

  • Judge the product, restaurant, escape room, or dog park for what it is. If you’re reviewing a McDonald’s, don’t complain about how you weren’t waited on hand and foot. Write your review based on reasonable expectations.
  • Assume the best. You’re often assessing someone’s execution of their vision or product of their hard work, especially when it comes to art or food. You’re also more than likely writing this review on the internet, where the creator could probably find and see it in just a few clicks. We’re all human—assume the people who made this thing weren’t out to get you.
  • Check your writing. Reviews reflect back on you, and readers might not take your opinion seriously if your spelling is all over the place or you use the word “ambiance” three times in one sentence. Grammarly can help you make sure your review is as effective as possible.

More from #HowToWrite:

How To Write a Bio

As a reader, I often find that so much depends on contextual clues the writer provides. Note how the example below, excerpted from a letter in Chapter 6, consistently provides contextual clues related to time (“Over the past year . . .”), content (The NIWC is a cross-community coalition . . .”), and background (“She spent three months in Belfast . . .”) about both letter writer and student.

Over the past year I have watched Janet’s interest in Peace and Conflict Studies blossom into a very powerful thesis topic on issues of gender and politics in Northern Ireland. My area of expertise is in the area of gender and nationalism in Northern Ireland; for this reason I am confident when I say she has chosen a fascinating topic for exploration. As part of her research, Janet conducted a case study of the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition (NIWC) last summer. She spent three months in Belfast conducting ethnographic and archival research. The NIWC is a cross-community coalition that was formed in 1996 and fully participated in the peace talks which led to the signing of the Easter Agreement. Recently, the NIWC has found itself at the center of political debates focused on issues of gender, class, and nationalism.

Seeking even more contextual efficiency than in the above example, many writers embrace the economy and fluidity fostered by single transition words, especially as they open paragraphs. When a closing paragraph of a recommendation letter begins with a simple transition word such as “Clearly” or “Indeed,” readers sense that the student is viewed in a warm, subjective, and emphatic manner, and they are invited to agree with the detail and spirit of that assessment. A simple transition word also has much more impact than some informal and inefficient phrasing such as “As far as the way I currently see Daniella overall. . . .” Bleah.

Below is a list of transition words that many writers find helpful. As a teacher of writing, I’m always slightly hesitant about providing word lists for fear that writers will simply select from them blindly—a “plug and chug” mentality—or reject the idea of a word list as too elementary. However, my experience with faculty has been that they do appreciate lists and use them appropriately as they consider options for how best to argue a student’s case.

Common Transition Words and Their Functions




In sum
On the whole


For this reason



Equally important
First, Second, etc.
In addition


Above all
In fact
In short
Of course


For example
For instance
To illustrate




In contrast
On the contrary
On the other hand


In essence
In particular
In relation to
To enumerate

In addition to the transition words listed above, you might find frequent use for simple contextual transitions that announce a paragraph or sentence topic simply by categorizing the criterion that you are about to address—words such as “Academically,” “Analytically,” “Athletically,” “Culturally,” “Intellectually,” “Linguistically,” “Scholastically,” “Socially.” Such words are valuable because they lend economy and establish immediate focus. However, avoid nonstandard usage of the suffix “-wise” to mean “in relation to”; such a practice creates irritating coined words such as “Knowledgewise,” or “Intellectualwise,” resulting in sloppy writing (and, in the two cases just cited, unintentional irony).

Further Study

These pages provide more extensive lists of transition words and their functions:

How to Talk With Your Boss About Career Promotions

If your company is like many others, it probably has learned to capitalize on its resources, especially its staff. This skill can be a necessity in good economic times, but especially in trying ones, when staff members may be called upon to work extra hours or perform duties beyond their job description. When conditions reach a crisis point, however, it’s time for management to face the reality that additional staff is needed. As a manager, your task is to present the problem in real and honest terms, and show how additional staff will solve the problem of being short-staffed. If you can justify the need for additional staff in a reasonable and persuasive manner, you should be able to sway your superiors in due course.

Step 1

Open your letter with a clear, concise statement that summarizes conditions at your business, as well as your intent. You might say, for example, “As you know, ABC Company has enjoyed a brisk increase in customers the last six months. While this condition portends good things for the company’s financial future, it also has placed an undue strain on the staff that leads me to respectfully request the hiring of additional staff.”

Step 2

Describe the problems the business has encountered because of its current staffing. Use several timely examples that “paint a picture” of the problems that your reader can visualize. Customer complaints are bound to generate attention from upper management, so cite them if they exist. Rely on documented failures, mistakes and missed opportunities to shore up your case for additional staffing.

Step 3

Outline the longer-term consequences of being short-staffed in real and vivid terms — but do not exaggerate. You may wish to compare the current staffing to previous and more optimal staffing levels, but tread carefully and with diplomacy. Maintain an even-handed tone; do not invoke sarcasm or make dramatic references, such as to “a ridiculous situation” or “a train wreck waiting to happen.”

Step 4

Commend the efforts of your present staff, lest they be seen as the cause of the problem. In other words, say that they are doing their level best to keep up with demand but are in need of help to “meet the company’s high expectations of delivering superb customer service and satisfaction.”

Step 5

Propose your solution. If hiring one full-time staff member would be the ideal solution, say so. But if a part-time staffer would suffice, be sure to say this, too. Upper management will weigh your honesty and credibility in rendering a final judgment to your request.

Step 6

Anticipate any objections to your request. Most likely, it will be money – always a tricky issue to navigate. Counter the objection by making an obvious point: that while you realize an additional staff member will cost the company money, the move will result in higher earnings for the company and greater customer satisfaction.

Step 7

Craft an emotional appeal that assures upper management that you have the company’s best interests at heart. For example, point to your years of service to the company and stress your ongoing commitment to its success. In this case, you might also say that hiring additional staff is “critical to” or “important” to ensuring that longevity and success.

Step 8

Express your thanks for the recipient’s time and consideration. Offer to discuss your request as well as “any alternative solutions” the recipient may have in mind.

Step 9

Proofread and edit your letter carefully for spelling, grammar and especially tone.

Writing a request for additional staff is essentially the equivalent of writing a persuasive appeal. You must invoke some emotion but temper your words with realism, lest you lose credibility. With this in mind, review your word choices carefully to be sure they depict your work environment as it really is.

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