How to become a successful professional

This article was co-authored by Jessica Elliott, ACC, CEC. Jessica Elliott is a Certified Executive Coach and multi-passionate entrepreneur. She’s the founder of LIFETOX, where she hosts mindful experiences and retreats, and J Elliott Coaching, which she provides executive consulting for professionals, teams, and organizations. Jessica has had over fifteen years experience as an entrepreneur and over five years of executive coaching experience. She received her ACC (Associate Certified Coach) accreditation through the International Coaching Federation (ICF) and her CEC (Certified Executive Coach) accreditation through Royal Roads University.

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No matter what field you work in, you probably have some aspirations of professional success. Success may be defined in different ways by different people, but being an informed and dedicated employee, a strong leader, and an honest person can all make a big difference in making you a successful professional in any career. No matter how you define your goals or what field you work in, strengthening your professional skills, building professional relationships, and being a self-motivated professional can help you achieve success and satisfaction in your career.

Even with high-risk potential, forex trading has become a consistent side income source for people looking to earn some extra money. It creates flexibility for anyone as the market is open 24 hours a day and five days a week. Some experienced traders with good strategies have been able to make huge profits and turn forex trading into a full-time job.

According to Alec White, “Learning to currency trade has been great. It has changed my life and my family’s life. With two to three hours per day, Monday through Friday, I can earn what I was doing in 60 hours of a high-stress environment where I was always on call. One of the great things about learning to trade Forex is that the program I did with Forex Smart Trade, let me try it for a month so I could see if it was for me. It was and I’m very glad that I did.”

Before Alec started to trade full time, he earned an annual salary of $200k as Finance Director with an auto dealer. He however left his job after 9 months to become a full-time trader because he worked in a high-stress environment and he didn’t like that. As a trader who took lessons from Forex Smart Trade , he is earning what he used to earn in a couple of hours per day.

With over $5trn-worth of transactions carried out every day in the forex market, it is suitable for anyone who is willing to put in some time, learn, trade, and make money This means that more people can join in the forex trading industry and get paid by trading various currencies pairs to get profit. For people who are pressed for time, the automated forex trading process becomes their go-to. Modern technology enables traders to spend less time in the market and makes it easy for traders to make trading a side income.

The forex market’s high liquidity makes trading potentially highly lucrative as a side hustle. However, to get skin in the game, aspiring traders need a guide without which avoidable losses can be incurred. Alec’s tutor, Forex Smart Trade offers a 30-day introductory trial on its website so that students can determine if trading is for them or not. The introductory trial gives students access to Forex Smart Trade’s patented proprietary trading indicators, fast start video training courses, live trader chat app, live daily trades, daily training webinars, and live one-on-one remote instruction using the indicators. Forex Smart Trade’s introductory trial is a complete online forex course that covers all key areas of forex trading.

Forex Smart Trade takes pride in creating successful currency traders with its proprietary trading indicators and one-on-one training. When students sign up, they are sent a private video that shows one of Forex Smart traders trading using the indicators. The trading school is confident in its indicators and allows newly trained traders to trade with company money. ‘We help you become your best self while guiding you to financial independence through foreign currency trading with our best-in-class training and proprietary indicators. And we’re so confident in our ability to make you a successful trader, we’ll let you trade up to $100,000 of our money and split up to 80% of the profit with you,’ says Paul, Chief Operating Director of Forex Smart Trade.

February 22, 2021

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Professionalism is a good quality to possess to succeed in the workplace. Professionals develop and practice several characteristics and qualities that help them make a positive impression. Learning how to be a professional can help you progress along your career path. In this article, we discuss practical tips that can help you become a professional.

What does it mean to be a professional?

Being a professional means you conduct yourself in a way that shows your work ethic and makes a positive impression on others. Professionals have a set of qualities and characteristics, like dependability and respect, that help them succeed in their roles and inspire others to do the same. Other characteristics that could contribute to being a professional include dressing appropriately for the workplace, helping teammates with tasks and being positive throughout the workday.

Why is being professional at work important?

Professionalism is a sign of responsibility, dependability and loyalty. It can help you better connect with coworkers, allowing you to achieve higher-quality results. Having a professional attitude means you’re usually more empathetic toward team members, which can help tell when they might need assistance.

Practicing professionalism also helps you to be more proactive. You’re more likely to keep certain habits that allow you to identify potential challenges well before they happen and find ways to overcome or avoid them.

Your manager will probably notice your strong work ethic and eagerness to accept new responsibilities, which can help you earn more promotions and raises.

How to be a professional

You can follow these 15 steps to help you be a professional:

1. Keep time

Keep track of your time to ensure you finish your work by the deadline and respect everyone else’s schedule. Try to arrive early to work, attend meetings on time and complete time-sensitive tasks before coworkers or managers need them. It’s helpful to keep your calendar updated and add notifications for meetings and deadlines.

2. Follow the dress code

The first impression matters, and it can shape how customers and colleagues think about you. Present yourself in a neat and professional manner based on your company’s dress code. Ensure you wear any recommended safety gear if you’re out in the field, and make sure your clothes are always neat and clean. Offering a professional appearance can help you positively influence coworkers and clients.

3. Maintain focus

As soon as you arrive in the workplace, begin your day. Check your emails, make a to-do list or finish any tasks you weren’t able to complete the day before. To help stay focused, keep your cellphone on silent and out of view, and if you work on a computer, close any tabs that aren’t related to the work you’re doing.

4. Demonstrate a positive attitude

The things you do and say define how professional you seem at the workplace. People thrive in positive environments, so it’s helpful to keep a friendly and upbeat attitude. Keep your focus on work, and keep conversations during breaks positive.

5. Be mindful

When faced with tight deadlines and difficult work, try to be mindful of how your actions affect others. If you’re working on a project with multiple team members, make sure you finish your work if a coworker needs it to do their part. You can also ensure you keep your workspace and common spaces clean and tidy.

6. Be confident

Portraying confidence in work involves knowing your strengths and weaknesses. A confident professional knows the power of teamwork and acts in ways that convey to others their expertise and competence. Working professionally means acknowledging that some tasks need team efforts while valuing the individual contributions of everyone.

7. Demonstrate good communication skills

Communicating effectively is one of the important ways to be professional. Carefully listen to what people say, learn from their feedback and add your opinion.

8. Show your organization skills

Keeping your working area neat and organized shows your ability to manage tasks, keep time and remain focused. Avoiding clutter gives you room to work in a tidy environment, which can improve your productivity. With an organized space, you can prioritize and delegate tasks with ease.

9. Engage in appropriate workplace conversations

Show your professional manner at work by starting and participating in work-appropriate conversations. Avoid gossip or negative conversations, or try to move the conversation toward something positive. Encouraging others to engage in appropriate conversations can help the workplace feel more positive and welcoming.

10. Be empathetic

At times, the people you work around encounter challenges. Being empathic when a coworker is experiencing a challenge can show you care about your team and want to help. Consider ways you can make work a little easier while they’re moving past an obstacle.

11. Demonstrate self-awareness

Understand what drives you and how you can improve your work. Consider making a list of strengths and weaknesses so you can physically read your qualities and see where you develop professionally.

12. Act as a role model

Learn how to be professional in the workplace by setting an example for others to emulate. Be diligent and show discretion when handling problems. Try to be a colleague who uplifts and supports others in the workplace.

13. Be honest and trustworthy

Professionals portray integrity in their daily undertakings by keeping their word and complying with workplace ethics. It is invaluable for colleagues to trust you, allowing you to build stronger relationships. To be a professional, try to be accountable for your words and actions, and be ready to apologize if you make a mistake.

14. Show competence

Being professional in the workplace involves demonstrating your expertise and reliability in what you do. You can make it easy for teammates to collaborate with you when you finish your work without errors. Competence translates to high productivity, better team engagement and progressive career growth.

15. Offer to help when you can

Recognize when team members may need your help and offer assistance. You could help them with something as big as finishing a project before the deadline or something as small as locating a file. Being helpful shows that you care about your coworkers and want to help them succeed.

February 22, 2021

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Success is a concept that is different for every person. Whether it means having a great career, a home or a family, success is something everyone strives to achieve. It makes you feel proud, it gives you excitement and it lets you know you have made an impact in a competitive world.

Success is not something you attain without putting in effort, however. It is a mindset you must adopt to accomplish your goals and grow as a person, and it takes hard work. In this article, we explain what it can mean to be successful and discuss tips to help you in your personal journey for success.

How do you define success?

Before you can define success for yourself, you should make a list of what success looks like to you and your family. Then, follow that up with actionable steps you can take to achieve that success. For example, if your success is having a high-paying career, then potential steps would be to further your education or professional training. Or if you see success in an unfulfilled talent like writing, then potential steps might include implementing daily or weekly writing goals to nurture it.

There is no right or wrong way to be successful, but there are steps you can take to become more successful based on your own definition of the goal.

Tips for how to become successful

Here is a list of 10 tips to help you become successful in your life:

1. Be committed

Through commitment, you can gain motivation to pursue success. You should make a list that includes your goal, your level of commitment to the goal and what you are willing to do to achieve that goal. Staying focused on your plan is crucial. It helps to put aside at least 15 minutes per day to think about your plan and work toward it. This will keep your goal fresh in your mind and allow you to continue focusing on it.

In determining your commitment to your goal, however, it’s important to ensure you have realistic expectations of yourself and the outcome. If your commitment is not paying off after a certain period of time, you should adjust your goal accordingly and revise any necessary steps.

At times it may be helpful to ask a friend or family member for support in helping you stick to your commitments. Having someone to hold you accountable for shortcomings and praise your success can really help you stay committed to your goal.

2. Learn from the journey

Rather than focusing strictly on the results of your accomplishments, take notice of the small steps needed to achieve success. If you allow yourself to enjoy small victories along your journey, reaching your goal will become a new adventure each day and you will be more likely to stay on track. By doing this, you will learn new and exciting things along the way, which can help you grow as a person.

3. Have fun along the way

If the journey to achieve something becomes too tedious, it will be more challenging to succeed. Learning what you are capable of can be fun and exciting, so it is important to keep your goals light and fun in order to have an emotionally-positive experience and keep moving forward without losing perspective.

4. Think positively

Developing a positive mindset is all about trusting yourself and your ability to succeed. It is important to replace any negative thoughts with positive ones in order to motivate yourself to keep trying no matter what challenges come your way.

Think about when babies are learning to walk. They do not stop when they fall. They get back up and keep going until, one day, they are able to move—and soon run—with ease. In your path to become successful, you are likely learning new things and thinking differently than before. Your goals will not happen overnight. They will take practice and discipline to achieve, so it is vital to think about the process positively.

5. Change your perspective

Sometimes along the journey, you have to change your perspective to turn a challenging situation into a better one. When you are having a bad day or week, imagine instead that it is a good day or week. Give yourself the opportunity and the time to think about your situation using only positive language and see how much your day or week changes. Doing this for an extended period of time could change your entire life.

6. Be honest with yourself

If you find your goal is at a standstill, you might need to be honest with yourself about why that is. After you have come to an understanding, try to find a solution to push yourself toward success. Challenge yourself to step out of your comfort zone. This might mean an extra set of squats, speaking to a supervisor about a promotion or even signing up for a difficult college class that you hadn’t considered before.

7. Take away distractions

Make a list of things in your life that take up your time or distract you. This could be a phone, a television show or even a person who causes you stress. Shut off your phone and put it in a different room when it is time to focus on your goal. Turn off the television and put the remote across the room. Only keep in contact with the people who make a positive impact on your life. Now is the best time to start changing habits so that you can focus on achieving success without distractions.

8. Count on yourself

You cannot count on others to achieve your goals for you. Your best friend cannot take a class for you. Your mother cannot get you a promotion. Your partner cannot lose extra weight for you. These are all things you must do on your own. It can be beneficial to rely on others for emotional support, but just as you have your needs, your friends and family have their own as well. It is important to hold yourself accountable to achieve your goals and make yourself happy.

9. Keep planning

Stick to a schedule when working on your goals. Give yourself challenges according to your personal calendar, such as “I will run a seven-minute mile by the end of the month,” or “I will save $5,000 by the end of the year.” Even if you do not achieve the goal, you will have your starting point in your calendar and will see progress. If you plan your goals and track them in a calendar, you will always have proof of your progress. Having something tangible is a great motivator to keep working toward success.

10. Avoid getting burned out

It is important to focus on your goal, but do not obsess over it. Keeping your journey productive but also fun will ensure you are motivated without overworking yourself. Sitting around and thinking about your goal all the time can cause you to burn out. Your previously fun goal becomes more like something you have to do than something you want to do. Continue to learn about how much you can grow and achieve to avoid getting burned out.

In translation, as in any other career, there are those who undertake the work because it is their calling – they simply can’t imagine doing anything else. There are also those who approach translation purely due to the potential financial benefits or the flexible working hours in the case of freelancers.

So, is there a traditional career path that can be followed in order to achieve success as a professional translator? The quick answer is ‘yes,’ but that’s far from the only way to get into the business and to ensure you succeed.

The academic approach

The traditional route into translation is much like that into any other field – work hard at school on your chosen subject (in this case, languages), gain a higher education qualification (many universities offer undergraduate and postgraduate courses in translating and interpreting) and then head out into the world of work. Apply for jobs at translation companies and agencies and then perform over and above average in order to advance your career.

Additional certification

There is also a range of other certifications that you can apply for in order to maximise the chances of success in your professional translation career. Numerous bodies offer certification for those who have developed the skills needed for medical or legal translation, for example. Adding these to your resume will help you to stand out from the crowd and showcase your expertise.

Lifelong learning

In addition to gaining certifications as you progress your career, you will need to embrace lifelong learning in order to achieve true success. Languages are not static and you will need to keep up to date with new words and any official changes. Portuguese, for example, has seen a number of orthographical changes over the years. The most recent was implemented in 2009, when diphthongs were changed, the umlaut was eliminated, silent letters were eradicated and the rules around capitalization and the use of hyphens were changed.

Embracing the opportunity to learn, practising your skills whenever possible and ensuring that you are as qualified and certified as you can be will all stand you in good stead when it comes to becoming a successful professional translator.

Final thoughts

How did you come to be a professional translator? What career path did you follow to achieve success in the translation industry? Let us know via the comments section.

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Comedy Improv, Practice Makes Progress: A Timeline of How To Become A Comedy Improviser

Comedy Improv is a form of live performance that is improvised. It is a type of theater wherein the actors create their own scenes and characters on the spot in front of an audience. Comedy Improv has been around since the beginning of theatre, but it wasn’t until recently that it began to be recognized as a legitimate art form. .Comedy Improv is a form of live performance that is improvised. It is a type of theater wherein the actors create their own scenes and characters on the spot in front of an audience. Comedy Improv has been around since the beginning of theatre, but it wasn’t until recently that it began to be recognized as a legitimate art form.

Beginning Your Comedy Improv Career and Making Headway in Creative Industries

The best way to start your comedy improv career is to take classes. There are many different kinds of classes that you can take, but the most important and effective ones are those that teach you about improvisation and how to build a scene. The theater industry is one of the most creative industries in the world. It’s not just about acting on a stage, but also about writing scripts and designing sets. Improv training will help you hone your skills for acting in a theater production and make it easier for you to get started in your career as an actor or designer. If you are more interested in the technical side of theater, then the best thing for you to do is take classes that focus on design and costuming. These will help make your acting performances look more polished and professional. You’ll also develop a strong sense of keeping your audience engaged, which is an important skill for all actors to have. The first step any aspiring actor needs to take is to find a local theater or acting school. Some actors choose to start out by acting in a community or college theater production, which will give them experience and get their name out there. Others want to go straight into professional productions but don’t know where to begin . Some people choose to attend school and learn their craft from the ground up. If you are interested in designing your own set or costume, then you’ll have to take courses that teach you how to design and sew. You can also look into online classes that will help you learn how to create a realistic looking set or costume on your own.

Conclusion: How to get booking as a Comedian using a Booking Platform ?

Talents List is an easy way for people to find and hire comedians on demand. It also allows for the booking process to be secure, easy, and convenient.

All you need to is to Sign up, make a 100% complete Talents List profile and then start getting bookings.

If you love experimenting with makeup and exploring the latest fashion trends, you can turn your passion into a career as a professional makeup artist. With a cosmetology license, you can explore a variety of career paths related to makeup artistry. If you have wondered how to become a makeup artist, this quick guide will get you started on a fulfilling career path.

    1. Enroll in a Makeup Program at Cosmetology School

Cosmetology school is the best path for mastering your craft and gaining a solid foundation and education. It shows potential employers that you take your career seriously and have the knowledge to build on your skills. You will begin building your professional network in school by learning from experienced instructors and collaborating with peers. Your education will help you prepare for the State Board exam to become licensed and pursue a career full of creativity and passion.

  1. Build Your Portfolio with Makeup Photos and Other Visuals

All artists must build a portfolio, which is no different for you as a makeup artist. A portfolio is a visual demonstration of your range of experience and helps you “sell” yourself. Other website builders allow you to create artistic portfolios. It is essential to take high-quality photos of your work, use engaging visuals, and highlight your areas of expertise. Start building your portfolio early, and upload it to your LinkedIn profile. LinkedIn is a professional networking and career platform and is an excellent place to showcase your talent and network.

    1. Be Social with Clients and Hair Stylists

Your job will entail interacting with clients, hairstylists, and other fashion professionals. You will want to spend some of your working hours communicating and networking. You should begin developing a social media presence to share your work and build up your clientele. Be sure to connect on various social media platforms with beauty bloggers and vloggers. Whenever possible, attend live events and competitions because this will allow you to interact and connect with others in your profession and get your name out there.

    1. Network with People in the Makeup Industry

It comes down to whom you know; this is especially true in fashion and beauty and why being social is imperative. Building your clientele and networking is essential to getting referrals, growing your business, and even landing your dream job—network online and in-person for the most reach.

    1. Learn New Makeup Styles and Trends

If there is one thing we know about fashion and beauty, the beauty industry is constantly changing and evolving. As a professional, you need to be aware and open-minded regarding growing trends. Try out those new trends, push your boundaries, and learn new techniques. It will help you grow as a makeup artist and keep you in touch with your clientele, especially those who are always on the lookout to try new things

Start Your Professional Makeup Artist Career Today!

Rizzieri Aveda School has a rich history of providing cosmetology students with a superior education. We can continue that tradition by helping you achieve your goals as a makeup artist. Through our extensive MUD Make-up Designory® Program, we will provide hands-on instruction, real experience, and up-to-date information on the latest makeup trends and techniques. You will receive guidance and become prepared for the State Board exam. We also ensure that you learn about the business aspect and customer service side of makeup artistry because we want to see you succeed in your career. For more information about cosmetology or makeup artistry, contact us today.

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This chapter describes six common steps to becoming a mental health professional: (1) earning an undergraduate degree; (2) applying for admission to a graduate program in the discipline of choice; (3) completing a graduate program, including all coursework and supervised practicum experience; (4) earning a job as a prelicensed trainee (often called an intern) to gain supervised hours of postgraduate clinical practice to meet licensure requirements; (5) passing a clinical licensure exam in the selected discipline and (often) a state ethics exam; (6) maintaining a license with the required continuing education throughout the career. The key decision points at each step are highlighted, and the chapter offers detailed advice for success at each step. Given that many readers may be approaching Step 2, applying for graduate school, particular attention is given to this step, including hints for successful admissions essays and interviews.

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How to become a successful professional

Published on September 21, 2020

Are you a gardener and looking to grow and develop in your career? Are you ready to take that next step, perhaps to have more tasks and responsibilities, or to earn a higher salary? Or perhaps you are considering becoming a professional gardener. Either way, it is of great importance to know how you can grow in your job and your career. So that you can achieve the career goals you want. And so that you can feel successful, and be happy in your gardening role!

So how do you become a successful gardener?

What is Success?

When looking to become a successful gardener it is firstly important that you clarify for yourself what success means. Success can mean completely different things for everybody. It really depends on how you view your career, what you want to get out of it. But also in life in general.


Lots of people will link the feeling of success to money. They would argue that the higher the salary, the more successful they feel in their job. If making (more) money indeed makes you feel successful – excellent! Because it doesn’t matter what exactly it is that makes you feel successful, it is about finding out what it is, for you. Because once you know, you can then set your goals and make a plan on how to achieve them and feel successful.

So if money indeed is the main thing you want to focus on. Then earning more money, or the potential to get a higher salary will motivate you in your job.

So when you know this you can try to apply this into your gardening job. Can you think of ways on how to increase your salary? This can come in the form of a pay rise, or maybe have a bonus structure added in your contract. Or perhaps move from a freelance agreement to a set contract with secure, higher rates.

So practically, how do you get this done? A good place to start is to have an open and honest conversation with the people you do gardening work for, about a pay rise. But before you do so, make sure you have prepared clear reasons why a pay rise would be deserved. Perhaps you have been working there for several years, without a raise in salary yet. Or perhaps you have accumulated new skills that you have been adding to your work. Finally, you can check if your salary is in line with the average rate in your country. Also, make sure you are being paid as least minimum wage!

Job Retention

For some other people, however, money is not their main motivator. Being successful for them might mean having and keeping the same job for a very long time. This is something that is becoming more and more rare and people are currently more likely to change positions quite soon. Sometimes even within a year.

But if you really enjoy working for the same household or family as a gardener for a long period of time, or if this is something you want to achieve. Then start looking at ways to show the people you work for that you are a worthwhile long term investment. And that you are able to keep adding value to your work!

This can look different in different setups. Firstly, employers like consistency. Therefore make sure you do your job well, consistently. Make sure to show up on time, and don’t take to many sick days if you don’t really have to. When your employer knows they can rely on you, they are more likely to keep you as their gardener for the long term.

Invest in Training

Secondly, invest in training and updating your skills. Even if you have been doing the same job for 10 years, there are still things you could learn! The industry, and the households you work for, will be changing, and you should grow with it.

It is vital to do regular training courses to keep you up to date with industry standards and learn new skills. You would be surprised how rusty you might have gotten – or how you can improve things that you have been doing the same way for many years. Training is a way for you to be able to diversify your skillset. It shows you are willing to invest in your growth. And to overall become a more successful gardener!

Work/Life Balance

Finally, you might not care so much about money, or staying in the same job for the long term. Maybe your idea of success is having a great work/life balance. Perhaps you have a family or children you want to spend lots of time with. If this is you, then make sure you find a job where this is a realistic possibility.

Some gardening jobs are much more time consuming than others. There are gardening and groundsmen jobs where you will be living on the land of the property. So if it is work/life balance that you are after, that might not be the right thing for you. As it will not allow you to see your family or spend time at home, during your working week.

However, keep in mind that every job and setup can be different. Especially when it comes to gardening roles. So when you are looking for a new gardening role, make sure you understand the setup and expectations. So that you can make sure it fits in with your family life.

Try to avoid committing to a job that does not fit into your lifestyle. It is not fair on yourself, your family, or your employer and will never work in the long run. So make sure to have a good understanding of what is required from you in any new role. Do the hours work? Do you get the free time you want? To spend time with your family? And make sure all of that matches.

How to Become Successful

Knowing the above, knowing what works for you is one important part. But what else can you do to become a successful gardener?

Have a variety of skills and offer flexibility

Firstly, being a gardener is an extremely versatile job. A successful gardener is able to multitask and adapt to any situation quickly and thoroughly. So to become a really successful gardener, work on having a variety of gardening and groundsmen skills, and the ability to be flexible. You need to be ok with last-minute tasks coming at you and setups changing regularly.

Be organised and calm

If you have been working as a private household gardener already, you will most likely know that the job can at times be very high demanding, and stressful. Dealing with pressure and what seems like an enormous amount of tasks, is something you can learn.

The key to any gardener is to be extremely organised. Make sure you plan all the tasks that need doing. On a daily, weekly, and also monthly basis. This way you will never forget anything and never get stuck on any tasks that needed doing last minute. To be on top of tasks is key as a gardener, as work can quickly build up. But if you are organised and plan ahead, it will make your job and life a lot easier!

How can Polo & Tweed Help?

Are you looking for a new great gardening job that fits in with what you want and need? Polo & Tweed can help! We have great part-time, full-time and freelance gardening and groundsmen roles all over the world. Contact one of our recruitment consultants to find out more and let us help you find your dream gardening role and get you set up for success!

How to become a successful professional

Not all salespeople are professionals. Being a professional implies a certain level of ability that not everyone can claim, combined with a certain attitude and behavior. On the other hand, being a professional has little to do with what you actually sell or who you sell it to. Here are some of the attributes that professional salespeople share.


Integrity is an important quality for professionals in any field, but for salespeople, it’s even more important. Because salespeople have an unfortunate reputation for shady and unethical behavior, a professional salesperson must not allow even a hint of such behavior. Even the smallest bending of his ethics will confirm others in their belief of the stereotypical snake oil salesperson. Instead, professional salespeople always put their customers’ needs first. They don’t try to trick or push prospects into buying something that’s not the best choice for them. Instead, they work with prospects to find the best possible solution for their needs, even if that means sending them to a competitor.

Pride in Your Job

It’s not uncommon for salespeople to hide what they do behind titles such as account executives, customer reps, product specialists, and so on. Professional salespeople are proud to be in sales. They know that the job they do supports both their employers and their customers. Salespeople serve others just as doctors or teachers or even firefighters do, and professional salespeople know that. Salespeople talk to dozens or even hundreds of other people every day. Professional salespeople know that they can make each and every one of these contacts a positive experience for the other person, taking the opportunity to make things a little better for everyone they interact with. Salespeople who are professionals also know that they are the faces of the companies they represent, and they act accordingly.

Continual Self-Improvement

Professionals in many fields are required to keep learning and training no matter how experienced they get. Doctors, lawyers, and accountants, just to name a few, all have continuing education requirements to keep their certifications. Salespeople who are professionals realize it’s just important for them to keep learning and growing, even though there’s no rule specifically requiring it. Many companies are aware of this need and well regularly send their salespeople to classes or provide them with training material. However, professional salespeople who work for companies that don’t provide such opportunities will get training on their initiative. Professional salespeople also keep trying out new things, whether it’s a sales channel they never used before, a new cold calling script, or a different approach to closing.

Liking What You Do

Some salespeople hate their jobs. They keep on doing sales because it pays the rent, but they’re miserable and they do only the absolute minimum they have to keep their jobs. Professional salespeople, on the other hand, enjoy being in sales. They probably don’t love every single aspect of the job, but they do like the overall day-to-day business of being in sales.

Finding new prospects and convincing them to buy is exciting and fun; they thrive on the challenges inherent to being in sales. One caveat to keep in mind is that new salespeople often don’t enjoy the job at first, just because it’s overwhelming to learn all at once. That doesn’t mean that you’re doomed to hate sales forever, it just means that you need some time to get used to the job and its tasks. However, if you’ve been in sales for a while and you still hate it, it’s time to start thinking about a change of careers. Why should you make yourself miserable doing something you hate for the rest of your life?

How to become a successful professional

We grow up listening to stories of the great men who made a difference and dream of becoming like them someday. That dream begins to fade when we are faced with the actual hardships of life. The bottom line is, there is no easy road to success. Even the heroes we grew up reading about did not receive it on a platter.

You could be wondering then why not anyone who works hard become successful? There is not one but many reasons to why only a few out of millions get to know what success is. It appears that qualities of successful people have some characteristic traits in common, like they are all hard working, focused, competent, determined and try to achieve a workable goal. There could be more qualities that they have in common and it is probably the combination of these qualities that set them apart from the rest.

Although there are no set rules or definite patterns of behaviors for achieving success, there are a few simple practices that may help you get farther in life.

Here are 11 ways to achieve success :

1 . Build courage within

You can be a highly competent person, but what is the use if you do not realize it yourself? You need courage to take action and only actions can increase your confidence level. It is necessary to test your limits, to see what you are capable of and unless you muster the courage to take the first step you will not be moving forward.

2 . Develop social skills

In today’s world you need to have both the intellect and the social skills in order to grow. A study showed that social skills and cognitive abilities had no correlation with success in 1980, but today they do. You need to be smart and also popular at the same time to be successful in the 21 st century.

3 . Promote positive thinking

Successful people never doubt their intentions or their ability. Train yourself to think positive, to always expect the positive outcome. Positive thinking encourages action and only actions in the right direction can get you close to success.

4 . Learn from failures

Successful people learn from failures, be it someone else’s or their own. Failure is not the end but only a part of your journey towards success. You can learn to improve yourself only through failures. Failures are lessons and not disappointments and it has been seen that successful people see failure as an opportunity for growth.

“Every adversity, every failure, every heartache carries with it the seed of a greater or equal benefit.” – Napoleon Hill

5 . Streamline your thoughts

Always know what you want. You may want a lot of things at the same time but find out what is it that you want the most. Achieving it would mean success. It is important to first decide what your goal is and then work towards it so that you do not feel lost after you have already invested a great deal in it.

6 . Maintain your relationships

Let’s face it, you can get their alone. You need people to support you, to be there for you when you need and also to rejoice when you finally get there. So appreciate the help you are getting from the people around you and maintain your relationships with them. Having others around will make you happy and it is difficult to achieve success if you are not happy.

7 . Seek as much knowledge as possible

Knowledge and wisdom are the keys to success. Therefore, gather knowledge from wherever you can and wisdom through experience. You can also derive knowledge from conversations with other people. They may know things which you do not. You can also benefit from their experiences. Therefore, keep you mind open and learn as much as you can.

8 . Try to channelize your emotions

It is not that people who are successful have no emotion. But, they know how to compartmentalize. There will be a lot of ups and downs in life but you cannot let them affect your purpose. Learn to channelize negative emotions and stay focused, so that you can move on no matter what life throws at you.

9 . Always keep stretching your limits

In order to grow, you need to keep improving yourself. You cannot afford to have a fixed limit to what you do if you have a goal in mind. Try and extend your limits and you will be surprised by what you can actually do.

“Whatever I engage in, I must push inordinately.” – Andrew Carnegie

10 . Do it yourself

While it is true that you will need the support and cooperation of other people in order to succeed, try not to be too dependent on them for things you can do yourself. If there is something that needs to be done and it is within your capacity to do it, don’t wait for others.

11 . Have a plan but be flexible

If you know what your goal in life is it is easier to find a way to get there. But you need to chalk out a solid plan before you begin the journey. In case you have not prepared a well-grounded plan beforehand, there is a high possibility of stagnation after a certain point. However, it would also be unwise to remain too rigid on your plan. If you come across a better idea mid-way, changing your course will be the right thing to do.

It is only you who can decide whether you are truly successful or not. Success may mean something to you and something else to the person next to you. Success ultimately goes on to prove whether you are happy with yourself or not. If a simple, peaceful life makes you happy then you do not need to build empires to be successful. So, in order to be successful, find out first what success exactly means to you.

By: The Art Institutes Filed under: Animation & Effects

Being an animator is an incredible career, where you can have the opportunity to give life to images and ideas in fields as diverse as law, healthcare, film, education, television, and gaming. Read on to see what steps you’ll need to take to become an animator and how to break into this action-packed, exciting field.

1. Take animation courses or a degree program.
For most people, going to school is the first step for how to become an animator. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, multimedia artist and animator positions typically require a bachelor’s degree. Of course, what animation program you choose should depend on your individual career goals, prior education, and existing skills.

Your options include associate’s and bachelor’s degree programs as well as non-degree programs like certificate and diploma programs. Degree programs usually provide a broader education, moving from foundational to advanced courses, while non-degree programs narrow in on specific specialties and may require existing skills or prior knowledge of certain areas.

Either way, be sure to pick a program that gives you hands-on practice with industry technology and that is taught by people with experience in the field.

2. Dedicate yourself to developing your skills.
No matter how good your animation program is, your instructors can only teach you so much about how to become an animator. They can push you to achieve your best, but ultimately you have to put in the hard work.

On top of building foundational art skills and learning animation and editing software, you’ll also want to develop acting and observation skills. Doing so can help you understand body language and movements, so that you can recreate specific emotions and qualities in your characters. Teamwork is another big one. Animation projects require collaboration, and you’ll need practice being a good group member and managing feedback and critiques.

3. Create a stellar portfolio and demo reel.
Ask any industry professional how to become an animator, and they’ll tell you that having a standout portfolio is key. At The Art Institutes system of schools, building portfolio pieces is an essential part of the curriculum in our Media Arts & Animation programs.

For animators, it’s best to host your portfolio online, where you can have a section for a short demo reel and an area for longer work samples. Each piece you share should include a recap of the work you did and your project goals. Only share your best work, updating your portfolio and reel as you create new and stronger pieces. Don’t forget to include a contact section on your site as well as your resume and a brief overview of your background and interests.

For portfolio ideas, you can review online portfolios of other animators, or, if you’re in school, ask your Career Services team and instructors for feedback and advice.

4. Get a variety of work experience.
Secure internships and freelance jobs while you’re in school to gain experience outside the classroom. (Your Career Services team or your instructors may be able to help you connect with current industry professionals.)

Even after you graduate and find a full-time role, you’re more likely to start out in an entry level position than in a lead animator job. As you work to advance your career, you may still want to do select freelance work or volunteer for organizations you really care about. All of this experience can help you network with other professionals, build your skills, and continue to expand your portfolio. Remember, a large part of how to become an animator is putting in the time and effort to your own development and success!

Explore Animation Programs & Courses
Want to know more about how to become an animator? You can learn the skills you need in a Media Arts & Animation program at an Art Institute campus near you or in one of our online programs. Alternatively, if you’re passionate about animation in the context of game design, perhaps you’ll find what you’re looking for in our Game Art & Design programs. The best way to find out what’s right for you is to request more information or call 1-855-761-8239 to speak with our Admissions team today!

Learn more about our programs.

By: The Art Institutes Filed under: Animation & Effects

The Home Edit explains what skills you need to get a celebrity’s attention.

How to become a successful professional

How to become a successful professional

There’s something satisfying about walking into a well-organized pantry full of shelves lined with labeled baskets, matching jars, and color-coordinated canned goods. Sure, a trip to the Container Store or a scroll through Amazon’s most popular organizing products can help you turn a cluttered mess into an Insta-worthy space, but the easiest way to get the look you’re lusting over is hiring a professional organizer. And while it’s definitely a luxury to hire a pro to handle the job, a survey of 830 Good Housekeeping readers found that 52% people would hire a professional organizer for their home, given the opportunity.

To be clear, your friend who follows a few organizing profiles on Instagram (think: The Home Edit or NEAT Method) and likes to label things for fun is not a professional. There are, however, more than 3,500 members of the National Association of Productivity & Organizing Professionals who are. But if you think your before-and-after projects warrant a professional title, follow this guide on how to become a professional organizer, including tips and tricks from people who’ve done it themselves.

Many pro organizers, including Anna, a Thumbtack Pro and founder of Sorted by Anna, see if their passion is worth a career pivot with a provisional membership to NAPO. The educational membership, which costs $299, comes with three required online courses — basic organizing theory, how-to skills for hands-on organizing work, and review of NAPO’s code of ethics — as well as extra professional development options, like networking events and industry conferences.

But classes are just the beginning: If you’re trying to go pro, reach out to family and friends and ask if you can put your organizing skills to work. You never know where that experience can lead — for Anna, it propelled her business. After her friend posted pictures of her newly organized closet, a Facebook friend took notice and booked a session — and the rest is history.

During the early stages of launching a career as a pro organizer, there are several skills you can sharpen.

Know what kind of organizer you want to be.

Organizing isn’t one-size-fits-all: There are different methods depending on the space you’re working with. Jeffrey Phillip, a New York City-based organizer and interior designer, specializes in spaces that prioritize function and fashion. “Some people prefer to focus on corporate organizing, or even work on more technical projects with clients who are hoarders or have specific needs,” he says. Regardless of what organizing type interests you most, Phillip clarifies that all projects — no matter the size — are a puzzle of sorts. “It’s creative problem solving at its finest. You’re always trying to figure out how to make something better and what the new solution is.”

Take advantage of social media.

There are currently more than 2 million posts tagged with #organization on Instagram — and that number is growing by the second. The Home Edit, a professional organizing duo beloved by celebrities like Gwyneth Paltrow, Khloe Kardashian, and Reese Witherspoon, are part of the equation, and have 1.5 million Instagram followers of their own. While their rainbow-colored pantries are seemingly everywhere these days, social media domination was all a part of their strategy when they first started their business in 2015. “We wanted to make our work as Pinterest-worthy as possible, so we put an aesthetic spin on a functional practice,” Clea Shearer from The Home Edit explains. “In our early days, we offered our services to some celebrity contacts as a strictly promotional effort.” And it worked: When The Home Edit finished a project, they had their celebrity clients (ahem, Gwyneth) post a photo on their Instagram in exchange for the service, increasing their total follower count and client opportunities.

Lean into the emotional aspects of organizing.

While it may be easy for you to see someone else’s treasures as trash (sad but true), it’s important to remember that even your client’s cluttered drawers are full of sentiment. And even if you think you know your client well, you’ll discover even more about their life while digging through their belongings. “While going through things, try to understand their habits, body language, and routines and figure out how you can make a difference,” Phillip explains. “Sometimes, it requires reading between the lines to help clients get to their ultimate goal.”

Figure out your brand — and run with it.

Maybe you specialize in filling closets with floor-to-ceiling baskets. Or add clear acrylic bins to, well, every room possible. The Home Edit says that part of their success came from knowing the look that they wanted to achieve, and keeping it consistent from house to house. “We wanted a smart way to put our stamp on our work. Clea would hand label everything, but as we scaled, we had to work through a way to get our consistent labeling on different projects throughout the country,” Joanna Teplin from The Home Edit reflects. “We later turned Clea’s handwriting into a font, and now we have a signature aesthetic — literally.”

For can’t-miss news, expert beauty advice, genius home solutions, delicious recipes, and lots more, sign up for the Good Housekeeping newsletter.

  • How to become a successful professional
    1. All Episodes
    2. S2 E2. Aman Verjee: Being a Successful Parent & Professional

    S2 E2. Aman Verjee: Being a Successful Parent & Professional

    Aman Verjee is a father of two daughters, aged 11 & 8. Aman also leads a successful business life, as an early employee of PayPal working alongside Elon Musk and Peter Thiel. Listen in as Aman discusses how he has been able to attain a stellar track record of professional success whilst leading a successful & rewarding life as a parent.

    Aman discusses how he navigates being separated from his daughter’s mother and how they share the parenting. From deciding rules together, to knowing which pivotal conversations each parent should have with each daughter. Make sure you stay tuned to the end of the episode to hear how he expresses love with his daughters and how being a parent has allowed him to become a better professional.

    Here’s a glance at what you’ll learn from Aman in this episode:

    • How he balances his successful professional life whilst being a father of two
    • The joys of being present in parenting
    • Allowing your children to have agency whilst still setting boundaries
    • How his daughters have led him to become a better professional
    • Learning how to have pivotal conversations with daughters


    • 0:00 – Introduction
    • 0:30 – Who is Aman Verjee?
    • 2:00 – Exploring how to be present in your parenting
    • 5:20 – Welcoming Aman Verjee to the podcast
    • 6:20 – Aman’s story: Children, Profession and Relationship
    • 9:20 – What influences does Aman’s parenting take from his upbringing?
    • 12:15 – Why Aman sought independence and how he found his profession
    • 15:10 – Balancing being successful in business and parenting
    • 18:55 – Setting rules and boundaries whilst giving freedom to children
    • 24:00 – What were Aman’s fears in becoming a parent?
    • 28:25 – Dealing with uncomfortable conversations with children
    • 36:00 – How parenting styles differ per child and ensuring all children get the same amount of attention
    • 39:30 – Opening the door to expressing how you truly feel and saying I Love You
    • 44:50 – Aman’s approach to religion with his daughters
    • 51:10 – How has being a parent changed Aman
    • 55:15 – What does Aman believe his daughters appreciate about him most
    • 57:45 – Knowing what your good at and bad at as a parent

    In case you are like many people, you probably desire talk to older woman be the very best at anything you do. Being a girlfriend isn’t any various. You should be the best girlfriend on the planet. Well, you stumbled on the right spot because my goal is to coach you on tips accomplish that.

    It is not gonna be a fluff part telling you to give a lot more blow tasks — this is certainly will be an in-depth article with concrete, actionable items you can start implementing straight away to greatly boost your relationship.

    1. In place of Nagging, Compliment Him to impact Change

    His mother nags. Want to be his mother? Avoid saying things like “It bothers me whenever you leave all of your current dirty meals in the sink. Only clean the bathroom or put them into the dish washer!” As an alternative, decide to try things like “it might indicate the planet for me, and you will be the greatest date ever, if you’d often clean your dishes or place them inside the dish washer as opposed to the drain.”

    After that, as he does it, hug him passionately and state something such as “many thanks to clean your own meals! You are the sexiest guy lively.” Is it outrageous? Yes, but monitor what occurs. Anytime everything, simply tell him how happy it’s going to make you if he will it, value him as he does it, and watch what amount of things you’ll get him to-do. We name this concept “the Needed/Appreciated guideline.”

    2. Permit Him finish jobs By Himself

    Women thrive on feeling supported, while men thrive on acquiring situations completed. For example, if your own guy is depressed and sulking around the house, do not you will need to cheer him up through him have a good laugh, buying him a present, or carrying out things for him. While they’re great motions, they’re not going to achieve the purpose of obtaining him from their funk.

    As an alternative, brighten him to get things accomplished. Motivate him to accomplish his work, deliver emails, complete the report, go to the gym, play football, get see pals, and/or ask him to achieve tiny objectives at home (age.g., “could you take out the garbage or create me personally your famous pancakes i enjoy?”).

    When a man does jobs, he feels achieved, profitable, and more like a man. Any time you treat the guy like how you would address an upset girlfriend (encouraging the lady, comforting their, making the girl perhaps not feel by yourself, etc.), he’ll take away. He’ll you will need to get distant from you. Alternatively, simply tell him to go get material done and then he will pull himself out of their bad state of mind.

    3. Discover what Clothes He Finds gorgeous & Wear Them Occasionally

    Routine will get boring. In case you are travelling in sweatpants and an old T-shirt every single day, sooner or later he will get tired of that outfit. In the same way you will if he did a similar thing.

    But if you circumambulate in certain beautiful leggings and a top that displays off your own chest area, you may possibly ignite the attention of one’s man. This can be vitally important. The male is visual animals. When you provide your own guy many ways to consider yourself through various forms of clothes, he can preserve his sexual interest for your family. If you do not replace your clothing from time to time, possibly he will begin losing his intimate appeal individually.

    4. Be successful (95percent of Time)

    First, you should simply be in an union if you are happy with yourself. Next, how come getting happy 95per cent of the time so important? Guys are keen on women that are happy.

    How to become a successful professional

    Demonstrably, it really is OK getting some off days. But when a guy provides a female that is delighted most of the time without him doing something, then he can envision being able to keep her delighted for lifelong.

    No man will commit to an existence with a lady without having to be certain he is able to hold this lady delighted permanently. You possibly can make him particular with your life being truly delighted.

    To advance describe this, 95% of the joy should come from work, friends, household, activities, following the icing regarding dessert is the 5% of pleasure which comes from the lover. If you are using him as the icing about cake, he will feel just like it’s significantly more manageable to help keep you pleased forever.

    5. Accept Him

    Your man clips their fingernails in addition they fly all over the apartment and then he doesn’t wipe them clean right up. He chooses their nose, he farts, the guy performs games, in which he watches soccer every Sunday. However love him because he is lovely, cares about you, texts you sweet things every day, cooks you breakfast, writes you adore records, and brings house your chosen drink if you have a bad time.

    But let us get back to their poor habits. Exactly what are one to perform about them? Well, very first, re-read number one and two simply because they describe a technique. Many of these situations gets better with this specific strategy. However, a few things are only merely never ever browsing alter. Some guy is actually which they are. Hence, you need to decide whether these idiosyncrasies are one thing you can easily live with. If yes, you can’t nag him. You will need to fully take him for exactly who he is. The guy should feel at ease getting himself close to you. He doesn’t want simply to walk on eggshells near you.

    6. Teamwork helps make the desired Work

    A century back, there was a clear unit of labor. The man went to work and made money, together with girl managed your home. However, now the majority of people have two functions at work. It means women and men show the economic load and the duties throughout the house. Maybe he cooks morning meal and removes the scrap, even though you carry out meals while the washing. Maybe, you guys carry out the meals collectively.

    If you would like their help with situations, ask him for help. However, cannot ask him to cleanse the bathtub every Tuesday, eg. Its okay to inquire about him to cleanse the bathtub, but males dislike jobs that have no conclusion time. If he has got to do it every Tuesday, it’s going to appear daunting and never-ending. However, if weekly or more you ask him to clean the tub when, it will look a lot quicker then one he can achieve. And undoubtedly you are going to make him feel necessary weekly, and every week you can easily value him for cleaning the tub.

    You should not call it quits your requirements for their — Try to realize both & interact to produce your own union top it may be!

    Really, girls, there you may have it. Make use of these six guidelines and see your union get even better. I have also produced a companion movie to assist you be the best girl you may be:

    In addition, i understand i would’ve skipped several things, therefore for the remark part below, tell me just what you will do getting the partner.

    How to become a successful professional

    Many or all of the products featured here are from our partners who compensate us. This may influence which products we write about and where and how the product appears on a page. However, this does not influence our evaluations. Our opinions are our own. Here is a list of our partners and here’s how we make money.

    If you have a zest for life, enjoy helping others reach their full potential, and want to start your own business, you may want to consider learning how to become a life coach. The profession is becoming more and more mainstream. Over the past few years, you might have seen a Facebook page for a life coach promoting their services or noticed that your yoga instructor has taken on the role of a personal, spiritual, or professional advisor to some of your classmates.

    According to a study by the International Coach Federation, there are over 53,000 coach practitioners globally and over 17,000 in North America alone. Clearly, life coaching is resonating with clientele, and there is a real market for it. But what does becoming a life coach entail, and how do you know if you’re qualified to help change people’s lives?

    In this guide, we’ll provide you with seven crucial steps you’ll need to take before becoming a life coach, and the potential costs involved in the process.

    7 steps to becoming a life coach

    Although it may seem that learning how to become a life coach requires little more than stellar listening skills and outsized compassion, in reality, becoming a life coach is a business decision. Once you’ve decided that this is your calling, take at least the following seven steps to ensure your business and services are legitimate.

    1. Find your niche

    Before becoming a life coach, you might find it helpful to find your niche and build up your reputation from there. Most life coaches focus on people’s professional, personal, or romantic lives. Others drill down further and help them make changes regarding health, such as nutrition and exercise plans, or to uncover their spiritual side.

    Undoubtedly, as a life coach, you’ll touch on more than one of these areas regardless of your central focus. For instance, Plotline Leadership offers three distinct service lines—careers, specific projects, or personal stories—but Tim Toterhi, founder and life coach, says that there is certainly some overlap.

    “It’s almost impossible to talk to someone about their career without touching on other aspects of their life,” Toterhi says. “Maybe it’s a family-work life issue or it’s a leadership quality that’s holding them back.”

    Once you find your specialty—which will probably be obvious to you, based on your background and what you feel comfortable talking to clients about—you’ll be in a better position to market yourself and your business accordingly.

    2. Get a life coach certification

    Technically you don’t need to get a life coach certification to work as a life coach. Becoming a life coach is not like becoming a psychologist or a medical doctor, which by law requires years of intense training before you can practice. But according to the ICF study mentioned above, 89% of coach practitioners receive training that was accredited or approved by a professional coaching organization.

    While learning how to become a certified life coach isn’t required to launch your business, it can certainly be helpful and something much of your competition will have done. “When you’re a certified coach, you’re bound by an ethical guideline,” says Toterhi. “There’s a little more rigor to it. You know you have to get training every year, so there’s much more discipline with someone who brings that to the table as well.”

    But that isn’t to say that all successful life coaches are technically certified. “I know and have worked with coaches who have zero official certifications and regularly make six figures in a month,” says Chelsea Quint, a spiritual health and happiness coach. “It is a case-by-case basis.”

    For her part, Quint took a health coach-specialized training program with the Institute for Integrative Nutrition, which provides nutrition and diet education as well as business basics. She says that training and accreditation is just as important for the life coach as it is for the client.

    “I do think that it can be helpful internally to make you feel legit,” she says. “And it helps having some kind of base-level certification where you can hone your skills and start to figure out what areas you want to focus on.”

    How to become a certified life coach

    Whether you find your life coach certification course via Google or word of mouth, and whether it’s online or in-person, before you enroll, make sure that the course is credentialed by an association like the International Coach Federation, which sets industry standards for ethical coaching. You can use ICF’s Training Program Search Service to find a legitimate course that aligns with your life coaching goals.

    During your life coach training, you’ll learn fundamentals like active listening skills and creating a trusting environment for your clients. You’ll also learn the business of becoming a life coach and ethical concerns you may need to navigate during your practice. Becoming a certified life coach can be an intense process, and you’ll likely need to fulfill a certain amount of hours of training before you can earn your certification. Therefore, you’ll want to make sure you’re serious about becoming a life coach before you take on this workload.

    Note that most life coach certification programs will earn you a general credential. If you want to earn a certification in a specific aspect of life coaching, like the niche you’ve identified above—such as wellness, career, spirituality, or relationships—gear your search toward a specialty program.

    Then, of course, there’s the price to consider. Life coach certification courses are almost never free. In fact, becoming a certified life coach may cost you upwards of $5,000. That said, many of the accredited courses we’ve come across cost within the $1,000 to $3,000 range.

    Content Manager and Career Expert

    How to become a successful professional

    No matter where you work, it’s crucial that you always carry yourself with professionalism and grace in the workplace – especially considering how it can impact your chances of getting ahead in the company. Even if you work in a small startup with just two other employees professionalism is important – you don’t want a reputation of being the office slacker now, do you?

    Luckily, we’ve put together a list of 20 essential tips that includes office etiquette advice on how to be professional at work.

    1. Be respectful

    Even if you think your supervisor is a complete idiot who doesn’t deserve their position, you should avoid ever voicing your opinion in a professional environment. Badmouthing them will only make you look immature, is bad office etiquette, unprofessional, and maybe even a little jealous – which is something you don’t want to be perceived as.

    Remember to treat everyone equally, whether they’re the cleaner or the CEO. Likewise, respect all your company’s policies, even if you don’t agree with them – they’ve been put in place for a reason. So, even if you think that keeping your phone in your bag is completely ridiculous (especially in today’s digital age), you should still follow the rules.

    2. Dress for success

    Looking the part is half the battle when it comes to maintaining a professional image in the workplace. A good work outfit can make you feel more confident and ready for the day ahead – it’s kind of like putting on your suit of armour and riding into battle.

    In other words, make sure you’re always on top of your game by dressing for success. This means closely following your company’s dress code to a T. You could even dress a little smarter if you want to – of course, that doesn’t mean going overboard and rocking up to the office in a three-piece suit if you work in a casual startup, for example. That will make you stand out – but for all the wrong reasons!

    In Today’s Era, there are a lot of programming languages that will probably shape our future. However, when we start learning programming we start with the C language then move on to C++ or one of the many other programming languages. But today I am going to talk about the most popular programming language which is known as Java. The popularity of Java can be attributed to its versatility as it can be used to design customized applications that are light and fast and serve a variety of purposes.

    How to become a successful professional

    So much so that according to the TIOBE Index for April 2019, Java is the number one programming language. In fact, Java is used in almost every company, whether they be small companies or big tech giant companies like Google, Amazon, etc. So, becoming a Java Developer in today’s world can enhance your career very well! And that is why I am going to share the points on becoming a successful Java Developer:

    1. Master the Core Java SE

    First, start with Core Java(Java SE) and master it as much as possible. You should know and understand basic concepts like loops, arrays, operators and many more. Also, Java SE has a range of general-purpose API’s like java.lang,, java.math, etc. and you should have a basic knowledge of them at least. You should also start learning OOP’s concepts as they are well known in Java.

    2. Keep Practising Java

    Whatever you learn in Core Java, just keep practicing it so that you can write the syntax without any basic errors. Also, it is easy to provide a solution to a problem in theory but the challenge lies in practically implementing the approach as you will understand the language limitations and best design practices. So keep coding and practising Java as much as possible and also try to make mini projects on whatever topic you learn.

    3. Learn Java EE

    After Finishing Core Java Start learning Java EE(Enterprise Edition) which is also known as Advanced Java. When you start learning Java EE you are able to work on web development as Java EE has specifications for additional features like distributed computing and web services. This includes technologies like Servlet, WebSocket, Java Server Faces, etc. for web specifications.

    4. Make Projects With Servlets and JSP

    Whatever you learn in Java EE just combine it with Front End technologies such as HTML, CSS, Javascript and try to make mini projects on specific topics as it will sharpen your mind. Also, it is important that you make atleast two projects, one with Servlet and second with JSP. This is because without making projects on these you will never be sure about how much you know in this programming language.

    5. Learn Hibernate and Spring Frameworks

    When you complete both Java SE and Java EE then you must learn Java Frameworks which include the Hibernate Framework and Spring Framework. These are the most popular frameworks of Java. In fact, most Java Development Companies these days use Spring frameworks such as Spring Boot, Spring MVC, and Spring Cloud for developing a web application, etc. Hibernate framework is also very popular for mapping a domain object-oriented model to a relational database and also the Hibernate Query Language. So if you know these frameworks and you can make projects on these then you will have a great chance of getting selected for the role of a Java Developer in any company.

    Being great developer isn’t just about being an expert coder. You have to know your business, work well in a team, and look to solve business problems.

    Join the DZone community and get the full member experience.

    Programming is a field where interest is not enough to succeed. You have to be passionate, but also constantly learning more and more about programming. Simply being interested in programming isn’t enough to succeed – we work like mad.

    Programming is a profession with no limits, so to become a successful programmer you have to think beyond the limits you’ve been told exist. In the starting stages of a programmer’s career, they’ll face many challenges and some of them will give up, and only a very few will see the struggle through, do the hard work, and become a master in their field.

    Steps to Becoming a Successful Programmer

    1. Willingness to Learn New Technologies

    What we have learned and implemented can quickly become obsolete as technology is always changing. So, as a programmer, you just have to update your skills accordingly and stay up to date. When a new technology comes on the market, it’s typically made up of a few process and syntax changes, but the logic is the same so you can grasp it very fast.

    2. Debugging Skills

    Programmers create code, but when the software does not work as expected, the programmer should be able to root out the problem quickly and effectively.

    So, instead of making changes to all your code, make a proper flow document while creating your program so that you can investigate your code very quickly and find the issue as soon as possible. By making a proper document, you can debug your program quickly without wasting much time.

    3. Problem-Solving Skills

    When an average programmer gets a project/module, they just start coding. But successful programmers try to find the root of the problem that their code is addressing and inform their team leader or project leader. Because sometimes after a project requirement is documented and the project is started, or even after it’s completed, we get some issue in the project. So find the issue before it arises.

    Also, find a way to solve the issue very quickly.

    4. Passion for the Work

    Your job time may be nine to five but when you have a passion for doing the job, don’t just walk away when the workday is over. Work until your work is done. I don’t mean to say that if you are not getting the solution then you should sit around frustrated the whole day, but if you’re getting close, then just complete it.

    Your manager or the higher-ups will appreciate your work, and when you find a good environment your passion will increase.

    Also, don’t just sit around when there is no work. Try to build some new application like a game, puzzle, chatting app, etc., which will help to make you more passionate about your work.

    5. Grace Under Fire

    Programming can be a stressful profession due to tight deadlines. And then there are those times we can’t seem to get anything working. A poor programmer just freezes up and stops working. But a great programmer handles the stressful situation calmly and just keeps on working.

    6. Laziness. I Mean Efficiency!

    When there are a lot of tasks and time is running out to complete your project, then only the lazy programmer will find the better and quickest solution for completing the project because he knows very well how to work less and do more.

    If you want to find the best way to do something then just ask the lazy person; chances are the lazy person will find the best, quickest, and most efficient way to do it because the lazy person always tries to find a more efficient way.

    7. Ability to Handle Failure

    As a programmer, you will rarely have success on the first try, so failure is almost a certainty. So take this as a challenge rather than as a sign of defeat. Having patience and persistence is very important to having success in programming.

    8. Willingness to Research

    A programming language is just part of the picture. A good and successful programmer always tries to make code which works for their employers and helps to solve business problems. And, sometimes, this requires you to do a little digging.

    9. Teamwork Mentality

    As you are a developer, you always work with a team because with the help of team members like the designers, business staff, analysts, and sales staff you can achieve your desired results very effectively.

    You will never meet your goals until you work with the team.

    10. A Business Perspective

    It is easy to work as a programmer in an IT company, but the ideal programmer always focuses on business goals. This allows you to move beyond just working on application ideas that get handed down from on high. Only a business focused programmer can suggest ideas for a new project that may improve efficiency and operations.

    Let me know in the comments which point motivates you to become a successful programmer and if you enjoyed this article share it on social media so that every programmer can get the tips for becoming a success in their career.

    Published at DZone with permission of Pankaj Maurya . See the original article here.

    Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own.

    7 Strategies to Build A Successful Career

    How to become a successful professional

    Having a successful career will offer you a lot of benefits and real profitable opportunities. As we live in a world governed by social status and money, working your way up to the top will definitely improve your quality of life. There are many possible reasons for which an individual would desire success.

    I guess one of the reasons is that maybe by being successful in your professional life makes you feel better among other people. It offers you a feeling of security and accomplishment. Many people who went from zero to a successful career have reported that their lives were improved in almost all the aspects.

    There are certain habits and activities that successful people from all over the world do. The best way of approaching success is by following and figuring out what are the strategies that professionals use, and model them according to your needs.

    The follwoing seven working strategies will give you enough boosts to improve your career.

    1. Identify with Your Goals

    Before even considering following a career route, you must get to know yourself. A big majority of people go through life by following a well-established pattern. The sad part is, they don’t even like what they do or they just don’t really realize how many other things they could do.

    In order to avoid this awful happening, you need to identify what are your biggest rational wishes. Then, start going deeper and make an in-depth introspection in which you should think about the connection between your inner desires and your rational goals.

    They have to match. Otherwise, you will not be truly fulfilled with your professional life. Identifying with your goals takes some time and effort, but it is a truly important process in any successful person’s journey.

    2. Build a Professional Resume

    Your resume is basically your way of saying “I’m good at this, good at that, and I can help by doing this and that”. Well, that is why you should create a professional, neat resume.

    By taking care of this aspect, you are making sure that you’ll never be caught off guard. Opportunities are everywhere, and you should always be ready with a quality resume. I believe that letting professionals deal with your resume is a productive choice.

    There are some amazing services like Careers Booster or VisualCV that can take care of your problem. They can help you to create a classic or an impressive visual resume.

    3. Become Aware of Your Strengths

    Awareness is an essential key to personal improvement. By being aware of your inner thoughts, your strengths, your desires, and your disadvantages, you can adapt your life to whatever conditions you’re being put through. You’ll also get many benefits as you can leverage your knowledge and wisdom for the best purposes.

    It’s better if you choose your long term profession according to what you know about yourself. Are you a patient person? Would you be able to sit eight to twelve hours in an office working on a computer? Or you’d rather be a football coach because you’re truly passionate about football and you believe you could be an efficient trainer?

    No matter your strengths and disadvantages, you should choose a career path that advantages your traits and qualities.

    4. Assume Full Responsibility for Your Life

    One difference between mediocre and successful professionals: responsibility. Even though you know the concept, you may not apply it every day. Whenever something bad happens, you need to assume it.

    Even if you haven’t done anything wrong, being there, the previous choices you’ve made (like trusting someone), these are still all factors which have been influenced by your thoughts and actions.

    Start assuming responsibility for all of your actions and never blame anyone for your mistakes. That’s the worst thing someone can do. Do not take things personally, and be calm.

    5. Always Raise Your Standards

    Here’s another critical factor which differentiates the successful from the non-successful. Your standards influence the way you think, believe, and behave. If your standards are high, you’ll never be satisfied with less than you can accomplish. People with high standards are most of the times more successful than the average.

    Every two or three months take a moment to reflect upon your standards and values. Try to improve them bit by bit up until you realize that you’ve become the best version of yourself.

    6. Brand Yourself

    Branding is very important nowadays. Big companies are spending hundreds of millions in order to establish themselves as the “big dogs” in the marketplace. It is an old business strategy used by almost every professional company. Your branding is your image in the marketplace.

    Professional employees should brand their names and services and constantly improve it. You can do that by starting a blog, creating a professional social media profile, or simply by providing awesome services.

    7. Network — A LOT

    Networking is all about opportunities and connections. When you meet new people, you basically get a chance to use their skills to your advantage. Of course, you must also give back something: your services, your knowledge, your money. Successful people always network and create those life-lasting profitable relationships.

    Start by creating social media profiles on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook. These three specific networks are the best choices when it comes to this type of activity. You’ll find lots of opportunities and career choices along the way.

    LinkedIn, for example, is filled with business professionals that are branding their companies and also networking in the same time. Twitter is also very used in these matters, and Facebook. Facebook is good for everything, including networking.


    Building a successful career takes time, effort, and patience. If you’re willing to sacrifice some free time and you’re willing to get out of your comfort zone, you will succeed. It’s not that hard, honestly. It just takes courage and commitment to follow everything that you’ve targeted.

    Eva Wislow is a career coach and professional writer from Pittsburgh. She is a regular contributor on several well-known recruiting and careers resources. Eva enjoys helping people challenge themselves and achieve their career goals.

    How to become a successful professional

    A dancer is the person who performs the dancing art of dancing. Dancers are in fashion, and never lose their job as once learned, this art can make you grow rapidly. Dancers and choreographers are always in demand and dancing can be taken both as a profession as well as passion and In order to become a dancer, you need to follow some simple steps that I am mentioning in this article.

    How to become a successful professional

    How to Become a Good and Professional Dancer

    1. Start Learning At Home and Work Out on Your Moves:-

    In order to become a professional dancer, the first thing that you will need to learn is to start learning at home. You can learn by watching out television actors and actresses and then learn to work out on your moves and steps that you make. The better you make moves, the better your dance gets.

    2. Learn from A Dance Guru:-

    You can manage to agree some person in your knowledge, who knows awesome dance steps to be your dance guru and train you for dancing. You can start working on your steps under his surveillance and then bring about a betterment of yourself in a better way. It is better if he is someone amongst your relatives as you will feel comfortable with a relative in the starting.

    3. Choreographer Modification:-

    You can also manage to hire up some choreographer for dance classes from him. Choreographers know various dance forms and thus can teach you dancing in a better and professional way. Rest is just to keep on practicing for the betterment of yourself and you can even manage to make some steps of your own. You can manage to learn classical as well as hip hop as well as mixed or Bollywood or even the other dance forms in the starting and then keep on adding new dance forms to your abilities afterwards.

    4. Theme Based Dancing And Various Other Dance Forms:-

    Obviously, if you are to get professional, you need to know all the dance forms, including theme based dancing and various other dance forms as well. You should have the knowledge of dance forms like Salsa and belly dance, etc. as these are the most popular dance forms. The more you have knowledge of these dance forms, the more professional you get.

    5. Get Trained Properly:-

    Besides getting knowledge of these dance forms, you should also make yourself trained properly in practicing the steps of these type of dances. Somebody has rightly said that practice makes a man perfect and thus keep on practicing till you don’t learn it professionally.

    6. Take Part In Dance Shows And Open Up Your Own Institute:-

    When you learn dancing in a professional way, you are advised to start taking part in various dance shows and contests etc. so as to get competitive. The more you face challenges, the better the dancer, hidden in you gets improved. Do everything that polishes the hidden dancer in you and let yourself be exposed to television as well as media. Let people know that you are a good dancer and then you can open up a dance institute of your own.

    How to become a successful professionalAround 5.5 million existing homes were sold last year. From creating eye-catching listings and hosting welcoming open houses, realtors are a crucial part of the process.

    While selling homes can be a rewarding career, it can be difficult getting ahead in the industry.

    Looking for the special something to help you reach and surpass your selling goals? Read below for seven tips on how to become a successful realtor!

    1. Partner Up

    Remember, you don’t need to do everything alone. You will jive with some buyers and not others. Maybe you aren’t experienced in something specific they’re looking for?

    In these situations, don’t avoid working with them. Instead, find someone who can help them easier than you can. Splitting a potential commision is much better than zero commision.

    Other professionals may also have ideas on staging homes for quick sales. You might prefer clean and modern lines, but your colleagues may be able to offer pointers on other in-demand styles.

    2. How to Become a Successful Realtor: Open Houses

    Homes get sold when they’re viewed. There is no way around this!

    The good thing is that you don’t need to spend much money to make open houses happen. And you’ll get several leads from them.

    If you don’t feel confident in your home showing skills, don’t worry. There are tons of resources providing advice for realtors.

    3. Work on Your Online Presence

    It can be tempting to put very little attention and money into your website, but that’s a huge mistake. Ensuring you have a functioning and attractive website for potential customers to visit will increase your success.

    Using professional web designers is one way to ensure SEO is taken care of.

    4. Keep Past Clients in Mind

    Once you sell a home, don’t forget those clients! Maintain a positive relationship with them and they’ll likely contact you if they decide to sell or buy again.

    They’ll also be more likely to recommend your services to friends and families. Past happy clients can be a significant boost to your marketing and outreach efforts.

    5. Focus on Relationships

    Potential homebuyers are often cautious. Many tread lightly due to horror stories caused by mistakes in the buying process. To convince them to buy from you, put effort into gaining their trust.

    Always focus on open communication and work to answer any question that arises.

    6. Get Publicity

    You may be the most personable realtor in your town, but you don’t get any business because nobody knows about you. If this is your situation, hire a publicist to get your name out there.

    7. Think Ahead

    One final tip to becoming a successful realtor is learning how to effectively manage your time. You can’t be passive.

    Strive to understand the market trends and anticipate the needs.

    Start Your Journey to House Selling Sucess

    Follow these tips and you’ll be well on your way to your next big home sale. You now know how to become a successful realtor and nothing else is in your way!

    Looking for other ways to increase your success as a realtor? Check out these cheap but effective advertising ideas!

    When you start out day trading or swing trading, or if you want to get into it, you may wonder how long it takes to become a successful trader. Establishing realistic expectations is important. If you think you’ll get rich in a few weeks you’re setting yourself up for disappointment. Yet, it shouldn’t take years of training before you see some cash flow either.

    Below are various scenarios for how long it takes to become a successful trader, based on variables such as how much time you put in, capital investment, whether you are day or swing trading, and whether you choose to learn from your mistakes.

    Below you’ll see:

    • The failure rate of traders who came to work for a day trading firm I traded at for five years. Can’t talk about success without failure.
    • How long it took me, and many of my trading friends, to develop consistency (in various markets). This is the time requirement.
    • The capital requirements for being a successful trader (achieving your monthly goal).
    • How we did it…through learning and practice.
    • Can consistency last?

    Not sure if you want to trade on your own or for a day trading firm? See How to Get Started in Day Trading and How to Become a Day Trader for some guidance.

    How Long It Takes to Become a Successful Trader – Odds of Success

    Before addressing how long it takes to become a successful trader, first consider the odds of success. This topic was covered in What’s the Day Trading Success Rate? The Thorough Answer. Here’s the quick rundown from that article: the success rate for short-term traders, who are male, is about 3.5%. In other words, about 3 to 4 out of 100 men who attempt it will be able to make a consistent income from it. With a very motivated student and mentor, the odds of success creep up to about 10%. That’s the aggregate percent–the probability of a particular trader being successful varies widely.

    Women have a much higher success rate, as fewer women tend to get into trading and the ones that do are quite serious about it. Hopefully, more women start taking up trading, as they naturally seem more suited to it. The primary reason is that women tend to listen more and follow reasonable instructions, whereas most men’s egos get in the way of following sound trading advice. Also, men tend to gamble, whereas women prefer to create plans. Having a plan while trading is very important.

    Time Investment

    Assuming you’ll be one of the profitable ones, it’ll likely take six months to a year–trading/practicing every day–until you are consistent enough to pull a regular income from the market. If you make money in the first couple months it’s likely pure luck.

    When I started day trading stocks in 2005 it took me four months before I had a profitable month (day trading, everyday). I had small losses in the prior three months of full-time day trading.

    After that, the profits continued every month for the next 4 years. That’s when I decided to focus on forex. Mainly because I needed a bit of a change. Even though I knew how to day trade stocks it took about 4 to 5 months of hard practice before I become consistent in forex trading (see 5 Step Plan for Forex Trading Success).

    In 2013, I started day trading S&P 500 E-minis futures. I learned an entirely new approach to trading, taught by The Day Trading Academy. With their help, I learned that method and practiced it over the course of several months. I traded E-minis for a couple of years, but missed trading stocks and forex.

    I have switched markets several times in my career, and each time it has taken me at least several months to adapt and attain consistency in the new market. Switching markets is not something I recommend. Better to stick with one and get good at it. That said, sometimes a bit of change is good. And most trading knowledge is transferable to other markets, so it takes less time to learn a new market once you have mastered one.

    My point is that if it takes a successful trader several months to start generating consistent profits in a new market, it will likely take a new trader at least 6 months, and likely 12 months, in order to start generating income.

    While after 6 months to a year you may find some consistency, whether you can live off your profits, or replace your income, is a different story. That’s discussed in the next section.

    Here are some additional notes on the time investment required by me, and my trading friends, to become successful:

    • Expect to put in 6 to 12 months before you develop enough consistency to see a profit for the month. If you reach that point, from what I’ve seen those monthly profits are likely to continue. From all the traders who came to the firm, it took most between 6 months to a year before they saw profitability, which then sustained itself into the future.
    • When learning a new market, put in at least several hours a day. If you are only putting in an hour a day, it could take you longer to become profitable. This doesn’t mean you have to trade all day! On the contrary, now I only day trade for two hours (or less), and swing trading only takes about 20 minutes a day. But at the beginning, you need to practice trading. And when you aren’t practicing actually placing trades, you are looking at charts, studying tendencies, testing strategies, and working on your mental game. Working two hours a day is the end result; at the beginning, you need to put in more time than that if you want to be consistently profitable within several months.
    • If you take a couple weeks off from trading, it could take a couple days to get your feel for the market again. If you take a few months off, it could take a few days or weeks to regain your edge. If you take a year off, expect to spend a couple weeks to a couple months getting yourself back to where you were before you took the break. The more time off the longer it will likely take to get yourself back to former glory.

    Capital Investment

    To me, being a successful trader simply means you can make an income from trading. The dollar or percentage figure you make each month isn’t really a concern. If you want to make $2000/$5000/$10,000/$50,000 a month–or whatever your goal is–and you do, that’s a successful trader. You’re making a living. Once consistent, trading doesn’t take up much time, so you’re free to do other things…and should!

    Whether you can make a living is not only based on consistency but on capital. You can make a great return each month, and do it consistently, but if you only have $100 in a forex account, making 30% a month isn’t going to give you an income, unless you can live off $30 per month. Over time it will grow, and may eventually produce an income, but that will take time and patience.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Happy Tuesday, friends!! I hope you’re having a great start to the new week!!

    Today, Tara and I are each sharing a quick and easy summer craft. I put together a simple trellis for my new Mandevilla plant.

    It has been a cold and rainy all day, so I brought this project inside.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    What you’ll need:

    twine and/or ribbon

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Start by planting your plant in your container, using a good potting soil mix.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Insert four bamboo stakes into the soil, around the edges of the planter.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Using twine/ribbon, tie the four stakes together, wrap the twine around and around the top of the stakes to secure.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Once the stakes were secured together, I started wrapping the Mandevilla vines up around the stakes. Mandevilla likes to climb, which is why it decide to add the trellis. This was such a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to build a sweet little trellis. I love it!!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I also added a couple silk ribbons to the top, because why not!! I love adding little snippets of ribbon/lace wherever I can! I cant wait to put this outside, in my yard, to watch it grow and thrive throughout the summer months! Yay for summer and all the summer flowers!!

    BY: Jane PUBLISHED: 17 Mar, ’16 UPDATED: 29 Mar, ’16 13 Comments

    We have been having the most glorious spring weather here at the Crossroads for the past two weeks, and we have gotten outside and built these wooden pyramid shaped trellises for the garden.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    You see, each year we like to change things up in the garden and during this past winter, I had a vision of putting pots of flowers and/or small trellises in each raised bed. Making these trellises was a family affair since Leo’s brother Jim and his wife came over and with their help, we were able to construct 6 of these trellises in one day.

    If you remember, we made four 8 foot tall DIY WOODEN GARDEN OBELISKS two years ago, and we based our design for these smaller wooden trellises on those. Here is a list of supplies that you’ll need to build one of these smaller trellises.

    • Two 8 foot pieces of 1 ½” x 1 ½” slats
    • Three 8 foot pieces of 1″ x 1 ½” slats
    • small box of 1 ⅝” drywall screws
    • miter saw
    • drill
    • quart of wood stain
    • staple gun

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    It’s a good idea to prestain all of your wood before cutting and assembling, and after you put your trellis together, you can go back and touch up. Here Jean is staining the first trellis that we built to use as our prototype. Please keep in mind that none of us would ever profess to be professional carpenters, and since these obelisks are, after all, for the garden, we weren’t too concerned with creating a perfect structure since flowering vines will be covering any obvious flaws.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    It’s a good idea to go ahead and precut all of your individual pieces before assembling. Start by cutting the two 1 ½” x 1 ½” slats into two 4 foot pieces which will give you the four legs of your trellis.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    To create the cross pieces, you’ll need four 12 inch pieces from long point to long point cut from the 1′ x 1 ½” slats. Set your miter saw at a 45 degree angle in one direction and make the cut, and then set the saw at 45 degrees and miter the opposite end of the cross piece so that the ends will fit together.

    Then you’ll need to repeat the same step to create the next set of cross pieces but cut them 8 ½ inches long.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Finally, you’ll need four 5 ½ inch pieces to make the top piece.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    To make it much easier to work with, we preassembled the top portion using a staple gun. Now keep in mind, a professional carpenter would design and build a finial for the top but we purposely made the top square in order to put a birdhouse or other ornamental fixture on the top.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    To avoid splitting the wooden pieces when inserting the screws, it’s a good idea to predrill your holes about 1 ½” from each end. Be sure to use a drill bit smaller than the screw!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    OK, now you’re ready to put it together. Lay 2 of the legs on a flat surface as seen in the photo above. Measure 18 inches from the bottom of each leg and screw the first 12 inch cross piece onto the legs. Measure 18 inches up on both legs and screw in the 8 ½’ cross piece.

    Set that piece aside and repeat the process using the other two legs.

    It’s going to take two people to do the next step. Stand up both sets of legs and slide the square top onto the top of the trellis and insert screws to attach the top to the legs. Use a little caution here because the trellis is very unstable until you attach the remaining slats on the other two slides which is your next step.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    After Leo and Jim made the first prototype, I suggested that we cut two additional 30″ pieces from the 1′ x 1 ½” slats to add additional decorative supports onto which vines could climb. We only added them onto two sides as you can see in the photo above, but you can customize the trellises any way that you wish.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Since we didn’t use treated wood to make the trellises, we stained them using this solid wood stain by Olympic that we had left over from staining the picket fence panels that we put at the ends of our FREESTANDING DECK IN THE GARDEN that we built last year.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I’m sorry that I cannot give you the exact color that we used because the label on the can has faded but it is such a pretty color.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    So pretty that I decided to stain some terracotta pots with the amount I had left over from painting the trellises! Remember my original vision that I had of having pots and trellises in the raised beds?

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    It’s coming true thanks to Jim and Jean’s help in getting these wooden pyramid shaped trellises made for the garden!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    And look how cute this rusty watering can looks on the top on one of the trellises. I can’t wait to get some flowering vines planted underneath these wooden pyramid shaped trellises in the garden! Hurry spring!

    Posted on June 3, 2021

    As I learn more about planting flowers, the more I realize the need for a garden trellis or Obelisk for upright plants. I’m also learning new words for all these contraptions and how expensive they are to purchase.

    Today I’m sharing How to Build a Wooden Garden Trellis or Free Standing Obelisk Pyramid, using a reclaimed porch railing that was discarded after a recent porch update. These easy, step by step instructions, will keep your new plants vertical and off the ground. I began looking for a some inexpensive ways to build a trellis or free standing obelisk and finding some reclaimed wood was the perfect solution.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    (Posts on The Ponds Farmhouse may contain affiliate links. You can see the full disclosure details here.)

    First, I love the look of a garden obelisk filled with tomatoes or a climbing vine. One of my favorite blogger friends, Jennifer at Cottage on Bunker Hill recently share a tutorial on gardening projects. After seeing her easy tutorial, I shared with my husband the need to make some obelisk for our garden. The cost of lumber was our number one concern. So we started looking through our discarded wood supply and found an old porch railing that had recently been removed. The wooden spindles were the perfect size to use on the obelisk.

    Warning: This is a rustic version of Jennifer’s beautiful Obelisk. You can see her design here.

    What is it called?

    There are so many terms when searching for instructions to build a support for climbing plants. There are a few that I am familiar with such as trellis, obelisk, vertical and garden towers. A trellis can be free standing or anchored into the ground. Most obelisk are usually free standing, pyramid shaped and are often called Eiffel Towers as well. All can be constructed from various materials such as wood, plastic, and metals like iron, aluminum, etc. I have found that regardless of the name or material, they all do the same thing. They hold up your plants.

    Supplies for Wooden Garden Trellis

    When you are using reclaimed materials, your options may be limited. Here are the dimensions that we were able to work with based on the wood dimensions that were available for free.

    • 2 x 4 lumber 44 inches long
    • square porch spindles
    • wood screws

    How to salvage reclaimed wood for Garden Obelisk

    The porch railing was still attached with screws and therefore, we were able to salvage the wood, as well as the screws, to build the garden obelisk. Although the railing had been abandoned in a trash pile, it was still salvageable, because it was built from treated lumber.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Once all the wood is gathered, it’s important to remove any nails or screws before cutting the boards to size.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Next, split the 2 x 4 boards in half using a table saw. If the spindles had been a longer length, they could have been used instead of splitting the wider boards. However, you have to be flexible when working with reclaimed materials.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Now it’s time to cut each spindle to the desired size. Here are the dimensions we used.

    • Cut 4 spindles at 19 inches each – cut on a 45 degree angle using a miter saw
    • Using a thinner piece of molding, we cut 4 pieces at 14 inches each
    • Then 4 more spindles at 9 inches each – cut on a 45 degree angle

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Finally, drill a pilot hole in the 45 degree angle cut with a cordless drill. Using the original screw holes where it was feasible, helped to reduce the construction time.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to Assemble the Garden Trellis

    Now that all the reclaimed wood has been cut to size, it’s time to assemble the garden trellis or obelisk pyramid tower. This is how we built our garden trellis.

    Begin by measuring and marking the location of each spindle on the split 2 x 4 post. I placed a spindle mark at 7 inches from the top and bottom of the post. Then another directly in the center of those two.

    Lay two boards flat and attach the spindles to the post at each marking, using wood screws. Then repeat on the remaining two posts.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Once the two sides are secure, attach them to each other using the remaining spindles. Be sure to attached them at the same height as before.

    In addition, another option is to attach a top for the obelisk tower. We used a piece of treated siding and drilled a hole in the center to allow for a solar light.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I originally added a simple solar light from The Dollar Tree. However, the results were less than thrilling. Therefore, I added a terra cotta clay pot to hold the solar light. It isn’t permanently attached, so it may be changed once I check into some other options.

    I also used these same solar lights on How to Repurpose a Chandelier.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    This spring the raised garden bed was added using a trashed iron bed as the base. You can see the details on How to Build a Cheap Raised Garden Bed and you might like 3 Reasons to Plant Lilacs also.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Here you can see that the aged wood looks new where it is freshly cut. This will age quickly to match. The garden trellis or obelisk tower can also be painted to dress it up for the garden.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    The finished Free Standing Obelisk PYraMID Tower

    The garden obelisk pyramid tower fits perfectly into the raised garden bed. The free materials give it a primitive rustic feel but with a little paint, you will never know the wood was reclaimed.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    The rustic garden obelisk actually works well with our country setting and will hopefully create a vertical garden. I hope you enjoyed How to Build a Garden Trellis and that you found the instructions helpful and inspiring.

    Trellis Free woodworking plans and projects instructions. Build a DIY trellis garden project over the weekend. Also, plans for trellis project plans you can buy, accesories for garden trellis and others like pergolas, gazebos and related information.

    This is a cutting diagram only, for the garden trellis that appears in the Workbench Magazine Issue 308. Project size is 40-1/4 x 16 inches. Additional patterns include lady bug salamander (gecko), dragonfly.

    This is a link to a Google 3D SketchUp drawing for Swedish garden trellis. Decorative metal straps at the corners of the base, and a metal crown, help to hold the piece together. You will need the SketchUp software to download this drawing and its freely available online. We do not provide support for this software. Not all drawings have the measurements displayed but you can use the measurement tool in SketchUp to easily and accurately determine the dimensions of each lumber part. Most drawings do not have instructions, its assumed you can build it based on the completed drawing provided.

    Build a planter box with trellis for your yard using the free step-by-step woodworking plans at the link. Also included are diagrams, shopping list and cut list.

    This planter box with trellis is compact and can be made using wood from your scrap pile and the free step-by-step plans available at the link. there is a video as well of the build.

    Display your plants indoors or out by building this trellis column plant stand. Here are the free instructions.

    This is a link to a Google 3D SketchUp drawing for a wooden trellis shade structure. You will need the SketchUp software to download this drawing and its freely available online. We do not provide support for this software. Not all drawings have the measurements displayed but you can use the measurement tool in SketchUp to easily and accurately determine the dimensions of each lumber part. Most drawings do not have instructions, its assumed you can build it based on the completed drawing provided.

    Build a planter box with attached trellis for climbing plants using these free plans.

    This is a link to a Google 3D SketchUp drawing for a simple garden planter with trellis. You will need the SketchUp software to download this drawing and its freely available online. We do not provide support for this software. Not all drawings have the measurements displayed but you can use the measurement tool in SketchUp to easily and accurately determine the dimensions of each lumber part. Most drawings do not have instructions, its assumed you can build it based on the completed drawing provided.

    It is getting close to spring and time to start planting all those beautiful annuals. We love sweet peas and clematis and this trellis will show them off in grand style. We made our trellis really tall. You can adjust all the dimensions down if you want a shorter trellis.

    This is a link to a Google 3D SketchUp drawing for a chair trellis plant stand. You will need the SketchUp software to download this drawing and its freely available online. We do not provide support for this software. Not all drawings have the measurements displayed but you can use the measurement tool in SketchUp to easily and accurately determine the dimensions of each lumber part. Most drawings do not have instructions, its assumed you can build it based on the completed drawing provided.

    Today I’m sharing How to Build a Wooden Garden Trellis or Free Standing Obelisk Pyramid, using a reclaimed porch railing that was discarded after a recent porch update. These easy, step by step instructions, will keep your new plants vertical and off the ground. I began looking for a some inexpensive ways to build a trellis or free standing obelisk and finding some reclaimed wood was the perfect solution.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Supplies for Wooden Garden Trellis

    When you are using reclaimed materials, your options may be limited. Here are the dimensions that we were able to work with based on the wood dimensions that were available for free.

    • 2 x 4 lumber 44 inches long
    • square porch spindles
    • wood screws

    How to salvage reclaimed wood for Garden Obelisk

    The porch railing was still attached with screws and therefore, we were able to salvage the wood, as well as the screws, to build the garden obelisk. Although the railing had been abandoned in a trash pile, it was still salvageable, because it was built from treated lumber.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Once all the wood is gathered, it’s important to remove any nails or screws before cutting the boards to size.

    Published on August 15, 2018 Last updated October 9, 2021 ♛ By Melissa J. Will

    Garden obelisks are tall structures with pyramid tops used as garden decor and plant supports. These photos come from home gardens and show a variety of DIY structures from rustic to classic.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Garden Obelisk Ideas

    These ideas come from my own garden as well as gardens I have visited. Some of the photos are quite old (as you’ll see) but the ideas are worth sharing.

    There are many variations of obelisks. The common denominator is, they are all structures with some legs (usually four) with a wide base and a narrow top. Classic obelisks often have some sort of sphere at the top, but, really, anything goes, as you’ll see below.

    I you want to make your own, see this tutorial:
    How to Make a Garden Obelisk from Wood.

    1 Blue Wood Obelisk

    This is my obelisk. Instead of creating a pyramid top, I cut off the corner posts and created an area for a flower pot or garden art.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I covered the sides of my obelisk with chicken wire to accommodate the tendrils of the watermelon vine. It’s a nice, strong structure for a heavy plant like this. I’ll add some nylon stockings to support the fruit as it grows.

    If you’d like to make one like this, I’ve shown how I built it here: Garden Obelisk Tutorial.

    2 Basic Garden Obelisk

    A design like this one is a good starter project. The top of the obelisk is a prefab fence post cap. The orange paint makes the whole thing sing in the garden. You can see the gardener has added twine for the bean vines to grab onto as they grow.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    25 Garden Art Projects & Ideas
    by Melissa J. Will

    Grab the top garden art DIY projects and tips from Empress of Dirt

    This ebook is a digital file you save to your device (not a physical product).

    $6.99 US | PayPal, Credit Card, Apple Pay
    PDF Format | About Ebook

    3 Classic Plain Obelisk

    It’s worth a trip to a home improvement store to find the right top to your obelisk. Look for turned wood handles, orbs, and fence post tops.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Notice how they’ve added a few vertical bars to the basic obelisk structure. The chicken wire at the bottom is probably there to stop animals from nibbling the vine.

    If you want to purchase on obelisk, you’re probably better off shopping in-person at a good garden nursery, but I did find a few on Amazon:

    If you get one by mail-order, check the height! I’ve noticed they look tall in the photos but can actually be quite small.

    4 Garden Tool Obelisk

    I don’t know if you can really call this an obelisk but I’m pretty sure the Garden Police are off-duty today so, why not?

    This is a fun idea for old garden tools:

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I have a few old tools that work so well, I swear they may last for hundreds of years. And those that have earned their retirement make great plant supports and garden art.

    5 Obelisks on Flower Planters

    This is a good idea: make companion planters to fit the base of your obelisks. Here, they hung hanging baskets from the obelisks. Climbing vines would also look great, of course.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    6 Turquoise Wood Obelisk

    This was in the same garden as the orange obelisk (above). You could make a bunch and paint them various colors, or pick a theme color and repeat it. Endless possibilities. All in the name of having fun getting crafty outdoors.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    7 Rustic Star Obelisk

    I love this one. I photographed it at a garden nursery. It’s rustic and lovely. There are four main posts (probably cedar) and simple criss-crossed twigs all the way up.

    See how they put a simple round disk of wood at the top? That’s an easy finish idea. Top it with whatever you like: star, birdhouse, orb, watering can….

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    8 Wide Base Obelisk

    This one is a bit different. The base of the obelisk is a cube with a traditional obelisk structure on top. Great idea if you want to place it over a large plant in the garden. I’d be tempted to put one over a peony that tends to sprawl and would benefit from some support.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    9 Peeling Blue Obelisk

    I took this photo many years ago. It’s got that familiar over-exposed look! This obelisk looks like it was make from hardwood and painted blue. The paint has almost all peeled away but the structure remains. Perfect for those of us who love a weathered patina.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    10 Veggie Garden Obelisks

    Again, obelisk may not be the right word for these, but it’s the same idea. As a fallen branch hoarder, I love any idea like this for repurposing tree branches in the garden. These ones will support peas and beans behind the onion patch.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    11 Trellis Obelisk

    Here’s another one that makes use of shrub or tree twigs or slim branches. This one is more like a trellis, but you could also build it with four main legs (each one made from several pieces) like an obelisk.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    12 Classic White Obelisk

    Here’s another classic one. In this design, the four legs meet at the top, coming to a slender point, with a spire on top.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I hope you’ve found some ideas for your garden. Whether you buy one or make one, obelisks look great in just about any growing space.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I want to make a pyramid out of hardboard and want to know what angle the joints will be. The base of the pyramid will be square. I am thinking it will be a 45 degree cut on 4 triangular pieces. Is this right? Thanks for any guidance. Also each side is 10″ long and it is 8″ high. Thanks for any help. -Jay


    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Assuming your triangles sides are all the same length. each angle of the triangle would be 60 degrees. ie. 180 degrees in a triangle..

    Edited 3/28/2004 9:20 pm ET by BG

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I need to know the miter angle of the side piece edges, where the joint will be, I,m not concerned about the corner angle. I hope I am being clear. Thanks for the input though.

    Knowledge is power, but only if applied in a timely fashion.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    On a slightly different page at the site given by goldhiller, there is a calculator for exactly this sort of problem:

    (The page he gave is the explanation of how this works.)

    Just enter the number of sides (4), the base length (10), and the height (8), and it tells you to tilt the blade to 36.84 degrees to miter the edges. You will get the right angle for your triangular sides with the miter gauge set to 62.08 degrees. (That would be the corner angle you don’t really need.) If you want to make the bottom edges sit flat on a table, it also tells you to tilt the blade to 32.01 degrees for that.

    This is weird, I just finished up trying this exact problem, if you are asking about the angles and bevels to make a 45 degree pyramid try these,set the bevel / tilt to 30 degrees and set the miter at 35.5 degrees, this will give you a 45 degree slope on 4 sides. Of course I know now that trying to find those EXACT marks is not easy , but then nothing is ! This worked for me but it seems that the length of the base was dependent on the capacity of my miter saw to cut the width of board , does that make any sense? I suppose if you use a table saw then it will not matter

    Edited 3/29/2004 3:20 pm ET by maddog

    This forum post is now archived. Commenting has been disabled

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    Metal garden pyramid trellis

    Metal garden pyramid trellis

    Simple techniques transform plumbing pipes into functional garden structures

    I appreciate the cool shade of the towering fir trees in my suburban Portland garden, but my flowers don’t. The roses sprawl toward the east in search of morning sun, and the delphiniums lean longingly toward the light. To support my wandering climbers, I wanted a trellis that would be decorative in both summer and winter. I searched without success through catalogs and nurseries for carefree, long-lasting structures until, finally, I saw what I wanted in a local garden—a simple, but handsome, freestanding, copper trellis.

    Copper appealed to me because it is so decorative. After a season in the elements, its bright color weathers to a deep, warm brown that blends nicely into the garden. As the years pass, oxidation slowly burnishes the brown to a soft, muted green.

    To plan my trellis, I sketched a sample, and used bamboo to build a model. Then I moved on to using copper, and with help from my brother, Terry, I built a trellis large enough—about 20 inches square and 4 feet high—to train a mature rosebush. That was just the start. Now I’m hooked on making copper garden structures. I have several different trellises, an arbor, and lots of ideas. The techniques I learned while building the trellis can be used to create just about anything. But it all started with this simple, basic structure.

    Copper is easy to work with, too. A few simple tools—including a pipe cutter and soldering torch—are all it takes. Using soft, easily bendable copper tubing to make curves, assorted lengths of pipe for straight sections, and T-shaped and 90-degree elbow fittings to join pipes together, building a garden structure is as easy as playing with Tinkertoys. My first trellis took just about three hours to build. The materials are inexpensive, too—my homemade trellis cost about $30, excluding tools.

    Cut the copper pipe to length

    The first step is getting the materials ready, and that means using a pipe cutter to cut the copper pipes to size. Place the pipe between the tool’s cutting wheel and its rollers, so that the cutting wheel hits the pipe where it should be cut. Turn the set screw to put pressure on the pipe. Keep the pressure gentle—too much can crush or crimp the pipe. Rotate the cutter around the pipe twice. This first cut scores the copper. Tighten the set screw a little more, and rotate the cutter twice around the pipe again. Repeat until the pipe has been cut through.

    Bend and cut the curves

    For the curves, I use copper refrigerator coil instead of standard plumbing pipe. It’s softer and bends more easily. It comes in a roll, and I simply uncoil some, measure along the curve and cut off 17 inches. With soft tubing, it’s even more important to make the cuts gently. Don’t straighten out the tubing while measuring or cutting; it may crimp or dent. Once I’ve cut the piece to length, I bend it gently to a shape that is almost a quarter circle. Then I cut and bend three other pieces to match it.

    Clean and flux the pipes

    After cutting the pipes, I use a nylon or metal cleaning pad to scour away any oxide from the ends of the pipe. Clean at least an inch at each end.

    Then, I don a pair of latex or rubber gloves and set up in a well-ventilated, bright work space to avoid fumes from the solder and flux. Brush a thin coat of soldering flux-a substance that helps create stronger bonds when soldering most metals-onto the end of any pipe that is to fit into a T-shaped, elbow-shaped, or other fitting. That means 12 inch of fluxing both ends of most pipes.

    Assemble the base

    I start at the bottom of the trellis, fitting the top end of the four longest pipes into a T-shaped fitting. They should fit neatly. I connect shorter, upright pieces to the opposite side of the fitting, creating a pole about 38 inches long, with the T fitting near the middle and an 18-inch, horizontal bar to link two of the poles into H-shaped assemblies. I place reducer-T fittings at the top corners, and connect the two pieces with the second pair of 18-inch, horizontal crossbars. To help align all the pieces, I mark a 20-inch square on the garage floor, and use it as a guide for the base of the trellis. Use the diagram on the facing page to guide assembly.

    Add the domed top

    Because the square top is composed of so many short lengths of pipe joined with so many fittings, it’s easier to work on this piece separately on a flat surface. To make the top, I flux the ends of each pipe and assemble four identical pieces, each with two 3-inch lengths of pipe joined by a T fitting in the middle. Then, using the elbow-shaped fittings, I join the four straight pieces into a square. The stem of each T fitting should face out in order to connect to the four curved pieces that link the square to the rest of the structure (see the drawing at right). The other end of the curved piece fits onto the small opening of the reducer T fittings on the base. I don’t worry about making the dome perfect at this point.

    Solder from the bottom up

    I usually turn the soldering over to my brother, Terry. He’s an expert. I’ve done enough, though, to know soldering takes practice. I also know this project is very forgiving, and that it is easy to wipe off excess soft solder with a damp, cotton cloth.

    Wearing his safety glasses, Terry works from the bottom of the trellis up, squaring or straightening each joint before applying solder. When the joint looks good, he uncoils an 8-inch length of solder; this keeps his hands away from hot pipes and the torch flame.

    Then he lights the propane torch and starts heating the area he wants to solder. He moves the torch back and forth evenly across the fitting, never aiming it directly at a joint—it’s too easy to burn off the flux. Flux is essential to a good bond, so if he does burn it away, he lets the joint cool, cleans the parts again with the scouring pad, reapplies the flux, and tries again.

    When the flux starts to bubble, the temperature is just about right. He gives it a little more heat, then touches the solder to the joint; it melts on contact and flows smoothly into place. Any excess is wiped away. Pipes should always be handled with care—they can be very hot, even a foot or two from the fitting. The trick is to work slowly until you get the feel for it. It isn’t necessary to make the joints watertight.

    Square off the dome

    Once the upright and horizontal pieces have been soldered, adjust the curved pieces and the square top. Check by eye to make sure the curved pieces are arranged symmetrically and that the square top is parallel with the ground. After we adjust all the pieces, Terry solders the dome joint by joint, checking to make sure that unsoldered pieces have not shifted. Once he’s finished, I use a stiff wire brush to clean any excess solder and flux off the joints.

    I like to let the copper age naturally. But if you cannot wait for the verdigris finish to appear, a faux verdigris paint will give it an aged look.

    Move the finished trellis to the garden

    Copper structures are easily installed in the garden. I take a 3-foot length of rebar and drive it 18 inches into the ground, then slip the copper pipe over the rebar. That’s all there is to it. There’s no need to pound in a piece of rebar for each of the four legs; two lengths of rebar fitted to two legs of the trellis should easily hold the structure in place.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Sharing is caring!

    Tuteur is the french word for “trainer”, as in a place for vines, climbing roses, green beans etc. to grow on.

    You may be more familiar with words like obelisk, teepee, trellis, tower and pyramid.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    This post contains affiliate links to products we know and love. Click here to read a full disclosure.

    At any rate, I wanted to share a fun project that my husband and I did together last summer. I saved the information for you because I thought it would make a good springtime post and an even more fantastic mother’s day gift idea!

    We built three tutuers for our green beans to grow on and they are just stunning in the middle of a garden.

    And get this- each one only costs $25.00 worth of wood and 90 minutes to make!

    So, if you love this idea, put a bug in someone’s ear to make you one- or three– for mother’s day!

    Supplies Needed

    • Purchased Finial
      • sometimes you can find these on Craigslist, too
    • Square TOP Piece to put the finial on
      • you can buy a piece like this in the fence building section of a hardware store or cut 5 1/2″ piece of a 2 x 6, which will give you a 5 1/2″ by 5 1/2″ by 1 1/2″ thick block for the finial to sit on. We routered the top edge with a 1/4″ bit to give it a finished look.
    • 8 Pieces of Wood 2″x 2″x 8′
    • 2 Pieces of Wood 1″x 2″x 8′
    • Level
    • Drill
    • 2 1/2 Deck Screws
    • Wood Glue
    • 16 Gauge Nail Gun and Galvanized Finish Nails
    • Compound Miter Saw

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    DIY French Tuteur Tutorial

    For Vertical Supports-

    • Cut each 8′ 1″x2″ in half and saw off all eight ends to make a point. These do not need to be exact, they are only for decoration.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    For Legs-

    • Take four of the 8′ 2″ x 2″ and cut off 1 foot to make four pieces that are 7′ long
    • Set the saw for a 7 degree bevel, 7 degree miter
    • One at a time, cut one end of each leg, then SLIDE, DO NOT ROLL, the leg to trim the other end off. See the pic below.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    For Cross Member-

    • Set the saw for 7 degree bevel, 45 degree miter
    • Take the remaining 2″ x 2″ x 8′ s and cut using this method- cut the right end, roll 180 degrees (i.e. roll towards you twice), slide to the right, cut the left end
    • Measure along the top side, which is the shortest side
    • Cut four 10″ pieces, four 15″ pieces, four 20″ pieces and four 25″ pieces

    How to build a pyramid trellis


    • Fit the cross members into four frames and nail with the nail gun

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    • Mark the outside edges of the four legs at 16″ from the bottom, this mark will show you where to place the bottom frame
    • Mark the three largest frames in the middle of each side so you will know where to attach the vertical supports
    • Mark the half way point on each vertical support
    • Mark the square top piece with a cross hair so you have four quadrants. Now draw 2 additional lines, 1 1/2″ on either side of each vertical and horizontal line.
    • Drill a pilot hole just inside each corner of the square that has formed from the lines and also a hole directly in the center for the finial.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    • Attach the upper end of each leg with a screw and wood glue. Fitting them into the drawn squares and turning them until each angle is lined up perfectly level on the square piece and the floor
    • Now, one by one, slide each frame down over the “teepee” frame you have created, starting by aligning the largest frame at the pencil mark you have drawn. The top of the frame should hit the pencil mark. Screw into place.
    • Continue adding the other three frames, largest to the smallest. Use the level to keep everything level and screw each frame into place as you go.
    • Align the vertical supports on the marks at the centers of the bottom three frames, screw into place
    • Finally, decide if you want to paint or stain them, we just left ours natural and they turned gray with time.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    If you are on Instagram and you do make one or some of these tuteurs, please tag me and I will share you on my account!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I hope you get a chance to make these beautiful, functional focal points for your yard or garden,

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    but if you aren’t able to make them yourself, here are a few similar items from different stores.

    And if you haven’t heard . . . we have a winner for the Gardening Giveaway!

    Mary Kaiser

    and thank you to everyone who entered the drawing,

    I loved, loved, LOVED reading your comments and all your enthusiasm!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Garden trellis panels and frames are ideal for vines and creepers. If you are growing sweet peas, beans, grapes, peas or tomatoes, the bamboo trellis will prove useful. In fact, the garden plants that need support to grow will benefit will not be disappointed.

    You can build bamboo trellis to any shape because the sticks are strong and bendable. So if you want to build a garden trellis, the first thing is to make the panels. You can either make a single panel or multiple panels and combine them into a frame.

    What you will need

    You will need a pair of secateurs or garden loppers, handsaw, garden ropes, cable ties and bamboo sticks. If you do not grow the running or clumping bamboos, you can purchase the sticks from a DIY shop or source them online.

    Below are steps for building three different kinds of garden trellis: slender arch, a-framed, pyramid and square trellis.

    Slim-arched Trellis

    Making an arch wall trellis using Fishpole Bamboo

    An arch trellis is ideal for narrow walls and small gardens. Small creeper plants will also love the slender-slim bamboo trellis.

    To make it, you will need two tall bamboo sticks (link) and plenty of short ones, a pair of secateurs and garden ropes or small cable ties.

    • Firstly, tie the tips of the two sticks together.
    • Secondly, bend the sticks to form an arch-shape. (You can adjust the length and width to your liking).
    • Then, tie the short bamboo sticks horizontally and vertically – the closer the better. (You can also do this diagonally).
    • Finally cut off any uneven edges sticking out.

    That’s it. Your slim-arch trellis is ready to use!

    Sweet pea garden trellis

    Bamboo pot trellis: (L) Sweet pea in full summer bloom and (R) the sweet pea and trellis support in winter.

    Sweet peas love the pyramid-like trellis with three sides. If you are growing them in a large pot or in the garden, you should build this trellis. It looks more or less like a wigwam, but the better because the bamboo sticks will cross-cross close together to form an adorable pattern.

    The sweet pea garden trellis will have 3 side panels, when combined they’ll form a pyramidal structure. That means that you will have to make three separate trellis panels and put them together.

    As a side note, you can build more than three panels (in this case they’ll be squares) and put them together, side-by-side.

    You will need bamboo sticks, garden ropes, cable ties, a handsaw and a pair of secateurs.

    Here is how to build it

    • Firstly, cut 6 lots of bamboos in equal lengths of 4m. (These bamboos will form the sides of the trellis panels).
    • Secondly, you’ll make three trellis bamboo panels, use 2 bamboos you cut earlier and tie some small bamboo sticks in a triangular shape.
    • Thirdly, repeat the same step until you’ve made 3 triangular trellis panels.
    • Then, use cable ties or garden ropes to tie the 3 trellis panels together to form a pyramid structure.
    • Finally, cut out the uneven edges and tidy them up.

    That’s it, your Sweet Pea Garden Trellis is ready to use. Grow the sweet pea seeds or of the new plant underneath and around the trellis. They will look lovely!

    A-framed trellis panels

    (L) Making A-frame trellis for runner beans, (R) new runner beans climbing up.

    This kind of trellis is best for runner beans and other creeper plants that rely on need staking. You have the option to build two trellis panels assemble them or build the A-framed structure in the garden.

    For a 4m x 4m A-framed trellis, you’ll need 21 bamboo sticks.

    To build it, follow these steps:

    • Firstly, stake 6 sticks on each side to form an A-shape. (The best way to start is to make the front, middle and back As – we call them the 3As)
    • Secondly, tie a long bamboo or bamboos across the top of the 3As. (This is the length of the A-framed trellis panel).
    • Thirdly, put the other bamboo stick in between the spaces and tie them together. You will have to space them apart according to the number of plants you want to grow.
    • Then, tie 3 or 4 bamboo across (or diagonally) to strengthen the trellis panel.
    • Finally, your A-framed bamboo trellis is ready.

    Your runner beans are going to adore the A-framed trellis.

    Note that if you are going to build a trellis for planting the runner beans, you may have to stake them 20cm to 30cm apart. That means that you will need additional sticks, where necessary.

    Square trellis panels

    Square trellis provides good support for creeper plants.

    The square trellis is not only a multi-purpose trellis but makes a nice centrepiece for the garden. You can grow flowers, soft fruit, vines and vegetables such as cucumbers to grapes and passion fruit.

    To build a 4m x 4m square trellis with two opened ends and three closed ends, you’ll need 35 small bamboo sticks and 4 treated posts. You’ll also need hand tools.

    Here is the material breakdown:

    • 4 treated posts 4m in length,
    • 8 sticks on each side (x2 panels),
    • 8 for the top panel,
    • 10 sticks for strengthening the sides and top panels, and
    • 1 extra.

    And, here are the quick steps to guide you when building the trellis.

    • Firstly, use the first lot of 8 sticks to build the first panel.
    • Secondly, repeat the 3 steps to build the other – you should have three 4m x 4m trellis panels.
    • Thirdly, dig the soil and lay the 4 treated posts at each corner.
    • Next, tie the three panels to the posts.
    • Then, strengthen the trellis by tying bamboo sticks across the frame (or diagonally along it)
    • Finally, your square trellis is ready.

    The square trellis is a stunner – a great garden centrepiece.

    The treated posts give this trellis longevity. It can last for up to 10 years or more. After that, you can replace the bamboo trellis panels and give them a new look.

    Your plants are going to love it.

    Bamboos are durable

    Bamboos are not only stunning garden plants, they are also an eco-friendly and durable.

    We hope this article inspires you to create a beautiful bamboo hanging wall planter.

    Please, let us know what you think about this project or tell us about your latest project. We would love to hear from you.

    Pyramid trellises are an often underutilized element in garden and landscape design. In this article, we’ll explain how these unique and relatively inexpensive trellis designs can add a visual punch to your yard.

    Pyramid trellises, also sometimes referred to as obelisks, make awesome focal points in a garden or landscape design. Available in a multitude of styles, sizes, and colors, choosing one that’s right for your yard can be difficult. In this article, we’ll explore today’s options in pyramid trellis designs and some of their many uses in the garden.

    Pyramid trellises, as the name would suggest, are typically pyramid shaped, though they can vary a lot in height and width. Most commonly, they are tall, thin structures that rise up above the rest of the garden, adding a vertical element to an otherwise mostly horizontal plane. One great way to help draw the eye upward with an obelisk is to use it as a support structure for a climbing plant. Vines such as ivy, honeysuckle, clematis, morning glory, or sweet pea will all grow up a pyramid trellis without any problem. Simply plant the vine where you want it in the garden and carefully position the pyramid trellis over the top, making sure to secure the structure to the ground. Remember that as the foliage grows up the obelisk, it will catch wind more easily, making it susceptible to blowing over in a strong wind storm. Some obelisks are tall enough that part of their base can be buried in the ground. If this is not the case, find a way to stake it securely.

    Another alternative for someone who likes the idea of a pyramid trellis but doesn’t have a lot of garden space is to position it over a planter box. Measure the base of your trellis, both width and length, and then seek out a planter box that has slightly larger dimensions. Plant a climbing vine or flower in the planter, position the trellis over the top, and you’ve got an instant eye-catching addition to your deck or patio. Some pyramid trellises can even be purchased with special planter bases, specifically designed to fit together, saving you the time and trouble of finding two disparate pieces that will work with each other.

    Pyramid trellises are commonly constructed of wood and often feature adornments such as metal cap pieces or other decorative elements attached to the structure. The reason for this is that some people don’t want to allow a climbing vine to overtake the trellis; instead, they prefer to let the obelisk stand on its own, adding an architectural element to the garden. If you are building or buying a wood obelisk, be sure to consider the type of wood used. Redwoods such as cedar are the best option because they are naturally weather and pest resistant. Cheaper woods like pine tend to break down and decay quickly in the outdoor elements.

    Other good material choices include plastic and metal. Again, it’s important to know the specific type of material you’re buying. With plastics, look for high quality vinyl products that contain a UV inhibitor. This will prevent the material from discoloring or fading in the sunlight. The primary advantage of a vinyl trellis is that it won’t require any maintenance such as painting or staining to look good, and you’ll never have to worry about it decaying, splintering, rotting, or drawing wood-boring insects. If you’re shopping for a metal obelisk, steer clear of iron or steel, unless you like the look of red rust. Both these metals will rust very quickly outdoors, and eventually the red rust can seep into the soil, poisoning nearby plants. Copper is a common choice because it weathers with a unique patina over time. Aluminum is a great option if you don’t want the appearance of the trellis to change. Aluminum will not rust and it’s lightweight and extremely durable.

    No matter what size or style you choose, adding a pyramid trellis to your garden or landscape is a great decision. They are far less expensive than an arbor or pergola, yet they still add visual interest and beauty to your yard. If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to create a focal point in your garden, look no further than a pyramid trellis.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Happy Tuesday, friends!! I hope you’re having a great start to the new week!!

    Today, Tara and I are each sharing a quick and easy summer craft. I put together a simple trellis for my new Mandevilla plant.

    It has been a cold and rainy all day, so I brought this project inside.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    What you’ll need:

    twine and/or ribbon

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Start by planting your plant in your container, using a good potting soil mix.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Insert four bamboo stakes into the soil, around the edges of the planter.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Using twine/ribbon, tie the four stakes together, wrap the twine around and around the top of the stakes to secure.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Once the stakes were secured together, I started wrapping the Mandevilla vines up around the stakes. Mandevilla likes to climb, which is why it decide to add the trellis. This was such a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to build a sweet little trellis. I love it!!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    I also added a couple silk ribbons to the top, because why not!! I love adding little snippets of ribbon/lace wherever I can! I cant wait to put this outside, in my yard, to watch it grow and thrive throughout the summer months! Yay for summer and all the summer flowers!!

    Let’s hop over and see what Tara is sharing today! simply click on the picture below….

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Thank you so much for stopping by today!! I appreciate you all.

    This article was co-authored by Benjamin Hansen. Benjamin Hansen is a Landscape Contractor and the Owner of Artscape Gardens, a boutique landscaping company in Los Angeles, California. With over 12 years of experience, Benjamin specializes in transforming properties into aesthetic, functional, and drought-tolerant oases. Benjamin uses color scheme, dimension, and water conscious spaces to inspire the design and installation of soft scape, hardscape, patios, pathways, irrigation, drainage, fencing, concrete, lighting, and electrical work. Artscape Gardens covers all areas of the C-27 landscape contractor classification.

    There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

    wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 87% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

    This article has been viewed 76,797 times.

    A pergola is an open outdoor structure that is made up of wooden posts and has a trussed roof. To build a pergola you’ll need to prepare and measure a space in your yard before laying down the foundation posts. Once a strong foundation is in place, you’ll finish the project by constructing the roof. With the right materials and forethought, you can build a sturdy pergola that can add some style to your yard’s decor and can create a shaded area where you can relax and socialize.

    Thereof, how do you grow a clematis up an obelisk?

    Add some slow-release balanced fertiliser. If planting in a container plant up some smaller containers and place around the clematis so that the sun doesn’t hit the side of its pot. If growing in a container provide an obelisk or a wigwam of canes or rustic poles for the plant to scramble up.

    Likewise, how do you make a metal obelisk? A simple, metal obelisk can easily be created using galvanised garden wire and metal rods. Create an interesting shape by bending the rods and securing them in place with the wire. The structure can be as big as you like, although a minimum of about 1m high is best for the most lightweight climbers.

    One may also ask, what is a garden obelisk?

    Garden obelisks are tall structures with pyramid tops used as garden decor and plant supports. These photos come from home gardens and show a variety of DIY structures from rustic to classic. For more ideas, also see 10 Outstanding Vertical Garden Ideas and the Arbors, Trellis, and Obelisk Idea Gallery.

    How do you secure a garden obelisk?

    Garden Obelisk Just put the obelisk over the rose, and secure the obelisk with pegs or spikes in the ground and tie the rose’s branches to it. This is relatively easy to set up but it is important to make sure the obelisk is safely secured to the ground so that strong winds will not blow it over.

    This step by step diy project is about pyramid trellis plans. Building pyramid trellis will add a distinctive touch to your backyard at a low cost. The best part of this project is that any person with basic skills can get the job done in a professional manner. Follow the instructions with great care and pay attention to the tips, if you want to prevent costly mistakes.

    There are a few things that you should know before starting the actual project. As you can see in the image, we recommend you to invest in quality materials, such as pine, cedar or redwood. Always take accurate measurements and use a good saw to cut the components at the right size. Assemble the components together and always drill pilot holes before inserting the screws, to prevent the wood form splitting. See all my Premium Plans HERE.

    Projects made from these plans

    [tabs tab1=”Materials” tab2=”Tools” tab3=”Time” tab4=”Related”]

    [tab >

    • A – 4 pieces of 2×2 lumber – 83 1/2” long LEGS
    • B – 1 piece of wooden post cap POST CAP
    • C – 1×2 lumber – both ends cut at 6 degrees SUPPORTS
    • D – 8 pieces of 1×2 lumber – 57″ long, 4 pieces of 1×2 lumber – 28 1/2″ long SLATS
    • 2 1/2″ screws
    • 1 1/4″ screws
    • wood stain
    • wood filler
    • wood glue

    How to build a pyramid trellisOne weekend

    Building a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Building pyramid trellis

    Top Tip: Building a pyramid trellis is a beautiful project, as it represents a simple way of adding value and charm to your garden. As you will see in this article, you just have to invest in quality materials and use proper tools.

    Pyramid Trellis Plans

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Building the frame

    The first step of the project is to build the two sides of the pyramid trellis. As you can notice in the image, you need to build the frame of the trellis from 2×2 lumber. Cut the ends of the components at 6 degrees, using a good circular saw.

    Lock the components together at the top with 2 1/2″ galvanized screws. Drill pilot holes trough the components and insert galvanized screws. Build another A-frame, in the same manner described previously.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Assembling the frame

    Assemble the both sides of the pyramid trellis as in the image. Lean the both sides of the A-frames at 6 degrees and lock them with galvanized screws.

    Top Tip: Align everything with great care, if you want to get a professional result.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Attaching the supports

    The next step of the woodworking project is to attach the braces to the pyramid frame. Work with great care, making sure you level the braces with a spirit level, before locking them to the legs with wooden screws.

    Leave about 12″ between the braces or adjust these aspects to suit your needs. You need to take accurate measurements before fitting the components into place, otherwise the ends result might not meet your expectations.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Attaching the slats

    One of the last steps of the project is to attach the rest of the components to the supports. As you can see in the image, we recommend you to attach 1×2 slats to the supports, making sure you place them equally spaced.

    Top Tip: Drill pilot holes trough the slats before locking them into place, to prevent the wood from splitting. Add waterproof glue to the joints, if you want to add rigidity to the structure.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Fitting the post cap

    Attach a post cap to the top of the pyramid trellis, if you want to enhance the look of your woodworking project.

    Top Tip: You could choose any design that suits your needs, so let your imagination and creativity to add a personal touch to the project.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Pyramid trellis plans

    Last but not least, you have to take care of the finishing touches. Therefore, fill the holes and the cracks with wood filler and let it dry out for several hours, before sanding the surface with 120-grit sandpaper.

    Top Tip: Protect the wooden components from rot by applying several coats of paint. Choose colors that match the design of the rest of your property, as to enhance the look of the octagon table.

    This woodworking project was about garden trellis plans. If you want to see more outdoor plans, we recommend you to check out the rest of our step by step projects.

    Related To:

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Pyramid Trellis in Vegetable Garden

    A pyramid trellis gives structure and support to climbing vegetables like beans.

    Photo by: Shutterstock/Arina P Habich

    Shutterstock/Arina P Habich

    Q: I have a very small garden and think that trellises might be a great way to grow more vegetables like cucumbers and beans in a small space. But I have no idea how to plot out trellises or what crops grow best on them. Can you help?

    Yes! Trellises and other vertical support structures are a great way to maximize growing space in a small garden. When you can’t go sideways, go up! They have other wonderful benefits, too. They provide more exposure to sunlight and better air circulation around the plant, which can prevent disease later in the season. They also lift fruit up off of the ground where they are less likely to rot or be within easy reach of pests. The neatness a trellis provides also makes it a lot easier to find the fruit once it develops, rather than becoming lost in a sea of tangled vegetation.

    Above and beyond that, I like trellises for the aesthetic appeal they provide. I use mine as visual anchors, positioning them at key spots that help lead the eye through the garden. For that reason I try to situate the most beautiful edible vines—‘Scarlet Runner’ beans, colorful peas and melons with beautiful foliage—in the foreground where they will be seen.

    Anything that grows as a vertical vine is a good candidate for trellising. Cucumbers, melons, peas and climbing beans have already been mentioned. Vining squash plants are also excellent candidates, although heavy fruit, especially pumpkins, will require some kind of sling to help bear their weight. Kiwi fruit, vining tomatoes, hops, Malabar spinach and a few other lesser-known oddities are also worth growing in this manner.

    While you can build hard-core, permanent support structures for the garden, I think it’s worth trying your hand with a few easily-built, temporary trellises that only last a year. I prefer these as they allow you to try something new next season. Most take no longer than an hour to set up and you can be as slapdash or as fanciful with them as you like.

    The following are a few of my favorites:

    The Pyramid

    This is the most basic structure and one of the sturdiest. Three or more stakes (I prefer bamboo) are set into the ground on an angle in a triangle, diamond or circular pattern all leaning towards each other in the center. Secure with heavy twine.

    The Rustic Obelisk

    This is my favorite for climbing peas and beans as its rustic charm creates a really nice focal point in the garden, even when the plants are small. Construct a tripod shape as above using multiple tree branches. Weave long, thin branches in and out around the lower portion (called wattling). It looks great and it also creates stability as well as horizontal supports that the young plants can reach for. You can do another portion in the middle and again at the top for added interest and support.

    The A-Frame

    Push two thick stakes into the ground at an angle so that they meet and cross at the top. Lash together using wire or heavy cording. Repeat a few feet away. Set a horizontal railing between the two cross bars at the top of the trellis and lash together. Add more vertical crosspieces to support the center if you are making a very wide trellis. Cover the entire thing in netting if you are using it to grow cucumbers or squashes. Their little tendrils will eagerly grab onto the thin netting.

    Trellising Tip: Pound all stakes as deeply into the ground as you can for extra stability. What seems sturdy now might not be once it is bearing the weight of heavy fruit and foliage against strong late-season winds.

    Etsy предоставляет возможность прямой связи покупателей и продавцов со всего мира. Когда вы используете сервисы Etsy (мы будем называть, Pattern by Etsy, наши мобильные приложения и другие сервисы нашими «Сервисами»), вы несете ответственность за соблюдение этой политики, независимо от вашего местоположения.

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    Как транснациональная компания из США, ведущая деятельность в других странах, Etsy должна соблюдать экономические санкции и торговые ограничения, включая введенные Управлением по контролю за иностранными активами (OFAC) Министерства финансов США. Это означает, что Etsy или кто-либо, пользующийся нашими Сервисами, не может участвовать в транзакциях, в которые вовлечены определенные люди, места или изделия из этих мест, указанные государственными органами, такими как OFAC, в дополнение к торговым санкциям, предусмотренным соответствующими законами и нормами.

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    By: Bridget Kelly

    21 September, 2017

    A garden trellis is a decorative yet utilitarian garden accessory. Although many climbing plants will also creep along the ground, if space is at a premium in your garden, training your plants to grow up a trellis helps free up space in the garden for other plants. You can purchase trellises in a variety of shapes and sizes; they are generally made from wood, vinyl or iron. Getting your trellis into the ground and ready for your climbing plants takes a bit of muscle.

    Place your trellis in the north side of the garden and orient it so that it runs in an east to west direction. This will help avoid shading other plants.

    Measure the distance between the two upright legs of the trellis. Place rocks or other marking devices on the soil, the same distance apart as the trellis’s two upright legs.

    • A garden trellis is a decorative yet utilitarian garden accessory.
    • Place rocks or other marking devices on the soil, the same distance apart as the trellis’s two upright legs.

    Drive one post into the ground at the first marker. Use a heavy mallet or hammer to drive it at least 18 inches into the soil.

    Drive the second post into the ground, at the same depth as the first, at the other marker.

    Position the trellis against the posts with the uprights in front of the posts. Wire the upright to the post 3 inches from the top. Wire the bottom of the upright 3 inches from the ground. Repeat with the other upright.

    • Drive one post into the ground at the first marker.
    • Wire the bottom of the upright 3 inches from the ground.

    Trellis Care

    Because a trellis is a vertical support for vines and other climbing plants, it needs to be able to support those plants. Some people confuse a trellis with a pergola, which is a vertical and horizontal structure attached to a building. Caring for a trellis is similar to, but usually simpler, than that of the other three. Trellis care is governed by the materials it is made from, where it is located and how it was constructed and installed. Wooden posts installed directly into the soil will show signs of rot quickly. The paint on a wood trellis will crack and peel over time, exposing the wood to rot. In spring, repair, scrape, prime and paint wooden parts of the trellis. Use a twig to twist and tighten the wires of a wire trellis. Always install a trellis strong enough to do its job. Install wooden trellises at least a foot from the house to maximize air circulation. A structure that is hinged at the base can be lowered for easier maintenance. Liquid wood preservative helps unpainted wood stay rot-free.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Deane Biermeier is an expert contractor with nearly 30 years of experience in all types of home repair, maintenance, and remodeling. He is a certified lead carpenter and also holds a certification from the EPA. Deane is a member of The Spruce’s Home Improvement Review Board.

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    How to build a pyramid trellis

    The Spruce / Liz Moskowitz

    • Working Time: 1 – 2 hrs
    • Total Time: 1 – 2 days
    • Skill Level: Beginner

    This DIY obelisk garden trellis is so versatile, it can be used for all sorts of plants that love to climb and trail. You can use it as a tomato cage or as a general support for any type of plant. At the top is space for a lightweight planting pot, too.

    Because the trellis is 6 feet tall, you’ll have plenty of vertical room for draping vines or spiller or trailing plants like wisteria, honeysuckle, snapdragons, or jasmine. Plants like roses that grow upward will be eager to climb the trellis, too.

    How You’ll Build This DIY Trellis

    Though this garden obelisk trellis has a fair number of pieces, it’s actually an easy build. First, you create one side of the trellis—a ladder shape with two legs and five rungs. Once that’s done, duplicate the ladder shape for the opposite side.

    Connect the two ladders with five more rungs per side and you’re done with the build.

    What makes this project so easy is that there are no complicated angles to cut: Each piece of wood is square-cut.

    You can build this obelisk DIY garden trellis in about an hour. Once you build one trellis, you’ve created a pattern that can be used to make more trellises.

    A pyramid roof is one of the many variations of hip roofs. Hip roofs essentially lack gables or vertical sides. Just like the name suggests, a pyramid roof takes the shape of a pyramid and it is constructed on top of a square or a rectangular base.

    This kind of roof is suitable for small structures or small sections of the home, such as garages and pool houses.

    In a pyramid roof, all the sides slope downwards towards the wall and they may have three or more rectangular faces depending on the size of the structure, as well as the design preferences of the owner of the structure.

    In the United States, this kind of roofing was very popular in the construction of American Foursquare house styles during the years prior to 1930.

    American builders have known how to frame a pyramid hip roof with pride for many decades. Commonly known as box houses, the Foursquare houses were viewed as a migration from the more elaborate styles of the Victorian homes.

    The types of houses or homes that used and still use pyramid hip roofs are the classic American bungalows, log cabins and the modern Victoria-style homes.


    There are a number of reasons that make pyramid hip roof construction appealing to some people. Generally, hip roofs are very efficient in places with high winds.

    Their rather conservative construction makes them less prone to wind damages hence you don’t have to worry about constant roof maintenance and repair following windy weather. Besides this, here are some benefits that pyramid roofs have:

    Pyramid hip roofs are wind resistant –This is perhaps the most admirable feature for those looking on how to build a pyramid roof.

    Since the roofs are shaped with equal pitch on both sides, the structures tend to have good aerodynamic features, giving them the ability to withstand strong winds compared to the normal gable roofs.

    They are therefore ideal for use in the coastal regions where tough winds and storms are common occurrences.

    Pyramid hip roofs have natural insulation – insulation is an important aspect in all components of a building. This is simply because it will ultimately determine the energy bills, especially during the very cold or very hot seasons.

    The good insulation capabilities of these roof types come from the fact that they have eaves all around the structure, thus creating a natural insulation phenomenon. By learning how to frame a pyramid hip roof builders can leave ample room for insulation materials.

    With this design component, the interior temperatures of the room will always be low and this goes a long way in helping you save the cost of running your air conditioner.

    Pyramid hip roofs have efficient drainage capabilities – Drainage is a bothersome problem that most roofs usually face, especially the flat ones or those with a very low pitch.

    With poor drainage, the roof will collect rain water and fail to direct it away. This causes deeper problems not only to the roof, but to other the sections of the structure. Pyramid hip roofs on the other hand never have any drainage issues.

    They have equal slopes with no flat surfaces, hence water will always drain away almost immediately. You therefore don’t expect to experience problems such as mold growth or leaks on a pyramid hip roof since it is very efficient in draining away rain water.


    Even with all these rosy benefits, pyramid hip roofs have certain disadvantages that you need to know about before you consider constructing one. They as follows-:

    Small internal space – this is the main disadvantages with not just a pyramid hip roof, but almost all of the other variations of hip roofs. As we find out how to frame a pyramid hip roof we start to see how much internal space the framing takes up.

    A Pyramid hip roof is very limiting with regards to internal space hence this makes to be less attractive for construction where storage and living room can’t be compromised.

    The small space also means that accessing the attic area for repair and maintenances is also very difficult for the roofing experts.

    Pyramid hip roofs are expensive to install – Compared to gable roofs, pyramid hip roofs are very expensive to construct and install. They require a lot of materials, long man hours, as well as a high cost of labor, hence many homeowners prefer to avoid them.

    In addition to the high costs, whoever is looking forward to implementing a pyramid hip roof plan in his structures must be prepared to face a complex design process.

    These kinds of roofs demand a lot in terms of designing and this is also likely to further inflate the overall cost of implementing the roof.


    The process of framing a pyramid hip roof may or may not be complicated depending on the size of the structure and the particular style you are interested in.

    Outlined below are the basic steps towards framing a pyramid hip roof. Kindly consult with your local roofing expert for more refined processes:

    • You will need to have a circular saw, a measuring tape, a 2-by-6 lumber, nails and a hammer.
    • Decide on the pitch of the pyramid roof you want to construct. Remember, the pitch will ultimately determine the final length of the hip rafters you will use.
    • Section the four rafters in accordance with the pitch you chose. For instance, you can cut the rafters at 45 degrees if you are using a pitch of 12/12.
    • Install the initial two opposite rafters while positioning them to lean against each other and then extend them diagonally towards the opposite corners. Secure them safely by nailing them together.
    • Install the next pair of the rafters so that they can butt at the top joint of the initial pair of rafters.
    • Continue installing the remaining rafters as you allow them to extend downwards towards the walls.

    Though pyramid hip roof construction can be demanding and time consuming, when done in the correct way, it leads to a structurally sound roof which is also less prone to wind damages.

    Invest in a pyramid hip roof if you want to enjoy the great external aesthetics and you are comfortable taking care of the relatively high construction costs.

    Last update on 2022-04-25 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

    Similar to plant supports used in Monticello’s gardens, the garden pyramid trellis is carefully made from willow branches with galvanized metal brads and it collapses for winter storage. Pyramids provide sturdy support for peas, beans, tomatoes and flowering vines, with a rustic, natural look that suits many garden styles. Willow trellis is approximately 58″h. Customers suggest anchoring with metal pins or u-shaped spikes (not included).

    The freestanding design of the willow trellis adds a warm, welcoming accent to your garden landscape. Willow trellis offers protection as well as a climbing structure for vines and other tall plants.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Turn your tomato harvest into delicious food to enjoy all year long! My short, practical ebook will help you make the most of your tomato harvest through canning, freezing, drying, and more.
    Get your copy of Preserving Tomatoes today!

    This post may contain affiliate links, which means I make a small commission at no extra cost to you.
    See my full disclosure here.

    Wondering how to build a raspberry trellis for your backyard berries? I think you’ll love the simple method we used for our berries here on the farm.

    You’ll need just a few supplies and a few simple tools. This process is so simple that it took my husband Greg less than two hours to construct and install.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    And just like that, our raspberries and blackberries finally have the support they need. This trellis system should keep the berry plants in check, and allow for easier harvesting.

    Plus this simple wooden trellis looks good. It definitely looks better than our previous setup of chicken wire wrapped around assorted stakes. Yikes!

    Ready to learn how to build a raspberry trellis? Let’s do it!

    We even made a video for you (see below) and printable step-by-step instructions, complete with tools and supplies lists. Click here to print the instructions from my Resource Library.

    How to Build a Raspberry Trellis


    • (4) 8′ 4x4s
    • (8) 3″ 3/8″ hex screws bolts with washers
    • (16) 7″ eye bolts with nuts
    • Wire (8x the length of your berry row, plus extra for attaching to eye bolts)


    • Measuring tape
    • Miter saw
    • Table saw
    • Post hole digger
    • Tamping bar
    • Drill
    • Socket wrench
    • Wire snips

    How to build a pyramid trellis


    Please note: these instructions will probably make more sense in combination with the video tutorial posted above. I suggest taking advantage of both! For best results, read the steps listed below and check out the video.

    1. Cut crossbeams.

    Use a miter saw to cut two 4x4s into two 2.5′ beams and two 3.5′ beams.

    2. Notch crossbeams.

    Use a table saw to create a notch in the center of each crossbeam. Each notch should be about 3.5″ high and 3.5″ wide, in order to match the dimensions of the 4x4s. (Because the dimensions of a 4×4 are actually closer to 3.5″ x 3.5″.)

    The depth of each notch should be about half the depth of the 4×4, or 1.75″. You want the notch in the cross beam to fit into the notch in the post.

    Note: in the video, you’ll notice Greg mentions different dimensions. He made 2.5″ notches on the crossbeams and 1.5″ notches on the posts. It doesn’t really matter, as long as the two notches add up to about 3.5″, or the full depth of a 4×4. We suggest making 1.75″ notches on beams and posts because it’s easier to keep track of just one number.

    3. Notch support posts.

    Then use a table saw to make two notches in each 8′ support post.

    On each support post, we made a notch 1′ from the top and then made another notch 22″ below the top notch. The bottom notch will be about 3′ off the ground once the post is sunk.

    Again, each notch should be about 3.5″ high, 3.5″ wide, and 1.75″ deep.

    4. Sink posts.

    At each end of the berry row, dig a hole about 2′ deep and sink one 8′ support post into each hole. Use a tamping bar to pack the soil firmly back into the hole around each post.

    5. Drill center holes.

    Fit crossbeams onto support posts with the longer beams on top and the shorter beams below. Pre-drill holes for the 3″ bolts, centering two holes where each crossbeam intersects with a post.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    6. Secure crossbeams.

    Secure each crossbeam with two 3″ bolts and washers. Place one washer on each 3″ bolt and use a socket wrench to insert the bolts into the pre-drilled holes.

    7. Drill holes for eye bolts.

    After the crossbeams are attached, pre-drill four holes on each beam for the eye bolts. You’ll want to space them somewhat evenly across the beams.

    Our eye bolts are placed about 4″ and 10″ from the center notch on the lower (shorter) beam, and about 6″ and 16″ from the center notch on the upper (longer) beam.

    8. Add eye bolts.

    Add four eye bolts to each crossbeam. Secure each eye bolt with a nut on the back of the beam. For now, don’t worry about tightening the nuts.

    9. Add wire.

    Loop wire onto each eye bolt, then stretch across and attach to the opposite eye bolt.

    10. Tighten wire.

    To tighten the wire, tighten each eye bolt nut with a socket wrench.

    11. Arrange plants.

    If your berry plants are tall enough, pull the top ends through the wire supports. Wear gloves for this step!

    As your berry bushes grow, continue to feed branches through the wire supports to keep everything tidy.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    A garden trellis is one of the most charming elements in a yard. It is functional and can give your plants more space to grow.

    I’ve rounded up the most effective and impressive garden trellis ideas even a novice can build. Find the one that will perfectly suit your garden needs.

    DIY Garden Trellis Projects | Easy & Functional

    1. A-Frame Trellis

    An A-frame trellis is two cedar frames hooked together using hinges. I suggest using chicken wire instead of the hardware cloth to give your plants larger holes for them to dangle off the trellis easily.

    It is effective, easy to build, and can cost less than $50.

    2. Obelisk Garden Trellis

    Obelisk trellis’ vertical appearance resembling a pyramid structure provides a framework to train your plants to grow upwards.

    It is perfect for vining plants in a vegetable garden or a flower garden. You can build one using bamboo, wood, or sturdy branches.

    3. Honeycomb Trellis

    This honeycomb trellis project will add a new story to any boring corner in your yard.

    All you need are pine boards to form trapezoid pieces. Build hexagons using the trapezoid pieces, then connect them together and lay them out in different patterns to create a beautiful honeycomb garden trellis.

    4. Chevron Lattice Trellis

    Lattice is a structure of crossed wooden strips arranged to form diagonal patterns of open spaces. And chevron is a seamless zig-zag pattern to incorporate in your outdoor space.

    You can build a DIY chevron lattice trellis using simple items you might already have in your house.

    5. Teepee Garden Trellis

    You can build either a complex teepee trellis or a basic one with three bamboo poles tied together.. It is handy for growing vining vegetables like peas, cucumbers, as well as ornamental flowering vines.

    This trellis project should be at least 6-8 ft. tall and can be assembled out of branch cuttings from your yard to make it more simple and economical.

    6. Arched Trellis

    An arch trellis or arbor is a plant support with two side panels and an arched roof which creates a tunnel-like passage. It works best for invasive plants which tend to take over a big space in your yard.

    Aside from providing sturdy support for your plants, arched trellis also creates picturesque entrances for your garden.

    7. Ladder Trellis

    Hardwood lumber is the best choice for building ladder trellis. Although you want to keep it simple, you also need to make it long-lasting. That’s why using a wood strong enough to support dense vines and growing fruits is ideal.

    But if lumber is out of the budget, you can repurpose an old ladder and turn it into a functional garden trellis.

    8. Copper Garden Trellis

    Copper trellis is any plant support made with a standard copper water pipe. This project requires some soldering skills and a bending technique, so if you’re willing to do some extra work, then this is perfect for you!

    A copper garden trellis can add a natural and warm note to your outdoor space, whether tarnished or shiny.

    9. T-Posts Trellis

    T-posts are great materials for building garden trellises. Aside from being inexpensive, they’re also strong and make steady plant support that lasts for years.

    One good thing about T-posts is that you can build various garden trellis structures using the same T-post you used last year.

    10. Wire Wall Trellis

    Wire wall trellis is ideal for flowering vines like a climbing rose, sweet pea vine, and clematis. You can install this trellis on your wall garden to give it a beautiful focal point.

    Stainless steel cables are the best material for a wire wall trellis. It provides strong support for heavy vines and won’t rot from changing weather conditions and water exposure.

    11. Pallet Trellis

    Did you know that a trellis made out of wood pallets is an inexpensive alternative that can give enough strength to support vining plants like squash, peas, zucchini, and melon?

    By using simple materials such as twine thread and fixed wood pallets, you can easily build a sturdy A-frame to support your plants.

    12. String Trellis

    This simple garden trellis requires a wood frame and some durable strings. It is simple yet effective in handling climbing plants such as morning glories, tomatoes, and sweet peas.

    Dye the strings with bright colors to create a more aesthetically pleasing garden display right before the vines take over the entire string trellis.

    13. Rustic Garden Trellis

    This trellis idea is one of the easiest and most practical ways of decorating your garden and providing support for your growing plants.

    Rustic trellis makes use of sturdy branches lying around your yard. But be sure to pick the dry ones and not those branches that are nearly rotten so your trellis can be used as many times as needed.

    14. Garden Tools Trellis

    Create a clever garden trellis using old farm tools such as a garden fork and a shovel. All you need are some scrap wood and strong thread to attach them all together.

    This easy DIY trellis idea provides a creative touch and primitive decor to your artsy vegetable garden.

    15. Bike Rim Trellis

    Bike rim trellis can be built using two old bike tires, an upright post, and a durable twine. This trellis idea is fun and cost-effective, which you can use to grow plenty of berries, peas, and cherry tomatoes.

    Not only does it add charm to your garden, but it is also an indigenous way to upcycle old bike tires.

    Watch this video by Josh Sattin on how to build a simple, cheap, and mobile trellis system in 5 minutes:

    You cannot go wrong with a garden trellis. It is a space-saving element that can provide both strong plant support and additional enchantment to your garden.

    By using any of these materials: wood pallet, wires, twine, string, copper pipe, or old bike tires, you can build an easy and functional garden trellis—no fuss!

    Which among these garden trellis projects would you love to recreate? Let us know in the comments section below.

    Up Next:

    Calling all green thumbs, Garden Season needs YOU! Click here if you want to write for us!

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    This page may contain affiliate links. Learn More.

    A good sturdy garden trellis is a great treasure in the garden. Check out these trellises you can make at home with what you might already have. And get started with beginning gardening here too.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Garden trellis can cost a lot and some of them just fall apart anyway. If you want a trellis that will last for years to come, my favorite kind is a cattle panel trellis. I have had them in our preschool garden for 8 years now. We have had to replace the zip ties twice, but they still stand strong all growing season long every year.

    The kind of trellis you decide to make depends on your budget, tools, skills, and what you can haul home. I was fortunate enough to have help getting my cattle panels home.

    Trellis can help support vining vegetables that can’t grow on the ground, but it can also help you grow more food in small spaces.

    Cattle panel trellis

    Cattle panels come in 16-foot lengths so they are difficult to transport. If you want to drive them home whole and you have a truck, you can just bend them inside the bed of the truck in an arch and they will travel perfectly.

    If you don’t want to bend them, you might be able to find a store that will cut them for you, or you can cut them in the parking lot. The last time I got some, my friend picked them up in his truck. I called ahead and asked the store to cut them in half and load them for him. They didn’t mind at all. You can either cut them with a saws-all or large bolt cutters.

    If you want directions on how to make them, check this link for the directions.

    String trellis

    Another great trellis that works great, especially for tomatoes is a string trellis. You will have to replace the string yearly, but the t-posts will be there year after year and can easily be moved to another area of the garden for crop rotation.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Set a t-post at each end of the row. Once the plants begin to grow, wind some garden jute back and forth between the plants, making sure to keep it tight. Then go around the t-post and make another pass back in the opposite direction. This holds the tomatoes without binding them so they get damaged.

    The other great benefit to the string trellis is that you can keep making them higher as the plants grow bigger. You can go all the way to the top of the t-post if you need to. String trellis is great for more than just tomatoes, you can string any plant up that way.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Using what you already have around the house is the best way to make your trellis. Check out this SUPER cute trellis made from an old screen door!

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Wire mesh trellis

    Wire mesh is a great material to build a trellis with. Here are some simple instructions to build a wire mesh trellis for your vegetable garden.

    Chicken wire trellis

    Running chicken wire on a series of posts makes a great trellis for tomatoes or any kind of plant. Check out how to make a chicken wire trellis here.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Pyramid trellis

    This a-frame or pyramid trellis is great for growing vines in the garden. Check out how easy it is to make.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Willow trellis

    In addition, willow can be used in a variety of ways such as in making this willow cone. You could make a large one and use it as a tomato cage or other type of trellis as well.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Cucumber trellis ideas

    My favorite cucumber trellis is the cattle panel one. You could also augment this idea and set your t-posts at an angle then place your cattle panel on top of it. Then you could grow your cucumbers, squash, or melons up the angle. It would work great for peas and pole beans as well.

    The string trellis would work for cucumbers also.

    I use the 4-foot trellis height for cucumbers and it’s always worked great for me. I let my cucumbers grow up one side and down the other, so I get 8 feet of growing space for them.

    Tomato trellis ideas

    Tomatoes grow great in the cattle panel trellis cages I have shown above. You can also build them with four sides instead of three. Tomato cages are never big enough or sturdy enough to hold tomatoes in my experience.

    I also love the string trellis method for tomatoes. You can build a trellis out of whatever you have around. Look and see what you might have that plants can climb on and build your own unique garden trellis for your garden.

    I hope one of these trellis ideas will meet your garden needs and you can find something you have already to make it with. Saving money in the garden is my biggest goal, check out these ideas on how to save even more.

    How to build a pyramid trellis


    One of the key drivers in the Pyramid 2018 design was the data visualization engine and the flexibility it affords to users in visualizing data for analytics. This required capability needed to not only address the multitude of variations users are looking for in how they ‘draw’ their data, but also allow the application to port common visual elements from one type of visual to the next and to also support the many query styles and ‘shapes’ that a user can create in Pyramid’s Discover tool. The last issue to address related to adding more advanced analytic functionality through the visualization process – so that clever things can be used by non-technical people in an intuitive, point-and-click UI.

    Click here to see an example of the many permutations that can be created in Pyramid.

    Drop Zones to the Rescue

    The solution in Pyramid 2018 was ultimately driven through the drop zone engine which was designed to take the old “columns” and “rows” concept – used over the last 20-25 years in products like Excel, ProClarity and even Pyramid’s own BI Office – to the next level. And although there are similar concepts in other products like Power BI, Spotfire and Tableau, the Pyramid 2018 version is designed to paradoxically both simplify the functionality and extend its sophistication at the same time. Much of this can already be seen in the current Pyramid release; with more of that to come.

    Core, Extended and Custom Visualizations

    Currently there are 36 core data visuals or charts available in Pyramid (with more on the way). Using the drop zones, these can be extended to well over 150 differentiated visualizations that do not include permutations for formatting or ‘soft’ adjustments in the design of the presentation (soft includes headers, axes, legends etc.). And to further fuel this list, Pyramid will soon be adding a custom visualization API and programming model – based on the D3 JavaScript graphics library – potentially extending the capability to an endless list of visualization options.

    Walk-through Example

    The following walk through will highlight the drop zone mechanics in Pyramid 2018 and demonstrate the flexibility and power of Pyramid’s data visualization engine. Using a standard column chart setup, we are able to create 12+ extended variations with some basic changes in the drop zone configurations.

    Start by opening a new Discover session using the In-memory Sample Demo database provided in the standard Pyramid install.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Add the manufacturer hierarchy to a column chart and then click Sales in measures.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    You’ll get the chart shown below – a standard column chart – with manufacturers as the categories in the chart.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Dragging the manufacturer blue chip to the color drop zone, will instead show manufacturers as the series in the chart, each with its own color.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Now drag the Gender hierarchy (column) from the ‘customerPorfile’ dimension (table) to Color. This will provide a dissection of Sales by Manufacturer by Gender.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Moving the Gender blue chip to the Vertical Trellis will create a multi-chart of Manufacturer Sales, broken out by Gender.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Moving it to the horizontal Trellis has a similar effect. Be sure to choose ‘Scale to Fit’ in the component formatting ribbon to see all charts at once.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    By adding the Gender hierarchy to Color as well as Trellis, we are able to color each chart series in the multi-chart by the same elements driving the multi-chart.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Let’s Move back to a Vertical Trellis, and add the measure ‘Net Profit’ to The Size Drop Zone. This creates an interesting effect where each bar’s thickness is driven by net profit, while its height (the usual column chart effect) is driven by Sales.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Right click on the Column Chart widget in the toolbox, and choose Stacked Column Charts. And Remove the Gender chip in Vertical Trellis.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    This will change the columns into a stacked column chart, with bars broken out by Gender.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Moving ‘the orange ‘Net Profit’ chip to size, will again produce an interesting chart, where the width of each data point in the chart is driven by net Profit and its height is driven by Sales.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Next, remove Gender, and drag Net profit to the color chip.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    The columns in the chart now are colored using a simple linear model of values from high to low based on Net Profit figures for each manufacturer (The height is still being driven by Sales).

    Next, drag the Net Profit orange chip back on to the Color drop zone header, and then choose the ‘Average’ Sub-drop zone in the fly out.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    The columns are now colored using above or below average Net Profit values.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Next, drag net profit to the Values drop zone.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    Since there are 2 values, the engine automatically builds a special “Values” orange chip and puts it into Vertical Trellis – to show both measures.

    How to build a pyramid trellis
    Redrag Net Profit onto the Values drop zone header, and choose Secondary Axis > Spline Chart.

    How to build a pyramid trellis

    And now you have a Combo chart with both Sales and Net Profit combined.

    How to write a campaign speech

    I have been fortunate to win the Humorous Speech Contest twice (for District 11, covering Indiana and northwestern Kentucky) and along the way I’ve learned some important lessons about making audiences laugh. My improvement hasn’t come easy—the journey to becoming an effective humorous speaker is the result of a lot of practice. It’s the direct result of at-tending weekly club meetings, volunteering for speaking roles to test my use of humor, and signing up each year to compete in my club’s Humorous Speech contests. Moreover, it’s the result of continually refining my speeches based on club evaluations.

    The following six rules of humor can help you draft your next successful humorous speech.

    Find Humor in Everyday Life
    I often hear Toastmasters lament how difficult it is to come up with a humorous speech topic. Some of the best speeches are inspired by life’s everyday occurrences. In 2013, my wife and I flew with our two young children to Europe to visit family. The ensuing chaos on the airplane provided me with more than enough material to compose my winning speech that year. Think about your everyday life and things that may have a humorous twist to them.

    Know Your Audience
    In my 2009 speech, I compared the delivery of my first child to a Toastmasters meeting. This would have made little sense to any audience outside of Toastmasters, but the humorous comparison (using timing cards to help with my wife’s contractions) landed perfectly with my audience. Know your audience—it’s particularly important when trying to land a punchline.

    It’s a Humorous Speech Contest: Be Funny!
    The best Humorous Contest speeches use humor throughout. Some speakers work up to a big laugh at the end, so their speeches are void of humor in the introduction and body. This approach leaves your audience hanging and wondering When do I get to laugh? I like to launch into a joke right off the bat to get the audience warmed up and to kick start my own energy level.

    Use Props
    In both of my winning speeches, I used props. In the 2013 district contest, I brought a suitcase to show how, ideally, one should travel with kids inside a bag. I closed the speech by donning a pilot’s cap. Think about effective props that can enhance your humor.

    Don’t Step on Your Laughter
    One of the greatest challenges a humorous speaker faces, aside from producing laughter, is to avoid stepping on it. It takes practice, but you have to allow your audience the time to laugh and soak in the humor. You can kill a joke entirely by rushing too fast to tell your next one. Effective pauses also enhance jokes. When talking about stuffing my kids into a suitcase, I said, “I see a look of concern on the faces of the audience.” I then took a long pause and concluded with, “I understand your concern, and I realize that the airlines now charge 50 a piece for these bags.” The pause was the key to the joke that generated the biggest laugh in the contest.

    Consult with Others
    Always run your speech by a mentor or trusted advisor. I have seen several contestants essentially eliminate themselves with humor that crossed the line and was deemed offensive. For the 2013 competition, I debated about whether to use one particular joke that I thought toed the line. I sought the advice of five different people and the consensus was to leave it in. It generated big laughs and I am glad I included it, but seeking consultation about risky jokes is imperative. One of the rea-sons I am a fan of self-deprecating humor is that you only risk offending yourself!

    Becoming an effective humorous speaker can provide incredible internal rewards. I can think of three in particular:

    There’s nothing as heartwarming as seeing your audience react with smiles and laughter. We live in a world often marred by violence, tragedy and darkness. When you impart humor in a speech and inspire laughter, you as a speaker derive a real reward.

    Public speaking in general requires courage, but delivering humorous speeches in particular demands real fortitude. Stepping onto a stage with the goal of making an audience of strangers laugh can be daunting. But taking on that challenge and producing gut-busting laughter in an audience can be one of the great thrills in the Toastmasters experience.

    While delivery, timing and body language are critical to telling a joke, the joke’s success lies in the author’s ability to conceive it. Writing an original, clean joke that will deliver a punch takes time and patience, and hones one’s creativity. To make humor work, the speaker must also properly place the joke within the speech, build appropriate context around it and structure the speech effectively. The reward is the development of one’s speechwriting skills.

    Mark Twain once said, “Humor is mankind’s greatest blessing.” It’s not often easy to pull off, but a well-constructed, funny speech will bring lots of laughs to the audience and many rewards to the speaker.

    A version of this article appeared in the June 2015 issue of the Toastmaster magazine.

    1. How to Explain Something Clearly
    2. How to Write an Oratory Speech
    3. How to Give a Thank You Speech
    4. How to Say Thank You at a Fundraising Event
    5. How to Deal With Someone Who Accuses You of Being a Liar

    How to write a campaign speech

    Whether you are running for president of your school or president of the United States, you will likely have to make a speech at some point in time on your way into office. A well written speech can mean the difference between campaign success or failure. Many political hopefuls elect to inject humor into their campaign speeches. By incorporating humor, you capture the audience’s attention and allow them to see that you are a real person who really cares about their wants and needs. When time comes to compose your all-important campaign speech, make it a humorous one. Your listening audience will likely appreciate it.

    Know your audience. The type of humor you want to use depends greatly upon your audience. You would not attempt to use the same humor at a high school assembly as you would at a retirement village. Before you even consider composing your speech, take some time to consider what type of people will likely fill the audience when you present your speech.

    Tailor your speech to your audience’s sense of humor. When composing your speech, make reference to pop culture topics with which your audience will be familiar. If you don’t know what your audience may like, consult someone who is either that age or has worked closely with people similar to those to whom you will be speaking.

    Keep it appropriate. Many people enjoy off-color humor; however, as an individual running for office you need to take extreme care to avoid offending anyone. Remember, things you say in your speech will likely be recorded, so don’t say anything that you wouldn’t want as a part of the permanent record, regardless of how funny it may be.

    Speak relatively informally. Your speech will seem disjointed and awkward if you try to be both funny and serious. To create continuity in your humorous speech, you must keep the whole address relatively informal. Use simple, everyday language, and speak in a conversational tone.

    Use clever anecdotes. Give your audience an inside look at your campaign by telling them about funny things that have happened on the trail. Or allow them to feel as if they are part of your family by sharing funny stories of your life with them as a way of illustrating your points.

    Pepper your speech with jokes. While jokes are a great way to insert humor, you do not want to rely too heavily upon them. Use jokes sparingly, and take care when selecting them. Do not select jokes that some might find offensive. Also, be sure to stick with jokes that are relevant to your campaign or your platform.

    Include a humorous quotation. Borrow a line from a politician who expressed your sentiments in a humorous way. For example, you could quote California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger who said, “to those critics who are so pessimistic about our economy, I say: Don’t be economic girlie men!” If you do this, be sure to cite your quote and give the original speaker his due credit.

    Laugh at yourself. If you want the audience to laugh at you, you have to be willing to laugh at yourself. If, when giving your speech, you make a joke that flops, acknowledge the joke’s lack of success and join in the crowd in laughing at your attempt. The audience will likely develop a kinship with you as you laugh right along with them.

    If required, please introduce yourself. If you are just getting started with the campaign, you may need to introduce yourself in one short line, not simply your name. Summarize your whole impression: You do not need to set out your entire plan in the opening, but rather explain who you are and what you stand for. You can use the following example: “Hello, I’m Joe Public. My wife and I live in London, we’re self-employed and we pay income tax.”

    Note that this is only an example, so you should write your own statement instead.

    In election speeches you often have to make long introductions. This is because elections in most countries are seen as debates between candidates for office, so they tend to be long discussions between the parties with only short interruptions for questions at the polls. The introduction should give the audience some idea of who you are and what you stand for, while also leaving them wanting more!

    In the United States, election campaigns are usually shorter and include many events where the candidate appears alone such as town halls or rallies. At these times, it is normal practice to include your name and contact information in the introduction so people know how to reach you after the event.

    You should avoid giving your full address at first appearances since this is usually taken from your biography on your campaign website.

    Table of Contents

    1. How do you introduce yourself in a campaign speech?
    2. What to say to introduce yourself?
    3. What to say when you are introducing yourself?
    4. What to say about yourself in an introduction?
    5. How do you introduce someone in an introduction?
    6. How do you start a school introduction speech?
    7. How does a president start a speech?
    8. How do you introduce yourself at an event?

    What to say to introduce yourself?

    Your name, occupation (or desired occupation), and crucial details that can help you create an impression on the person you’re conversing with should all be included in a self-introduction. Cover the most crucial aspects of your personality in a few phrases. For example, if you are a writer, then you could mention this by saying something like, “I’m a writer—my work can be found on” If you are applying for a job, then it is important to highlight your relevant skills. For example, if you are looking for a marketing position, then you could say something like, “I’m good at marketing—have been involved in several successful campaigns.”

    Your introduction should not be longer than this. If you go over this amount of information, we will get to know more about you as a person. However, if you don’t give any detail about yourself, we will not know anything else about you except for perhaps what kind of person you are.

    In conclusion, we need to say that your introduction is very important because it gives us a glimpse into your character. Make sure to include everything that is necessary to make an immediate impact on the person you are speaking with.

    What to say when you are introducing yourself?

    1. Stick to The Context. The essential thing to understand before introduce yourself is the context of the situation you are in.
    2. Talk about who you are and what you do.
    3. Make it relevant.
    4. Talk about your contribution.
    5. Go beyond what your title is.
    6. Dress the part.
    7. Prepare what you are going to say.
    8. Body language.

    What to say about yourself in an introduction?

    Avoid giving away too much information about yourself.

    Start by mentioning important facts about yourself such as your age, gender, marital status, and location. If you are meeting someone for the first time, it is appropriate to mention your own contact information as well. For example, if you are meeting someone for lunch then you should include your name, phone number, and email address in your introduction. This will allow them to contact you later if they like.

    In addition to these basics, you should also include some information about yourself that would be interesting to know. For example, if you are having lunch with a colleague then you should discuss some relevant topic from your career path. This shows that you are interested in what other people do for a living and that you are a good listener.

    Finally, you should leave room for conversation. If you go over the allotted time then end the interaction early, but if not then continue talking for as long as everyone is enjoying themselves.

    When writing your introduction, keep in mind that it is only going into one side of the communication.

    How do you introduce someone in an introduction?

    To provide a superb introduction, follow these steps:

    1. State the name of the person you are making an introduction to.
    2. Inform them of your intent.
    3. State the name of the person who is being introduced.
    4. Offer additional information, as appropriate.

    How do you start a school introduction speech?

    First and foremost, successful introductions establish five things:

    1. A comfort level and rapport between you and your audience.
    2. “My name is X, and I’ve been asked to speak to you about Y because Z.”
    3. “Good morning, my name is X.
    4. “Good morning, my name is X, and I’m here to talk to you about Y.
    5. “Hi, my name is X.

    How does a president start a speech?

    Plan out what you want to say in your introduction. Include a suitable welcome, thank significant persons, and briefly explain the reasons for your public speaking in this section. Include a greeting in the opening few phrases. Recognize your audience and everyone who is important to you. Offer a brief summary of what you will cover in your talk.

    Now you are ready to begin your speech!

    How do you introduce yourself at an event?

    Arrive prepared with a quick remark about yourself to introduce yourself effectively at a networking event. Your initial and last name, your firm or desired industry, and a vital feature about yourself should all be included in the statement. It should be less than the typical elevator pitch. Try using these examples: “John Maloney, CEO of Maloney Associates.” “My name is John Maloney; I am the CEO of Maloney Associates.”

    After you have introduced yourself, wait for someone to ask you about yourself before you speak again. This gives others the opportunity to learn more about you. If no one asks you any questions, that may mean that they did not find you interesting or that there was nothing special about you that would make them want to talk more with you. Either way, keep talking with people to show interest and draw them out.

    When meeting new people, it is easy to fall into small talk about sports events or other topics that are not related to you or your work. However, avoiding these topics can help you get to know individuals better. Therefore, include relevant questions in your conversation to determine how well you know someone before asking about their career or what they do for a living. For example, if someone mentions that she works with celebrities, you could ask her which ones and what type of jobs they need done.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Writing a speech isn’t all that different than writing for other mediums. You need to know your audience, the required length, and the purpose or topic. This is true whether your speech is for a business conference, a wedding, a school project, or any other scenario.

    But there’s something about speech writing that’s especially nerve-wracking.

    If you write and deliver a speech that doesn’t go over well, you’ll get feedback in real time. The people sitting in front of you could lose interest, start talking, doze off, or even wander out of the room. (Don’t worry, only audiences in movies throw tomatoes).

    Of course, a poor speech is not the end of the world. You can give plenty of crummy speeches and live to tell the tale.

    But we also know that a great speech is capable of changing the world. Or at least sparking an audience’s imagination, catapulting your business into success, earning an A+ on your assignment, or ensuring that the bride and groom are still friends with you after the wedding.

    So if you’re feeling stressed over your impending speech writing duties, fret no more! Today we’re breaking down for you the step-by-step process of exactly how to write a great speech.

    1 Tips to Write (and Live) By

    Let’s start with the 30,000 foot, big-picture view. These are the tenants that will guide you in your speech writing process (and pretty much anything else you want to write).

    • Know The Purpose: What are you trying to accomplish with your speech? Educate, inspire, entertain, argue a point? Your goals will dictate the tone and structure, and result in dramatically different speeches.
    • Know Your Audience: Your speech should be tailored for your audience, both in terms of ideas and language. If you’re speaking at a sound healer convention, you won’t need to explain the concept of energetic blocks. And if you’re speaking to an octogenarians-only quilting circle, you probably shouldn’t drop as many F-bombs as you would with your local biker gang.
    • Know The Length: You don’t want to underwhelm or overwhelm your audience.Ten minutes may be too short for your keynote address, but it’s probably too long for your best man speech. Don’t leave things up to chance. Your writing process will be much easier if you keep your eye on your target length.
    • Write, Revise, Practice, Revise, Practice…: MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech wasn’t written in a day. Give yourself the time you need to practice your material and work through multiple drafts. Don’t expect to nail everything on the first try.

    2 The Step-by-Step Process

    Still feeling stressed over how to get started? Here’s how to write your speech from concept to completion.

    Step 1: Outline your speech’s structure. What are the main ideas for each section?

    Step 2: Flesh out the main ideas in your outline. Don’t worry about finding the perfect words. Just let your creativity flow and get it all out!

    Step 3: Edit and polish what you’ve written until you have a cohesive first draft of your speech

    Step 4: Practice, practice, practice. The more you practice your speech the more you’ll discover which sections need reworked, which transitions should be improved, and which sentences are hard to say. You’ll also find out how you’re doing on length.

    Step 5: Update, practice, and revise your speech until it has a great flow and you feel it’s ready to accomplish its purpose.

    3 The Universal Structure

    Getting hung up on Step 1? Here’s a structure you can follow for any type of speech.


    Who are you, why are are you giving this speech, what is your main thesis?

    The “who” and “why” can be longer or shorter depending on the context. For example, if you’re speaking at a wedding, you’ll want to explain your relationship to the bride and groom and why they mean so much to you. But if you’re presenting to your class at school, you may be able to head straight into your thesis.

    If you’re presenting in a business or motivational setting, this is a crucial time to hook your audience’s attention and pique their curiosity. Typically someone else will have already introduced you and your accolades, so use this to your advantage and dive straight in.

    “Hi everyone, it’s great to be here! As Kevin just said, I’ve been an urban beet farmer for 30 years, and a couple years back I got this absolutely crazy idea. What if…”

    Main Message

    Idea 1, Idea 2, Idea 3…

    The majority of your speech should be spent presenting your thesis and supporting material in a simple, organized way.

    Whether you’re giving an inspirational talk or a business presentation, rambling is a sure-fire way to lose your audience’s attention. Don’t try to share absolutely everything you know on your topic, instead pick a few (two to five) key points to present to your audience.

    Stick to one point at a time and finish the thought before you move on to the next. Build in clear, logical transitions from idea to idea.

    Want to make your speech memorable? Studies have shown our brains are great at remember stories! As much as is appropriate, make your speech personal and include your own anecdotes and thoughts.

    We’re also better at remembering big ideas if they’re condensed into a few memorable words, so do your best to sum up your thesis.

    “I have a dream.” “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” “Make good art.”


    What do you want your audience to walk out of the room remembering?

    Wrap everything up and drive home your main idea, whether that’s through providing a few (one to three) key takeaways, or telling one last story that perfectly illustrates your point.

    Here are some examples of how your outline might look

    As a researcher presenting your findings…

    Introduction: Explain the key problem or question of your research.

    Main Message: Describe the research process, then describe your three key findings.

    Takeaway: Present your conclusions and their implications, then your next steps for moving forward.

    As the maid of honor giving a speech at your best friend’s wedding…

    Introduction: Explain who you are and how you met the bride.

    Main Message: Recount three funny and heartwarming stories about your decades-long friendship with her, plus your first impressions of the groom.

    Takeaway: Wrap things up by expounding on how amazing the bride and groom’s love for each other is, how they’re meant to be together, and how you know their love will last a lifetime. …L’chaim!

    Examples of Campaign Speeches for City Council Candidates

    have a defining theme in your speech — and make
    sure everything you say can be traced back to it

    Candidates for local office often treat their campaign speech as a job interview. Their stump speech is an explanation of their resume over the course of 40 minutes. But voters aren’t inspired by resumes. They’re not moved to vote for a candidate based on their resume. Here’s how to put together a campaign speech.

    Your stump speech should expand on a single sentence: the purpose of your candidacy. Your message. For Bill Clinton in 1996, that was “building a bridge to the 21st century.” For Reagan in 1984 it was “it’s morning again in America.”


    Here’s an example from Marco Rubio, who does a great job of focusing a speech on his message. His theme is “A new American century.” He explains that America is a land of opportunity, but it needs new political leaders with new ideas to maximize that opportunity. So the focus of his message is this, and if you watch the speech you’ll note that nearly everything in it can be traced back to this message: We are entering a new American century – one full of opportunity – and we need new political leaders for this new era.

    Delivered at the Freedom Tower in Miami, Florida on April 13, 2015

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    0:16 – The first sentence of his speech mentions “the future of our country” – this campaign is about the future, not the past. Don’t overlook that. It’s important to get into the theme right away.
    And in the next sentence, Rubio talks about America as the land of opportunity.
    0:45 – Here Rubio tells a story to make his point. When voters think back on the speech, the stories are what they remember. Including a story about opportunity ensures voters will remember Rubio’s point.
    1:54 – Rubio defines the American dream, which is one of opportunity, through the story of his family.
    3:07 – Now Rubio defines the problem today: that American dream is slipping away. Too many don’t believe that dream still exists. That’s a problem we need to fix. He sums it up with this line: “while our people and our economy are pushing the boundaries of the 21st century, too many of our leaders and their ideas are stuck in the 20th century.” Notice this line gets an applause. The audience picks up on what Rubio wants them to, the contrast he’s drawing with Hillary Clinton. Rubio spends about two minutes drawing this contrast.
    5:21 – Rubio lays out a challenge for American voters, and puts it in historical context. He points out that what needs to be done today has been done before. At the turn of the 20th century, Americans led the industrial revolution. “Now the time has come for our generation to lead the way to a new American century.” But that can’t just be empty rhetoric, there has to be logic to it. Next Rubio lays out a number of policy proposals that will lead to a new American century. He caps the proposals by declaring his candidacy for President.
    10:50 – “In many countries, the highest office in the land is reserved for the rich and the powerful. But I live in an exceptional country. I live in an exceptional country where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams.” Rubio contrasts himself with Clinton (rich & powerful) and embraces the idea of opportunity in America. He then finishes with a story about his parents, and how their hard work led to his ability to run for President of the United States. A story that embodies the American dream, American opportunity.

    Write a Political Speech

    Write a Political Speech

    How to write a campaign speech

    Write a Political Speech for Strategic Communications

    Write a Political Speech – All candidates for political office should have a strategic communications plan in place, but not all candidates need to worry about writing lots of speeches for their campaign. For local office races, you may only find yourself wishing you had a speech during your announcement and on election night. In those moments, don’t panic! Writing a basic speech is easier than you think.

    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

    There’s a format used by most political speechwriters, whether they realize they’re using it or not, called Monroe’s Motivated Sequence. When you write a political speech use the five components of the Monroe Sequence, you can develop a persuasive argument to communicate just about anything your campaign might need – GOTV, asking for donations, defending a policy – in no time! All you have to do is place your argument into these five strategic steps:

    1. Attention: This is where you draw the audience in at the top of a speech. It’s often necessary to welcome people and thank certain members of your audience right away, but try to keep that part short. Instead, focus on engaging your listeners. An attention grabber could be anything from a short personal anecdote to a rhetorical question. It allows the audience to connect with you and settle in for the rest of the speech.

    2. Need: The need step could also be known as the problem step. This is where your argument truly begins. In the context of a strategic communications plan, the need step often lays out how a certain elected official or policy isn’t doing the best job. In this phase of the speech, you want to invite the audience to question their current situation.

    3. Satisfaction: Satisfaction comes when you provide a solution to the problem that was laid out in the need step. You want to calm the audience’s anxieties by explaining how you are going to make their lives better, and how the problem doesn’t have to exist. Is the problem that the district’s representative is failing to support small businesses? Lay out your plans to promote the local economy.

    4. Visualization: The visualization step can be a little bit tricky because it’s fairly similar to the satisfaction step. In the satisfaction phase, you are presenting the details of your solution. Visualization ramps things up a bit by inviting your audience to imagine what their lives would look like if your solution (most likely you getting elected) actually happened. You need to paint a clear picture that the audience can see themselves in.

    5. Action: It’s all built up to this – asking your audience to actually DO something about the problem in order to help achieve your solution. In a strategic communications plan, this often means asking for a vote or a campaign contribution. The most strategic action steps are clear and simple. You want the audience to understand exactly what it is that they can do, and then feel compelled to do it. The action step should sum up what the purpose of your speech was all about.

    While this is the most standard sequence used when you write a political speech, feel free to play around with the order of the steps. Just remember that ultimately, each of these steps is helping you prove a point. Don’t be afraid to break minor grammar rules, either. Writing for the ear is different than writing for the eye. If you spoke in the same style as most great writing, you would probably come off sounding a little distant or robotic to your audience. Starting sentences with conjunctions and using common language can actually work really well in a political communications.

    Last Updated: 11th November, 2021

    1. 6 tips for writing a powerful political campaign speech.
    2. Get potential voters on side.
    3. Get your message out fast.
    4. Give equal measure to empathy, warmth, and authority.
    5. Stay in control and be confident.
    6. Use repetition to best effect.
    7. Take inspiration from the great orators.

    Then, how do you start an election speech?

    Part 2Structuring Your Speech

    1. Introduce yourself and your message. Within the first handful of seconds of your candidate speech, you want everyone listening to know who you are, what you are running for, and why.
    2. Identify your main issue(s).
    3. Outline your actions.
    4. Bring it to a close.
    5. Leave them wanting more.

    how do you write a protest speech? 6 Tips for Writing a Persuasive Speech (On Any Topic)

    1. Write like you talk. There is no First Law of Speechwriting, but if there were, it would probably be something like this: a speech is meant to be spoken, not read.
    2. Tell a story.
    3. Structure matters.
    4. Be concise.
    5. Be authentic.
    6. Don’t just speak – say something.
    7. Contact us at edi[email protected]

    In respect to this, how do you write a good speech for student council?

    Tips for writing your speech

    1. Brainstorm your ideas first.
    2. Include your campaign slogan in your opening and conclusion.
    3. Keep your style conversational rather than overly formal.
    4. Use smaller rather than large sentences.
    5. Use active rather than passive words.
    6. Lead with your strongest idea first.

    How do you write a class representative speech?

    I will take the time, whenever it is needed, to be an effective class representative, and make Maple Grove a better place. Second, I am also organized and responsible. I can honestly say that I will take your opinions and my own to the student council. I will also communicate to you anything you should know.

    You might have been asked to give an outstanding presidential speech; one that will be marked in the memories of the listener or reader. You however have to keep in mind that preparation is the first step to success where you need to know the ins and outs of writing a great speech and organizing the ideas properly to save you the hustle when delivering it. Follow the guide as it will take you step by step and by the end of it you will be a remarkable speech writer.
    How to write a campaign speech

    While writing your speech always think of your audience that is; what kind of audience will be there, will they relate to what I am writing? These are some of the questions that will help get rid of irrelevant areas. You can even place Socrates’ advice into consideration:

    Ethos- this is the moral, educational, and ethical background of the audience.

    Pathos- emotional appeal

    Logos- make sure you address the intellect and logic of your audience.

    To gather the highest amount of responses you need to structure the speech efficiently. You need to start very strong, always remember the first impressions matter most and last longer. You need to ensure that the beginning of the speech catches the attention of the audience and increase their urge to hear more. Your beginning should be a combination of:

    • A link to your audience and this is where you state what you have in common with your audience and it helps with getting people to relate more with your speech.
    • You should have a hook which can either be a joke, fascinating fact or statistics.
    • The purpose of the speech where you explain the reasons for the speech as well as what you intend to achieve through it.
    • Your set plan where you should in brief give the core points you are about to explain.

    The next step is the main body; ‘meat of the speech’. This part should be comprised of the main arguments that support the initial claim you made where the number is dependent on the speech duration. For instance presidential speech examples with time duration for 3 arguments:

    • In your first argument you should make a claim and support it with information that is factual preferably a life example.
    • Your second argument can repeat the above stated steps;
    • And your final argument should address the viewpoint which is the opposing one but avoid supporting it. You can refute by use of real life evidences.

    The conclusion of every speech is crucial. Remember you want as much responses as possible therefore make your conclusion memorable. First you can make a recap where you restate the main point explaining the ways in which you have made it solid in the main body, secondly; make a call to action where you can urge your audience to research, reflect and discuss, finally; thank the people for giving you their time and attention.

    Consider this as the first draft of your speech. It is advisable to go through your speech after writing it for the first time as you will realize there are areas that can be improved. After giving yourself sometime off get back to your speech and reread it to highlight the areas that can be improved. You can even ask a friend to have a read and ask for their insight of the speech; second opinions can go a long way to making your speech THE BEST. You can then check for expressions that are unnatural and always remember a speech should be written as per how you talk. This will avoid it sounding like it was rehearsed and make it more real.

    You have your speech ready at this point the only thing left is to successfully deliver it. Ensure that you practice, avoid memorizing the whole speech rather know the key points step by step, get your preferable relaxation techniques like taking deep breaths, drinking water or tea, smile and be friendly to your audience and you will get back the same energy back and finally do not forget to enjoy yourself.

    Respected Principal, Beloved Teachers and my dear friends,

    A warm good morning to one and all.

    Leadership is an opportunity to serve. It is with this vision I aspire to be your leader. If selected, I would love to lead by example not just in academic pursuits but in all co-curricular activities as well.

    The focus of my talk this morning is about three R’s. They are
    Respect, and

    First of all let me talk about Reach.
    Most of us have potential. And many of us have not discovered what it is all about. One of my first priorities will be to create opportunities for everyone to display their skills and talent. We cannot do it on our own. We need the guidance and support and encouragement of our teachers.

    I am sure they will extend all possible help in this regard. In fact we are blessed to have the opportunity to study in this School which has always set standards of excellence not only in academic results but more importantly in student-teacher relationship.

    The second thought I want to share with you is about Respect.
    Why is this important? This is important because we live in a world where mind, muscle and money power rules. Human rights are constantly being violated. Intolerance between communities is growing. It is in this context that respect for others should be taught and understood and appreciated in our classrooms.

    It is good to begin while we are young. I would like to create an atmosphere of respect in classrooms. We should learn to respect our parents, our teachers and elders. We should learn to respect the law of the land and be law-abiding citizens.

    The third thought is about Relationship.
    What is the point in studying in the same school and sitting on the same bench and not knowing what your friend’s difficulties in life are? We have become too selfish that we do not care for those who are hurting. So as your leader one of my priorities will be to create healthy relationships in classrooms thus paving the foundation of friendships that will last a lifetime.

    This is very important because today children are spending more and more time with gadgets; chatting, gaming, and living in a virtual world. I wish that our students would spend more time in face to face interaction and joyful communication thus cementing good relationships.

    So these are my main thoughts:
    One, Let us strive to reach our full potential.
    Two, Let us create an atmosphere of respect.
    And three, Let us also try to build lasting relationships.

    So I seek your cooperation. For nothing can be done by a leader alone. A leader is one who has a vision and has the ability to share it.

    This I have done with all my heart!
    Now it is your turn to respond to this vision.

    As cricket commentators say, a captain can only be as good as the members of his team. No captain has succeeded without great team work. So I appeal to all of you my friends that we will achieve these goals through united effort, working hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder. Not one of you will be left behind.

    Success to me is not one person achieving. Instead, it is about helping others achieve. It is about enabling others to realize their dreams. So let us begin to realize our full potential. Let us do this in an atmosphere of respect and sportsman spirit. In this process let us build lasting relationships.

    Let me assure you my friends we are not going to be defeated, we will certainly win. And the beauty of the victory will be that we all shall win together and make our teachers and parents proud. So my dear friends, when you cast your votes remember me and my vision I have shared with you. Do cast your precious votes in my favour.

    Reach, Respect, Relationship.
    This is my vision, my dream and my goal. I cannot do it in my own strength but in the strength God shall provide. I cannot do it alone; we shall do it together. Thank you.

    Short Speeches of Introduction, Welcome, Felicitation, Vote of Thanks!

    How to write a campaign speech

    Fraternity elections are a huge deal, whether you’re running for chapter president or staying off the campaign trail and simply voting for a new social chairman. Elections will determine how your fraternity chapter is managed from top to bottom, and brothers hold the key to chapter success–or failure–in their hands, in the form of a ballot.

    You all know each other pretty well by the time elections roll around. So, what’s the point of fraternity election speeches? Brothers spend a lot of time together, living in the chapter house and working toward chapter goals. However, whether or not Gregg is good at Ultimate Frisbee or likes the movie Old School as much as you do doesn’t really tell you much about whether, for instance, he’d be a good fraternity treasurer.

    You can probably glean from what you know of each other’s personalities how good a brother might be at a given role. For instance, if Kyle were really bad at talking to people, he probably wouldn’t make a good recruitment chairman.

    Still, fraternity election speeches are a way to wipe the slate clean. Everyone deserves a chance to start fresh. When you’re interviewing someone for a job, putting aside your prejudgments might lead to a surprisingly positive interaction and a new hire. The same is true with fraternity elections.

    So hear your brothers out, will ya?

    OmegaFi urges you to give these candidates their moment in the sun and a chance to share their ideas. You might just hear something that’ll change the course of your chapter and elevate you and your brothers to a whole new level in the semesters to come. You might get the privilege of listening to the Best. Fraternity. Election. Speech. Ever.

    In a Fastball Fraternity Election, How Do You Spot a Home Run Speech?

    How to write a campaign speech

    Maybe it’s because it’s getting closer to October, but we seem to have baseball on the mind. Yet, you can definitely draw some parallels between what a fraternity election candidate is saying during his speech and how a batter approaches a pitch.

    For one, just as the batter can to some degree intuit where a pitch is going by the pitcher’s mechanics on the mound, a good fraternity election speech shows that the candidate sees potential challenges to his ideas and is prepared to adjust. You get some strikes in baseball and in life, but what matters is that you have the foresight to ultimately hit the ball, and hit it hard.

    Let’s put sports aside for a moment. The bottom line is that being a fraternity officer takes endurance and some level of aptitude, but more importantly it takes practice, patience and a bit of luck. And there will always be challenges and setbacks, and, yes, there will be failures along the way. That’s true not only for the fraternity president, but for all positions up and down the board. If a candidate can convey how he’ll face those challenges and be better for it, you’ve got yourself a great fraternity election speech.

    The Best Fraternity Election Speeches Aren’t about the Candidate; They’re about the Chapter

    How to write a campaign speech

    Let’s give another fictional example here: Rob is running for recruitment chairman. It’s time for him to give his speech. He talks about how many friends he has from his days in the dorms, how he’s on the men’s soccer team and super popular with fans. He’s on Facebook practically all day, every day, so he’s great at networking and drawing a crowd to your chapter on the internet. Plus he’s pretty easy on the eyes, if he does say so himself. He’s a bro’s bro, and that attracts guys like him to the chapter at recruitment events.

    But . . . do you really want a chapter full of guys like Rob? No offense to our make-believe brother here, but this election has really brought out the vanity in him. In fact, all you heard the whole time was about how Rob is cool, has friends and is good looking. But being super thirsty for attention isn’t what makes a good recruitment chairman. You know practically nothing about how he’ll perform the job, except that he’ll probably turn off potential new members by talking about himself the whole time.

    If Rob had focused his election speech on how he’ll fulfill the job description of the position he’s running for, and in turn how electing him will benefit fraternity chapter itself, brothers would then be able to make a much more accurate assessment of his qualifications.

    Confidence and experience are important, don’t get us wrong. But don’t elect a brother who uses his speech as an opportunity to show off, rather than talking about how he’ll show up and do the job.

    You Won’t Like All You Hear in the Best Fraternity Election Speeches–That’s a Good Thing

    How to write a campaign speech

    Fraternity election speeches are, in some ways, saying what brothers want to hear. But on the other hand, it’s important for a candidate to anchor his speech in reality, and sometimes the reality isn’t all sunshine and rainbows.

    For instance, let’s go back to Rob for a moment. Rob knows recruitment has been on a downward trend the past few years. The chapter isn’t keeping pace with the numbers of other fraternities on Greek Row. But he doesn’t point the finger at the outgoing recruitment chair or any of the other candidates running. He takes his part of the chapter-wide blame, and pledges to work on solving the problem.

    He can’t promise an unrealistic recruiting goal, even if that goal is desperately needed, but he can lay out the basic steps of his plan to reverse the negative trend. Brothers don’t necessarily like hearing that things are going to still be not-so-great for a while longer, but deep down they already know that and will appreciate the pragmatism and honesty.

    The best fraternity election speeches offer what others don’t: realistic, honest ideas.

    Have you ever heard a speech that you thought was the Best Fraternity Election Speech Ever? Let us know in the comments below what stood out to you.

    How to write a campaign speech

    When figuring out how to write a speech, the essay form can offer a good foundation for the process. Just like essays, all speeches have three main sections: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion.

    However, unlike essays, speeches must be written to be heard as opposed to being read. You need to write a speech in a way that keeps the attention of an audience and helps paint a mental image at the same time. This means that your speech should contain some color, drama, or humor. It should have “flair.” Make your speech memorable by using attention-grabbing anecdotes and examples.

    Determine the Type of Speech You’re Writing

    Since there are different types of speeches, your attention-grabbing techniques should fit the speech type.

    Informative and instructional speeches inform your audience about a topic, event, or area of knowledge. This can be a how-to on podcasting for teens or a historical report on the Underground Railroad. It also can relate to health and beauty, such as “How to Shape Perfect Eyebrows,” or hobby-related, such as “Make a Great Bag Out of Old Clothing.”​

    Persuasive speeches attempt to convince or persuade the audience to join one side of an argument. You might write a speech about a life choice, such as, “Abstinence Can Save Your Life,” or getting involved in the community, such as “The Benefits of Volunteering.”

    Entertaining speeches entertain your audience, and topics may not practical. Your speech topic could be something like, “Life Is Like a Dirty Dorm,” or “Can Potato Peels Predict the Future?”

    Special occasion speeches entertain or inform your audience, like graduation speeches and toasts at celebrations.

    Explore the different types of speeches and decide what speech type fits your assignment.

    Craft a Creative Speech Introduction

    ” data-caption=”” data-expand=”300″ data-tracking-container=”true” /> / Grace Fleming

    The introduction of the informative speech should contain an attention-grabber, followed by a statement about your topic. It should end with a strong transition into your body section.

    As an example, consider a template for an informative speech called “African-American Heroines.” The length of your speech will depend on the amount of time you have been allotted to speak.

    The red section of the speech in the graphic provides the attention-grabber. It makes audience members think about what life would be like without civil rights. The last sentence states directly the purpose of the speech and leads into the speech body, which provides more details.

    Determine the Flow of the Body of the Speech

    ” data-caption=”” data-expand=”300″ data-tracking-container=”true” /> / Grace Fleming

    The body of your speech can be organized in a number of ways, depending on your topic. Suggested organization patterns include:

    • Chronological: Provides the order of events in time;
    • Spatial: Gives an overview of physical arrangement or design;
    • Topical: Presents information one subject at a time;
    • Causal: Shows cause-and-effect pattern.

    The speech pattern illustrated in the image in this slide is topical. The body is divided into sections that address different people (different topics). Speeches typically include three sections (topics) in the body. This speech would continue with a third section about Susie King Taylor.

    Writing a Memorable Speech Conclusion

    ” data-caption=”” data-expand=”300″ data-tracking-container=”true” /> / Grace Fleming

    The conclusion of your speech should restate the main points you covered in your speech and end with a memorable statement. In the sample in this graphic, the red section restates the overall message you wanted to convey: that the three women you’ve mentioned had strength and courage, despite the odds they faced.

    The quote is an attention-grabber since it is written in colorful language. The blue section ties the entire speech together with a small twist.

    Address These Key Objectives

    Whatever type of speech you decide to write, find ways to make your words memorable. Those elements include:

    • Clever quotes
    • Amusing stories with a purpose
    • Meaningful transitions
    • A good ending

    The structure of how to write your speech is just the start. You’ll also need to finesse the speech a bit. Start by paying attention to your audience and their interests. Write the words you’ll speak with passion and enthusiasm, but you also want your listeners to share that enthusiasm. When writing your attention-grabbing statements, make sure you are writing what will get their attention, not just yours.

    Study Famous Speeches

    Gain inspiration from others’ speeches. Read famous speeches and look at the way they are constructed. Find things that stand out and figure out what makes it interesting. Oftentimes, speechwriters use rhetorical devices to make certain points easy to remember and to emphasize them.

    Get to the Point Quickly

    Remember to begin and end your speech with something that will gain and hold the attention of your audience. If you spend too much time getting into your speech, people will zone out or start checking their phones. If you get them interested immediately, they will be more likely to stick with you until the end.

    Keep It Conversational

    How you deliver the speech is also important. When you give the speech, think about the tone you should use, and be sure to write the speech in the same flow that you’d use in conversations. A great way to check this flow is to practice reading it out loud. If you stumble while reading or it feels monotone, look for ways to jazz up the words and improve the flow.

    How to write a campaign speech

    There are a few questions I ask all of my clients before helping them write a speech. Who will be in the audience? What do you want them to do after hearing your speech? What do they need to believe to take action?

    These questions are building blocks of an effective presentation. When it comes to fundraising talks, the third question is the most critical of all. Whether the speaker is aiming to raise funds for veterans, to minimize social determinants of health or assuage homeless LGBTQ youth, misconceptions about the demographic in need might be a hurdle the speaker needs overcome in order to get donations without reservations.

    Someone once said, “The best gifts are always tied with heartstrings.”

    As we move into the last phase of year-end giving, it is essential to know the power of tugging on heartstrings when it comes to delivering effective fundraising speeches. A successful presentation captures your audience’s attention through an artful blend of storytelling and facts about your mission. The address must explain, in an emotionally impactful way, a few key truths about the people your organization helps, why you support the mission (and why your guests should support it too—right now).

    Your potential donors have likely been asked to support dozens of causes by this time of year so your speech must be brief and impactful. It also needs to be authentic to compel guests to give yet again. Below are do’s and don’ts to help you write a compelling fundraising speech.


    • Understand your audience and what they may or may not believe about the group in need. Be on the hunt for misconceptions that you need to clear up to reach into the hearts of donors.
    • Seek out recent success stories of beneficiaries of your organization’s work. Insert those stories to your speech using photos of the person if at all possible. Visuals are highly effective for fundraising speeches. It is important to note, however, that cultural competence is vital when using visuals. Be aware if the pictures you are displaying are trite, cliché’, or simply outdated perceptions of a particular demographic and don’t offend the very donors with whom you are trying to make an emotional connection.
    • Outline your speech, so there is a clear beginning, middle, and end with two-to-three statements you want your audience to remember. The statements should be short (but powerful) and are most impactful when embedded in the speech a few times.
    • Begin with high energy but take your audience on an emotional journey. Make them laugh. Make them misty-eyed. Make them understand. Make them FEEL. And make them BELIEVE change is possible…with their help.
    • Before going in for the ask, give an example of how much money it takes to solve the problem your organization is solving for one person. For example, “It takes $xxx a day to provide a warm bed, dinner, Metro passes, and laundry services for one vulnerable LGBTQ teen. It will take $xxxxx to provide those same services for one hundred. But the dollar amount is nominal compared to the lifetime impact it can have on the recipient.
    • Remind your guests how important they are and how much their contribution, no matter how small, matters to someone who is genuinely in need.
    • Explain why your organization was founded, where it has been, where it is going with the help of donors.
    • Tell listeners what will happen immediately after receiving their gifts (for the people who receive your services). For example, “The funds we raise tonight will immediately put to work by purchasing 12 bunk beds, backpacks with basic school supplies, etc.”


    • Be long-winded. Keep the speech between four and ten minutes.
    • Make too many points. Four or less is best if you want to make an impact (and want your audience to remember what you’ve said!)
    • Be aimless in your storytelling. Make sure everything in your talk connects from beginning to end and only what is essential to drive home “the ask” is included. No random facts or data that are not necessary for this particular event.
    • Do not make it all about the organization. Make your talk about your audience and the recipients of the services your organization provides.
    • Do not use visuals to store what you plan to say (no slides with bullet points that you read aloud). Slides with bullet points and text almost always guarantee your audience will read ahead of you and quickly turn their attention to something else. The most effective way to use slides is for images that drive home one of your key points. There is no rule that you must use a slide throughout your entire presentation (or use them at all). To keep the audience’s attention on you and your message, avoid giving listeners opportunities to read ahead, which ultimately means they’ve disconnected with you. You don’t want them to connect to slides. You want them to connect with Slides should only be used to support your stories and key points.

    Whether you plan to write your speech, use a speech writing service or hire a professional speechwriter to craft a custom talk, you must keep all of this in mind. Following these guidelines will help you land your speech in a meaningful way and compel your audience to open their hearts and their wallets. Remember…not only are “the best gifts always tied with heartstrings,” but…

    “Donors don’t give to institutions. They invest in ideas and people in whom they believe.” -G.T. Smith

    If you have any tips of your own that you’d like to share, feel free to leave them in the comments! Thanks for reading this post.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Fundraising Campaign Ideas

    It’s imperative for the success of your organization that you master the art of making a fundraising speech. An effective presentation maintains your donors’ interest and leads naturally to the “ask.” People expect someone from your organization to tell them something meaningful at a fundraising event. Here’s how to write a strong fundraising speech.

    Collect all the information you can about your organization’s work. This should include case statements, annual reports, newsletters, direct mail letters and website content. Even if you’re the executive director, it’s important you review the materials that are reaching your donors.

    Consider the purpose of the fundraising event. Write a speech that addresses any concerns your donors may have about the work you’re promoting at the event. You want to dispel their doubts about supporting your work.

    Pick a focus for your speech. Donors like to hear about specific activities for specific beneficiaries. For a general-purpose annual campaign, pick one aspect of your work you’ve been promoting all year or that you intend to promote next year and concentrate on that.

    Open your speech with a story. You have 30 seconds or less to convince your donors to keep listening. While there are other techniques to opening speeches such as offering statistics, asking a controversial question or quoting someone; none reach your listeners’ hearts like an effective story.

    Write down the most important points you wish to make concerning the focus you’ve chosen. You don’t want to include too many as a shorter speech is always better than a longer one, but make sure you answer all of your donors’ unasked questions.

    Organize your main points by mentioning how you’ve dealt with the issues in the past, your current work in this area and your hopes for future development. You can also ask journalistic questions like “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” “how” and “why” to organize your discussion.

    Close your speech with your “ask” but remember your audience. People expect you to ask for money at a fundraising event, but church members you’ve known personally for years need to be asked differently from major donors for an international cause.

    Write your fundraising speech in short sentences and simple language as people’s minds at an event aren’t geared for anything too complex.

    • Write your fundraising speech in short sentences and simple language as people’s minds at an event aren’t geared for anything too complex.

    This article was written by a professional writer, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more, see our about us page: link below.

    How to write a campaign speech

    So, you’re the class valedictorian. That’s amazing. Congratulate yourself on a job well done.

    But now isn’t the time to sit and relax. You need to write a valedictorian speech to give at your commencement exercises. And it needs to be reflective of your high school or college career.

    Don’t stress, though. You got through four years and earned the highest grades in your class. Clearly, you know a thing or two about writing and delivering a good speech.

    In case you can’t call to mind a great speech off the top of your head, we’ve got a few tips for you.

    Read on for some tricks and tips that will make your speech memorable.

    1. Whatever You Do, Do Not Talk About Webster’s Dictionary

    Have you ever been to a valedictory speech where the valedictorian says a word like “honor” or “memory” or even “valedictorian” and then talks about how Webster’s dictionary defines it?

    It’s such a trope, it’s made its way into popular culture.

    That means seriously, don’t use it. Talk about anything else other than how Webster’s dictionary defines certain words central to your speech.

    Generally, you want to avoid graduation speech cliches and make your speech a certified original.

    2. Talk About What You’ve Learned in Your Valedictorian Speech

    We’re willing to be that many of your most important lessons weren’t learned in the classroom despite your success in it.

    Take some time to talk about the lessons you’ve learned amongst your friends, when you were in the school play, from your time on the soccer team or any other way you learned a lesson throughout your time in school.

    3. Make a Few Jokes

    Don’t get up there and list memories that you had or talk about success in a dry form.

    Inject a little humor in there. Make your fellow students laugh with a funny story about something that happened during your last four years together. We’re willing to wager that at least one funny thing happened in biology class or one of your teachers is known for a hilarious quirk.

    4. Inspire Your Fellow Students

    Commencement isn’t just about celebrating the fact that you finally earned your diploma.

    It’s also about looking forward to the future and all of the places life will take you after graduation. You want your fellow students to leave your speech feeling as though they’ve got the world by the tail and can do anything now that they’re graduates.

    5. Use Quotes

    Don’t use Webster’s Dictionary to define words, but do use quotes to uplift your fellow graduates. Maybe even pick a quote out ahead of time to reflect on and craft your speech around it.

    The quote doesn’t have to be from someone famous or well-known, it just has to make your fellow graduates think and feel inspired by their words. It could even be a “famous” quote from one of your teachers or faculty members!

    6. Keep It Short and Sweet

    Remember, your speech is important, or you wouldn’t have been asked to give it. But don’t go overboard. People aren’t there to see you specifically. They’re there to celebrate their accomplishments or the accomplishments of family and close friends. You don’t want people to be checking their watches during your speech or wanting you to hurry up.

    Therefore, don’t ramble on forever. Your speech should be no more than 10 minutes unless you’re given other instructions.

    7. Speak to Other Students

    Don’t just craft a valedictory speech in the cold confines of your room. Instead, speak to other students and find out what they’re interested in, what has inspired them and what they’ll remember most. Your graduation is about all of the students, not just you, and you’ll want your speech to recognize their collective memories.

    8. Make Your Most Important Point the Final Point

    Your speech should be you leading up to the final point of the speech, which will be the most important part. This should be the line that people remember, and that people take away from your speech. You can end it with a quote, a memory, or words of wisdom to impart on your class, just as long as you end it with a punch.

    9. Always Practice Your Speech Before Hand

    Never give a speech without practicing it. As valedictorian, we trust you already know that, but we just want to make sure.

    Try your speech out on a couple of fellow graduates and ask them what they think of it. You might even practice on your parents or some of your teachers. If there are parts of the speech they dislike, ask them to provide you with a few pointers so that you can make it better.

    If you had a speech and debate teacher at school, he or she might be keen to help you practice your speech. Take advantage of that, as you won’t always have that luxury in the “real world.”

    10. Thank People

    Always thank people in your speech. You didn’t become the valedictorian on your own. And your fellow graduates didn’t get to the stage on their own either.

    Acknowledge teachers, parents, friends, and siblings who contributed to not only your success but the success of fellow graduates. You may even want to ask the students to give their families and teachers a round of applause to show how much they respect them.

    Writing the Perfect Valedictory Speech

    A valedictorian speech shouldn’t be overwhelming or daunting. Instead, think of it as a way to connect with your graduating class one last time before you all go your separate ways. And, if you’re planning a career where you will be public speaking, think of it as a great way to practice.

    Going on to college after high school and haven’t found a scholarship yet? Click here for our directory to help you on your way!

    Secretary Speech: Serving on your school’s understudy board gives you a say in understudy exercises and a voice with the school organization. It additionally looks great on school applications. Be that as it may, to make it onto the understudy committee, you’ll initially have to give discourse and assemble votes from different understudies.

    The school secretary is a commendable situation in the understudy chamber. It can assist an understudy with acquiring significant involvement with numerous spaces. In your secretary discourse, clarify why you are ideal for the job. Sum up your primary concerns in the end. The state obviously why you need the situation of class secretary. Leave the crowd with an enduring memory.

    Students can also find more English Speech Writing about Welcome Speeches, Farewell Speeches, etc

    How to Write A Secretary Speech?

    Make a note of the below points before you prepare a speech for a role in your organisation.

    • Greet everyone and Introduce yourself
    • Your place in the institute/school/college/academy
    • What is your contribution to the school?
    • What role do you want to apply for?
    • Tell the roles and responsibilities you are going to obey after getting the role
    • Request/Ask for votes

    Secretary Speech Example

    My name is Satya and I have been an understudy at Don Bosco for a year as a fresher and I am running for club secretary.

    Since being at college, I have cherished the entire time, particularly my time at the swimming club, and I accept, that I have an obligation of being engaged with the club at a more significant level to assist the club with becoming the future, and furthermore to reward a games group which has given me to such an extent.

    Some of you may not understand how significant a club secretary is, because of the reality it envelops such countless jobs. A secretary needs to go about as a primary concern of contact for the club, attempt the undertaking of organization and interchanges, including rivalry occasions, affiliations, enrollments, appointments and mailings. As secretary, I realize that I would have the obligation of managing the everyday running of the club (both inside and remotely). Presently this is clearly a considerable assignment and you may ask how I would have the option to play out every one of these errands? I will advise you.

    I accept that I’m an extremely coordinated individual, who can be depended and depended upon, and this can be found in the degree of exertion I put into my tasks, which are consistently on schedule. At college, I buckle down in all that I do and stay devoted in my exercises, just as my course, business which assists with a portion of the requests of being secretary because of the reality organization is a vital component in both business and being a swimming secretary.

    I’m a decent audience who is available for guidance, I am keen on what everyone needs to say at the swimming crew, and I will help each and every one of you in the event that you need it. I coexist well with others because of being amicable and open. Being a secretary isn’t all brilliant and blustery, being a secretary likewise includes the job of authority.

    How to write a campaign speech

    NGO Secretary Speech Sample

    Good evening! My name is Samuel. I’m a rookie at XYZ NGO and I am running for secretary.

    Today, on my way here I experienced an old companion of mine. We talked for a smidgen and when I disclosed to her that I was running for a secretary, she shouted in a somewhat wry tone: “Goodness, so you need to be the composing individual?”

    Her remark made me think, consequently I need to disclose to you that the explanation I am running for a secretary is significantly more significant than basically composing. I’m here today since I need our tasks to be fruitful and I need to give my most prominent commitment to have them so. I accept that I force abilities that make a successful secretary. Having held various administration settings such as ASB part and Class President have improved my relational abilities, consequently, I am ready to react to public requests and fill in as a compelling manual for the new individuals. Also, my encounters as Literature and Media Club secretary at ABC have assisted me with acquiring a more prominent knowledge in a secretary’s work. I’m capable not exclusively to keep an exact record of our gatherings and occasions, yet additionally to keep everything deliberate and open. Last, however not least, being an international student abroad as a young diplomat of our nation showed me how to be a decent agent. In this manner, I will give my best to be an exemplary delegate of our Board of Directors and our association.

    I accept we have extraordinary things in front of us and my abilities will be an incredible resource for our Board; with me as a secretary all that will actually want to run easily coordinated.

    Much thanks to you!

    FAQ’s on Secretary Speech

    Question 1.
    What to say in a secretary’s speech?

    Utilize the rundown you made beforehand to clarify the obligations of class secretary and how your abilities match. You can clarify why you are more qualified than different up-and-comers, yet don’t condemn your schoolmates. Keep the tone positive and amiable. Try not to make crusade guarantees you can’t keep.

    Question 2.
    What are the new ideas for the student council secretary speech?

    Taking a gander at the most recent issues that the understudy body has confronted and how you can help with making arrangements. Instances of critical thinking you have done while working for a local area association, good cause, church or in your after-school business.

    Question 3.
    Who is the class secretary?

    The class secretary keeps a precise record of gatherings and understudy exercises, projects, and meetings. You ought to be coordinated and appreciate composing and taking notes in the event that you run for this position. The financier monitors understudy board reserves and is answerable for the dispensing of assets

    Question 4.
    How to introduce yourself in a secretary election speech?

    Present yourself and give a fast – accentuation on speedy – synopsis of your achievements all through school. Present your fundamental issues and proposed arrangements. Urge your crowd to decide in favor of you. Reveal to them that their decision in favor of you is basic.

    Question 5.
    What is the job of a student secretary?

    The work of the Student Services Secretary was set up for the purpose of giving an assortment of secretarial help to the allocated director and office; building up and keeping up division records; organizing allowed ventures, and gathering and dispersing a wide assortment of material and reports.

    How to write a school captain speech for primary

    A school captain is a student leader who inspires his colleagues and helps to bridge the communication gap between students and the administration. As a school captain, you must lead the rest of the school and help them achieve their personal goals. A captain must be ready to correct and organize the students` body to live the values, mission, and vision of their institution. As a captain, communication is very critical. Understanding how to present the students’ issues to the administration requires good communication skills. To inspire action and keep the students` body in control of a healthy communication mechanism in place. Vertical communication with students is typically a common phenomenon, and for efficacy, a good speech is necessary.

    The purpose of the provision of school captain requires prime communication skills, and captain`s speeches are critical. Apt writing skills are necessary to achieve the best results. This article, therefore, focuses on some of the key tips a school captain ought to look out for when drafting their speeches. The article also features a speech outline and a sample of a captain’s speech.

    Five tips on school captain speech writing

    1. Be authoritative

    A leader is authoritative and decisive. Being a school captain comes with a responsibility that you have to fulfill. The position of a school captain, therefore, needs an authoritative and decisive person who can guide the school in the right direction without wavering. Such aspects must be reflected in your speech.

    2. Keep your message short and clear

    Listening to long speeches can be boring. As a captain, you ought to talk more and act less. Therefore, for each speech addressed to the students should be short with minimal explanations. Long speeches can be boring and less effective than short content-rich speeches. Short speeches truncate the unnecessary details and enhance the understandability of the message.

    3. Simple language and illustrations

    Simplicity is one of the key requirements a school captain’s speech ought to be. Writing in very technical jargon would be ineffective. This is because the audience is diverse and have different levels of language mastery. Freshmen might not be able to understand technical language used by a finalist school captain, and thus the students in lower academic levels need to understand the message fully.

    4. Organize your content in point form

    A captain’s speech must be orderly and precise. Organizing each point into its paragraph is a good place to start. If the message is organized in a paragraph, then each paragraph should feature a single point which is well elaborated. For each paragraph, it must have a topic sentence, then few supporting sentences. The supporting sentences must be relevant to the topic sentence. Include an illustration for example, if necessary, at the end of the paragraph.

    5. Use active voice in the first person

    Since you are the school captain, it is obvious you must write the speech in the first person. It is also wise to use active voice which is more authoritative and powerful to deliver the message. Active voice is more effective to call for an action.

    Outline example

    The captain`s speech also needs an outline to act as a guiding tool for writing the essay. Outlines ensure the captain sticks to the relevant and important issues he wishes to address in his speech. After outlining them, he can proceed to write a great speech from the outline.

    Here below is an example of a captain’s speech outline that can be used to write a speech.


    • Greetings
    • A short recap based on personal observations

    Paragraph 1

    • Point 1
    • 3-4 Support sentences for point 1

    Paragraph 2

    • Point 2
    • 3-4 Support sentences for point 2

    Paragraph 3

    • Point 3
    • 3-4 Support sentences for point 3


    • A brief summary of the contents of the speech

    How to write a campaign speech

    The purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your audience to agree with an idea or opinion that you present. First, you’ll need to choose a side on a controversial topic, then you will write a speech to explain your position, and convince the audience to agree with you.

    You can produce an effective persuasive speech if you structure your argument as a solution to a problem. Your first job as a speaker is to convince your audience that a particular problem is important to them, and then you must convince them that you have the solution to make things better.

    Note: You don’t have to address a real problem. Any need can work as the problem. For example, you could consider the lack of a pet, the need to wash one’s hands, or the need to pick a particular sport to play as the “problem.”

    As an example, let’s imagine that you have chosen “Getting Up Early” as your persuasion topic. Your goal will be to persuade classmates to get themselves out of bed an hour earlier every morning. In this instance, the problem could be summed up as “morning chaos.”

    A standard speech format has an introduction with a great hook statement, three main points, and a summary. Your persuasive speech will be a tailored version of this format.

    Before you write the text of your speech, you should sketch an outline that includes your hook statement and three main points.

    Writing the Text

    The introduction of your speech must be compelling because your audience will make up their minds within a few minutes whether or not they are interested in your topic.

    Before you write the full body you should come up with a greeting. Your greeting can be as simple as “Good morning everyone. My name is Frank.”

    After your greeting, you will offer a hook to capture attention. A hook sentence for the “morning chaos” speech could be a question:

    • How many times have you been late for school?
    • Does your day begin with shouts and arguments?
    • Have you ever missed the bus?

    Or your hook could be a statistic or surprising statement:

    • More than 50 percent of high school students skip breakfast because they just don’t have time to eat.
    • Tardy kids drop out of school more often than punctual kids.

    Once you have the attention of your audience, follow through to define the topic/problem and introduce your solution. Here’s an example of what you might have so far:

    Good afternoon, class. Some of you know me, but some of you may not. My name is Frank Godfrey, and I have a question for you. Does your day begin with shouts and arguments? Do you go to school in a bad mood because you’ve been yelled at, or because you argued with your parent? The chaos you experience in the morning can bring you down and affect your performance at school.

    Add the solution:

    You can improve your mood and your school performance by adding more time to your morning schedule. You can accomplish this by setting your alarm clock to go off one hour earlier.

    Your next task will be to write the body, which will contain the three main points you’ve come up with to argue your position. Each point will be followed by supporting evidence or anecdotes, and each body paragraph will need to end with a transition statement that leads to the next segment. Here is a sample of three main statements:

    • Bad moods caused by morning chaos will affect your workday performance.
    • If you skip breakfast to buy time, you’re making a harmful health decision.
    • (Ending on a cheerful note) You’ll enjoy a boost to your self-esteem when you reduce the morning chaos.

    After you write three body paragraphs with strong transition statements that make your speech flow, you are ready to work on your summary.

    Your summary will re-emphasize your argument and restate your points in slightly different language. This can be a little tricky. You don’t want to sound repetitive but will need to repeat what you have said. Find a way to reword the same main points.

    Finally, you must make sure to write a clear final sentence or passage to keep yourself from stammering at the end or fading off in an awkward moment. A few examples of graceful exits:

    For the Not So Great Public Speaker

    • Home
    • Basic Tips & Tricks
    • About

    A Fundraising Speech

    Need to raise money for an organization? Then you need to learn how to prepare a fundraising speech. These tips and tricks will help you know where to begin!

    First, know that the purpose of a fundraising speech is to earn funds for the organization through donors. Also, fundraising speeches are meant to inform others about the organization and to get others involved.

    It is important to remember if you were chosen as a speaker for a fundraiser, the organization trusts you to make a timely and appealing speech.

    Therefore, it is important to make sure you are familiar with the organization you are speaking on behalf of. Know its mission and the services it provides.

    Also, I can assume that you are already familiar with the organization if you were asked to speak. You may be a part of it, or you may know others who are a part of it. Therefore, use personal stories within your fundraising speech.

    The best way to connect to your audience in a fundraising speech is through emotions and facts. Therefore, it is important to inform the audience about the organization, and then tie in personal stories of how the organization has impacted you or others you know.

    Since the purpose of a fundraising speech is to ask for donations, make sure to tell your audience what the money will be used for. This is very important. The people donating will want to know that the money given is going to make a difference.

    Also, be sure to donate money yourself. You need to be willing to give as well. This will show your audience you trust the money will be put to good use.

    Furthermore, make sure you are familiar with your speech. Your performance will reflect on the organization.

    Also, here is a video of another fundraising speech example.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Chances are you have listened to more speeches than you can count. Hopefully, some of those speeches left you inspired and eager to take action. Unfortunately, many of those speeches most likely left you bored, confused, or even irritated. It makes sense that if you are taking on the task of writing and delivering a speech that you want your audience to be inspired and to heed whatever your call to action is.

    The question is, are you able to do that? Some people believe that in order for a speech to be powerful and inspirational, a person who has a natural talent for giving speeches must deliver it. This is untrue. If you have focus and a great message, you can write a motivational speech that your audience will appreciate and remember. All you need to do is follow these 5 tips.

    Define Your Primary Message

    Within a few moments of listening to your speech, your audience should know what you will be talking about. When your speech is over, your audience should understand the message you were conveying, and what you want them to take away from your speech. If you want your audience to take a specific action, they should also know what that action is. If you fail to deliver a clear message, you will not be able to create engagement with your audience. Another thing to remember is that it is okay to have more than one message in your speech. Just remember that your focus should be on your primary message and that having too many messages will result in a muddled and confusing speech.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Use Storytelling to Make Your Point

    People love stories. Telling a story keeps people engaged and it allows you to deliver your message in a way that isn’t awkward or heavy-handed. When you write a speech, you can use storytelling in two ways. First, you can use storytelling as a tool to introduce your topic and to get your audience interested in what you have to say next. Second, you can use a storytelling structure to deliver your speech. To do this, you can weave a story throughout your speech, or you can simply deliver a speech that has a beginning middle, and end. Simply following the “three-act structure” that people associate with storytelling will make your speech more engaging.

    Know Your Audience

    If you are able to, take some time to do some research on your audience. Who are they? What is the demographic of your audience? Why would they be interested in hearing your speech, and why would you be interested in communicating with them? Then, if you are able to, structure or adjust your speech so that you have the best possible chance to connect with them. If you are unable to adjust your speech, you can at least use this knowledge when it comes time to engage your audience in a question and answer session.

    Write an evocative speech

    Evocative language is powerful. It evokes strong emotions and is often a catalyst for inciting action. When you use powerful, evocative language in your speech, your audience becomes impassioned and it connects with you.

    Conclude in a Way That Encourages Your Audience to Engage

    A great speech doesn’t end with the speaker saying “thank you and goodnight”. A great speech comes to a quiet conclusion as the audience asks the speaker questions and then begins to engage in dialogue among themselves. In order to accomplish this, ask open-ended questions in your speech and encourage your audience to ask questions when your speech is over.

    About the author

    How to write a campaign speech

    Being a Chief Editor, Julie Ellis writes at Premier Essay about education, self-improvement, marketing, and psychology. Having a track record of academic achievements and a Master’s degree in Journalism, allows her to support students with writing advice and educational life hacks. Find Julie on LinkedIn .

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    The following are points to be noted while writing a speech to become school prefect: How will you do the above? 1. Be punctual- don’t be late to school or not submit homework or classwork. 2. Take everybody’s interests in account- don’t just think about what you would like. 3. Be friendly but stern- you don’t want people to dislike you or think you are mean. Why do you deserve the position? Talk about your qualities- how much experience you have:

    1. Maybe you have a smaller sibling- experience in disciplining and taking care. 2. Suggest points where you might have gone to another school where you were a prefect and how well you organized things there. 3. You can also include points about visiting other places where you watched the school children and noticed how they were being organized and disciplined- experience. Compiling all of the above points and adding some of your points, you will have the introduction and body of your speech.

    “ This writer never make an mistake for me always deliver long before due date. Am telling you man this writer is absolutely the best. ”

    For the conclusion: 1. End by saying how you will be proud to lead your school. 2. You can also put in quotes as this will make people think that you are well-read. 3. You might also put in why discipline and organization are essential parts of a successful life. If you would like an example of a speech such as which I am talking about, please read on… The following is a skeleton of a speech written for election of school prefect: I would like to take this opportunity to run for school prefect.

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    You won’t be charged yet!

    true leadership is a quality many aspire to have, and only a few truly obtain, because in order to become a leader you must first learn to follow. I believe over the past four years this school has given me the knowledge, education and understanding to fulfill the qualities to become a prefect. If I were chosen I would follow with an open mind, with focus and with purpose. I would make sure to choose the right choice of action, all the while remembering those who will be affected by my decisions.

    As a student I have the confidence to put forward any new ideas that can benefit others. Also I have the courage to make tough decisions and the compassion to listen to the needs of others, qualities which are essential for leading. I would like to conclude by telling you that I am proud of this school and it would be a great honour to represent it. And I urge you to vote for me but I would also like to tell you: Vote wisely as that is the power you exercise; it can make or break the things you care about. Thank You!

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    We offer a one-of-a-kind experiential curriculum that provides the knowledge, practical skills, and ethical grounding necessary to succeed in the fields of politics, communications, and advocacy.

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    How to write a campaign speech

    Today’s politics demands professionals. Whether at the ballot box or in the halls of government, adept political management separates winners from losers.

    We teach students the strategies, tactics, and mechanics that get results in politics. The Political Management master’s program offers a cutting-edge, hands-on curriculum that teaches the “how” and not the “what” of politics.

    Along with a rigorous core curriculum, we offer electives across four clusters: applied proficiencies, electoral politics, advocacy politics, and global politics.

    This program is offered on-campus, online, or in a hybrid format on a term-by-term basis (Ex. a student can take their classes on-campus in their first fall term, then switch to online for the spring term).

    Legislative Affairs

    How to write a campaign speech

    To succeed on the Hill, you need a clear understanding of how Congress operates, how procedure shapes outcomes, and how entities like constituents, lobbyists, and the executive branch affect the legislature.

    For more than 40 years, the Legislative Affairs master’s program has helped launch and enhance careers in legislatures around the world by teaching students how to leverage their chamber’s rules and customs.

    This prestigious program is the only master’s degree in the nation exclusively devoted to applied politics in the legislative arena. The program is offered only on campus.

    Strategic Public Relations

    How to write a campaign speech

    Capturing the public’s attention and earning trust are ambitious, often elusive, goals. You’ll gain first-hand insights on how to meet these challenges from a diverse field of leading PR practitioners.

    You’ll learn the latest skills, big-picture strategic thinking, and real-world approaches in media relations, crisis management, international PR, and public affairs.

    GSPM’s professors are world-renowned experts with experience in everything from Fortune 500 companies and non-profits to the highest ranks of journalism and government.

    This program is offered on-campus, online, or in a hybrid format on a term-by-term basis (Ex. a student can take their classes on-campus in their first fall term, then switch to online for the spring term).

    Comunicación Política y Gobernanza

    How to write a campaign speech

    La maestría en Comunicación Política y Gobernanza (fully online and in Spanish) les da la oportunidad a los servidores públicos, dirigentes políticos, consultores, ejecutivos del sector privado y líderes de ONGs en América Latina y Estados Unidos para desarrollar una estrategia cohesiva y eficiente para ganar campañas políticas y gobernar efectivamente.

    Las clases son en línea, tienen un enfoque práctico y son 100% en español. Nuestros alumnos adquieren las herramientas para introducir viabilidad política a sus iniciativas de cambio económico y social, comunicarse con una gran variedad de audiencias y optimizar la toma de decisiones al hacerla más transparente e incluyente.

    Every political website should include a candidate biography page. A good personal story add a personal touch to your campaign and help voters understand who you are why you are running for office.

    Your candidate biography is a profile about yourself. It’s where you introduce yourself as a political candidates and persuade voters that not only are the right side of the issues, but you also are the right person for the elected position. Your bio should provide both a compelling story and an interesting read. If you want to know how to write a political profile or write a candidate statement, read on!

    How to introduce yourself as a political candidate

    Who are you? Begin with some background information about yourself. Try to include some qualities that separate you from your opposition. Keep your political bio positive and touch on some issues that are of concern to voters.

    Describe your personal experience

    What experiences in your personal, professional or political life have helped shape you and made you the person you are today? Discuss your education, job titles, community and civic work, awards and other offices you’ve held. How do those experiences translate into being a better candidate for the position you are running?

    Don’t just create a laundry list of accomplishments, but work your experience into a larger narrative. Make your biography statements informative and educational.

    How to write a campaign speechAdd details about yourself

    A little bit about you personally goes a long way. Voters want to know about you, but maybe not every detail of your life. Include some photos and even video for the page. Include both personal and professional content that helps provide a rounded idea of who you are. It’s a bit like writing an autobiography, but just using the good stuff.

    Include any endorsements you’ve secured. Have you won awards or been recognized by community organizations. Use those outside sources to help sell you for your desired position/office. It’s easy to say great things about yourself, but when someone else does it, it carries a lot more weight.

    What is it that you want to accomplish?

    What do you want to accomplish during your time in office? Perhaps your goals can relate to previous accomplishments in your life. Use specific examples in your profile. Take a situation, describe how you handled it, and use it as a template for this section.

    • Take an issue profile and expand on it.
    • What are your solutions or plans for tackling the issue?
    • How do your plans differ from your opponent or the way the issue is being handled presently?

    Even more importantly, what’s in it for the voter? How will your work and policies make a difference in the community and lives of the voter? What will inspire people to join and support your cause? Be detailed in your initiatives and spell out how they relate to the voter.

    What makes you the right person for the elected position?

    • You may know the issues and you may have the background, but what makes you the right person for the job?
    • How does your experience relate to the elected position? Have you worked with organizations or other government entities?
    • What skills can you apply toward your goals? This can be organizational or professional skills that will help you perform your duties.
    • Back up your claims. This is a good place to reveal endorsements from community organizations or influential people. Have you won awards or professional achievements?

    End your statement on a strong note

    Finish your candidate biography with a strong statement about your purpose for running and what you hope to accomplish in the office you seek. Be inspirational in your summary. Be specific in what issues you hope to tackle. Leave the reader knowing that you deserve their vote on Election Day.

    You can find sample copy examples at If you are an Online Candidate client, log in through your website administration to access sample copy, articles and tools.

    First or third person for the web?

    Some candidates prefer to write their bio in the third person, others in first person. While first person may come across as more personal, that format is not very useful if you are trying to optimize your content for the search engines. Google doesn’t know who ‘I” and ‘me’ are. Writing in the third person gives your candidate statement plenty of opportunity to use your full name, which can help the material appear in search engine results for people searching your name.

    Have your candidate biography proofread

    Have others you trust read drafts of all your site content to check for grammar, spelling, and content. Others will see your work with fresh eyes and will be able to provide valuable feedback.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Break your bio down for your elevator pitch

    Now that you have written a full candidate biography, it’s time to break it down. You should create a concise version for your ‘elevator pitch’. An elevator pitch is a short description of yourself that explains who you are so that a listener will learn the basics about you very quickly. It should be no longer than 20 to 30 seconds long. It should basically state who you are and what you want to do.

    You can also take written sections of your bio and rework them for your use in other campaign material, such as brochures, mailings and your campaign website. You will even want to incorporate elements into your speeches and public presentations.

    In conclusion

    These steps will help you write a great campaign biography. A strong candidate statement is the cornerstone of informing the public of your background, beliefs and goals.

    With our affordable political website packages, why wait to start your online campaign? Your domain, hosting and content platform are all included to make building your web site as pain-free as possible.

    How to write a campaign speech

    This sample student council speech was sent in by Dylan from the US, who is running for Student Council President. He shared it in order to help provide inspiration for others working on a similar speech.

    I hope you find it useful.

    Beginning of Sample Student Council Speech

    My name is Dylan. I am running for student council president, and I am going to change the school as much as I positively can.

    Most of you know me or have at least seen me around the school. I have been at Menlo for a long time, four years, and have seen the various principals, administrators, and teachers. I have seen what this glorious school needs and to how change things to fit those needs.

    Menlo is not the only school I have been to. I have been to four other schools as well. One of those schools was in Africa. I have a lot of experience in schools and how to make a school thrive. I can bring these various ideas from around the globe right to the center stage of Menlo. I will fix any problem in the school, even if it is a deadly rat infestation!

    There is one thing that many other schools have, that is not so present in Menlo. Does anyone ever ask you what YOU want to do to the school? Does anyone ever ask you how YOU want to help your fellow students? I will take this role with all seriousness and I will take it head on. I will promise to listen to everyone of your problems, comments, or suggestions in connection with the school.

    Because of my heavy immersion in many different schools and environments, I feel as though I can bring a lot of good to Menlo, and only help it positively.

    Choose someone who will fully help Menlo and not treat it like a joke. Choose what your gut is choosing. Vote Dylan for student council president, and LET THE CHANGE BEGIN!

    So you’ve put up your campaign posters, ingrained your slogan into the students’ heads, and are confident in your campaign. What do you do now?

    Give a speech. Let the moment of terror pass, because you are really going to GIVE A SPEECH.

    Drive home your point by giving a speech so powerful that teachers won’t allow future speeches because they can’t compete with yours. How do you do that? By following these simple rules:

    Number 1: Always Dress Nice

    Don’t you feel uncomfortable when someone talks to you dressed like a slob? So what makes you think people in the audience are any different? Before you get up on stage to tell the entire school why they should pick you, you must pick the proper clothes.

    By dressing as if you were about to meet the President of the United States. This will help you look professional and let you get your message across without any distractions.

    Number 2: Write Down Your Main Points

    What do you like about your school? What do you dislike about your school? What are some of your strengths? How will you use these strengths to benefit the school?

    These are some of the ideas you will want to write down. Once you have a list of 5 to 10 points, try to narrow them down. If you are having troulbe coming up with a list, ask your friends and family for help.

    Number 3: Practice Your Speech

    Practice in front of your bathroom mirror. Practice in front of your bedroom mirror. Practice in front of your friends. Practice in front of your family. Practice in front of your pets. Practice in front of anybody that will listen.

    See how long it takes for you to give the speech. Is it longer than the allotted time? Practice some more. Is it too short? Practice some more. The more you practice, the more confidnece you’ll have, and the more votes you’ll get.

    Number 4: Give the Speech.

    Take a deep breath, imagine the audience in their underwear, and deliver a fantastic speech.

    Napoleon all the Way (Campaign speech)

    November 7, 2012

    By: Natalie, Maiya, and Anabel
    Napoleon all the way!

    Opening statement:
    Animals of Animal Farm, man is our enemy. We have been slaughtered by that tyrant Jones, and have been whipped, starved and even killed. Our farm has been in the wrong hands and is now placed in the right hooves and trough. Now our land is green, hearty and rich with freedom. Oppression had been removed. The evil Jones has hurt and killed many of our comrades. I have wept at the sight of how Jones treated us. I was there comrades, right there beside you. If you vote for me, I promise you will not live in fear again because I will make sure no man will ever set foot on Animal Farm AGAIN. I helped free our farm from evil men. I was one of the writers of our 7 commandments, which will protect us from the evil human ways. I stand here today to discuss how Animal Farm could be better and how I can help by enforcing education, protection and equality for all. Let’s consider education, If we are educated animals, we can advance with new technology. We need protection, We need a Plan. What if man invades us, again? If I become your leader, humans will never get through our gates. Lastly, we need equality for all animals.When man ruled, we were oppressed, but now as animals we are free and we work and pull the same weight. Together we can learn the way of a free life on Animal Farm. If you don’t believe me, maybe you will believe a fellow comrade, I quote the grand Squealer, “No one believes more firmly than comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal” (Pg.55)

    Comrades, I Napoleon stand here to say, now that we are free, we animals need a better education. My reason is simple, if we become educated animals then we can advance and help our farm become more productive. We can create new jobs, like engineering and by using our many limbs, we can create new machines to help run the farm. There is no need to worry, I will educate each and every one of you. For example, I taught Blue Bell and Jessie’s puppies loyalty and discipline so they would protect us from that criminal Snowball, whose ideas would have lead to destruction. As our comrade Squealer said, “ Suppose you had decided to follow Snowball with his moonshine of a windmill Snowball, who, as we know, was now better than a criminal.” Therefore, I have helped ALL the animals on this farm. The puppies’ education has just begun. They will continue to learn engineering, science and how to read and write. By communicating with other animals we can build animal alliances to protect us against humans. We will build machinery to advance our farm. Vote for me, and look to the future. Education is the key to a brighter future!

    Speaking of a brighter future, protection is also vital to our farm. Right now, I believe that we do not have enough security. Blue Bell and Jessie’s puppies are obedient and chase away potential threats. They are also strong enough to scare off our enemies, but I will teach them to guard us as well. We will all learn to protect ourselves. Once everyone is educated, I will teach everyone martial arts. As the grand Old Major said, when man ruled, and I quote, ”No animal escapes the cruel knife in the end.” Remember, if we do not protect ourselves from man, we are in danger of being enslaved by humans again. Vote for me for a safer future.

    Equality can also lead to a safer future.Which is why equality is important. We as animals are all equal. We eat from the same crops, drink the same water, why, we even sleep together in the same barn. Equality is very important to me. If we were not all equal animals, we would be rising up against each other. Fighting, killing, abusing, who knows what else. With equality we all have the same rights on the farm. Together we have accomplished so much and together we can accomplish even more! I will it say again, WE ARE ALL EQUAL. The 7th commandment states, “All animals are equal.“ We are already equal, we all get along, and we appreciate everyone in every way, our farm is the perfect symbol of equality. I want you all to know, I’m not special, I don’t need special treatment, I’m just like you comrades. Vote for me and I will keep us equal.

    Closing statement:
    In closing, I stand by my principles of protection, equality and education. I believe these are the building blocks for a successful farm. Equality is important for we must work together, protection is important because we must be safe from our enemies and education is important for progress and because it can help us through the path of life . Animals of Animal Farm, it is your time to decide, will you vote for the criminal Snowball, the unintelligent Boxer who cannot get us past the letter D, the power hungry council, or will you vote for your comrade, Napoleon, who will stand by you and protect you.

    It’s not that difficult to write a self introduction speech, that is both flattering and truthful. All you need is a proper sense of self, a little bit of creativity and good oratory skills. This article will help you write one for yourself.

    How to write a campaign speech

    It’s not that difficult to write a self introduction speech, that is both flattering and truthful. All you need is a proper sense of self, a little bit of creativity and good oratory skills. This article will help you write one for yourself.

    How to write a campaign speech

    Everyone’s been asked to introduce themselves at various occasions in their life. While we may do it as a customary formality most of the time, we do not realize that what we say in our introduction is the first impression that a new person has about us. And it’s this self introduction that can go a long way in making or breaking a particular situation for you. There may arise situations in the future when you’ll have to write a self introduction speech and use it to tell people what you’re all about. This Penlighten article has the lowdown on what are the dos and don’ts of an introduction speech for yourself.

    Steps to Write a Self Introduction Speech

    • Always begin with your name. The speech is about you, and the people listening to you may or may not know you. So, for the benefit of those who don’t, always state your name first. If it’s a business meeting, then the name of your position at your organization may also follow.
    • After your name, the reign is yours. It’s up to you to captivate the audience with whatever you can tell them about yourself.
    • You can give the audience a little background information about where you’re from, where you grew up, where you studied, etc. This helps the audience to identify with you.
    • Hobbies are always a good topic to talk about when you write a self introduction speech. Tell the audience what your interests are, what your passions are, how you pursue these hobbies and what got you interested in them.
    • Another aspect about yourself that you can include in an introduction speech about yourself are your strengths. A self introduction speech is a perfect platform to blow your proverbial trumpet, so do so shamelessly. However, take care that you don’t appear too condescending or demean others while doing so. Make a mention of all your achievements and how you went about making them.
    • Apart from your strengths, a good facet of yourself to include in a self introduction is some of your shortcomings and weaknesses. This will highlight your modesty and humility as well. Don’t go overboard doing this, it might create the wrong impression in the minds of the audience.
    • Another thing to include in your self introduction speech are the goals and ambitions that you have for yourself. What you want to do, where you see yourself in the near and the distant future is something that could interest your audience.
    • You can also get a little philosophical and tell the audience about some important lessons that you’ve learned in the course of life. Do this with extreme caution, you don’t want to bore the audience.
    • You can use the above-mentioned points in the order of your preference. Whatever order you use them in, make sure that they lead suitably to a good conclusion. The beginning and the end of your speech are definitely the most striking features of your speech will stay etched in the minds of your audience. So make sure that both of them are appropriately effective.

    Tips and Tricks

    • Induce humor in your speech. When you speak about your strengths and weaknesses, use some funny incidents that took place to highlight them better.
    • Look at the audience when you speak. There’s nothing that puts an audience off more than an orator who seems too absorbed in his notes or worse, has no idea where to look. Looking your audience in the eye gives them the reassurance that you are confident about what you’re saying.
    • You can also gesticulate with your hands. It will ease out any nervousness and give you a sense of confidence and self-assurance.
    • Use anecdotes in your speech to explain things like achievements, etc. It not only makes the speech more interesting, it also gives it credibility.
    • Never lie in a self introduction speech. Whether it is about your achievements, your strengths or your weaknesses. Unless of course you want to be stuck in a situation in which your audience asks you questions that you don’t have answers to.
    • Last, but not the least, don’t go on and on about yourself. You’ll have a limited amount of time to talk, so make best use of it.

    These were some simple, fundamental points to be kept in mind, especially when you write a self introduction speech. What you say about yourself and the way you say it makes a lasting impression in the minds of the audience. So be confident, be honest and you’ll definitely paint a favorable picture of yourself.

    How to write a prescription

    As busy students, we can’t help but love technology. Computers make it easier to organize class notes, look up patient charts, and record data during clinic. And with a couple checks of a box on an electronic medical record, we can have a patient’s prescription printed out and ready to go! This is a huge time-saver and keeps us from making silly errors. But as we all know, computers crash. Printers jam. And sometimes, we need to do things the old-fashioned way. Below you will find a quick reference guide to hand-writing a prescription correctly!

    The eight numbers above correspond to the eight numbered headings below:

    1. Patient Information

    It’s important to include the patient’s full name, age, and current address . This helps minimize confusion with another patient of the same name, and age information is sometimes needed in order to monitor drug dosage.

    2. Prescription Date

    Including the date on which the prescription was written is a crucial piece, especially if you are prescribing a heavy-hitting schedule II, III, or IV drug. You probably won’t be prescribing many scheduled drugs as an optometrist, though some states do permit prescribing narcotics for ocular pain. A summary of the different schedule categories is included below. Check out the DEA website for more information!

    How to write a prescription

    3. Rx Symbol

    Considering that many of us use the term “Rx” and “medication” interchangeably, I think it’s safe to say we are all familiar with this! This symbol is the superscription (i.e., heading) and it highlights the beginning of your instructions for dispensing the medication.

    4. Medication prescribed

    This line is the inscription, which is where you will include details about the specific drug and percentage you want to prescribe. Although it can be tedious to write out long drug names or the phrase “ophthalmic suspension,” it is always best to avoid abbreviations. This will cut down on patient tampering and will also make things perfectly clear for the pharmacist. The inscription should include the following:

    • Drug name – can be generic or trade name
    • Drug strength – especially if the drug comes in more than one strength
    • Drug formulation

    How to write a prescription

    5. Dispensing directions

    This is where you will let the pharmacist know what exactly to hand over to the patient. These directions are known as the subscription. Some caveats:

    • Write the amount the pharmacist will dispense, preceded by “dispense,” “disp,” or “#”
    • Always spell numbers out to prevent confusion and possible alterations
    • Include the bottle size, ointment tube size, or number of tablets or capsules

    6. Patient use directions

    This section is called the signatura – sig for short – and is where you lay out the nitty-gritty details for how and when the patient will use the prescribed medication. If you’re worried about writing a novel, don’t be! Write in plain language, and include as much information as needed to ensure proper patient compliance. Here are some things to include:

    • Amount of drug to take each time
    • When to take the medication (frequency, duration) – avoid “PRN”
    • Route of administration
    • How to administer the medication (for us, usually via the eye!)
    • When to discontinue use
    • Diagnosis is optional but helpful to include

    How to write a prescription

    7. Refills

    This is where you should designate refills, as well as any other special labeling or instructions. Here is another circumstance where you want to minimize the likelihood that the prescription could be altered in any way, so be sure to write “none” if you don’t want to prescribe any refills!

    Other special instructions could include:

    • Shake before instillation
    • For external use only
    • Keep refrigerated/do not freeze
    • Take with food
    • Avoid alcohol

    8. Prescriber’s information

    Here is where you sign! Also make sure your signature, address, phone number, and NPI number are included on the prescription sheet. If you are prescribing controlled substances, you will also need to include your DEA number.

    Now you should have all of the tools to write out a prescription by hand! Have any comments or questions? Comment below!

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    Our Mission: To improve the profession of optometry by better educating and preparing students to enhance the lives and vision of their patients.

    Last Updated on November 7, 2021 by SDN Staff

    Updated November 7, 2021.

    Are you learning to write a prescription? It’s not that difficult once you know the seven steps to write a prescription safely. Every drug prescription consists of seven parts: the prescriber’s information, the patient’s information, the recipe (the medication, or Rx), the signature (the patient instructions or Sig), the dispensing instructions (how much medication to be dispensed to the patient or Disp), the number of refills (or Rf), and the prescriber’s signature (including his or her National Provider Identifier and/or Drug Enforcement Agency number). Below are each of these sections in detail.

    Time needed: 3 minutes.

    How to write a prescription in 7 steps:

    This information is usually found at the top of the prescription. It generally consists of the prescribing clinician’s name, office address, and contact information (usually the office’s telephone number).

    Patient’s Information

    Below the prescriber’s information is the patient’s information. This section will include the patient’s full name, age, and date of birth. Sometimes the patient’s home address will be found here, as well. You should also specify the date you wrote the prescription.

    Recipe (Rx)

    The recipe should include the medication being prescribed, its dose, and its dosage form. For example, if you are prescribing 650 milligrams (mg) tablets of acetaminophen, you would write “acetaminophen 650 mg tablets” or “acetaminophen 650 mg tabs.”

    Signatura (Sig)

    After the recipe is the signature, the signature (Sig) gives the patient instructions on how to take the medication. The Sig should include information on how much drug to take, how to take it, and how often to take it.

    For example, if you would like your patient to take one 650 mg tablet of acetaminophen every six hours, you would write “Take 1 tablet by mouth every six hours” or, using abbreviations, “1 tab PO q6h.”

    For as-needed or pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions, you should indicate that the prescription is PRN and describe the conditions under which your patient can take the prescribed medication. Writing your prescription as a PRN order essentially gives the patient the option to take the drug when needed.
    Let’s say that you would like your patient to be able to take one 650 mg tablet of acetaminophen every six hours when he or she has a headache. In that case, your instructions would read, “Take 1 tablet by mouth every six hours as needed for a headache” or “1 tab PO q6h PRN headache.”

    Dispensing Instructions (Disp)

    Next comes the dispensing instructions, which let the pharmacist know how much medication you would like your patient to receive. You should include the amount of medication you would like to be dispensed and the form in which it should be released. You should also make sure to write out any numbers you use here to minimize the risk of a medication error. For our acetaminophen example, if you would like your patient to receive a one-week supply (or 28 tablets) of the medication, you would write “28 (twenty-eight) tablets” or “28 (twenty-eight) tabs.”

    Number of Refills (Rf)

    After the dispensing instructions, specify how many times you would like your patient to refill his or her medication. Be sure to write out again any numbers you use. If you do not want to prescribe any refills, write “zero refills.” For our hypothetical acetaminophen example, if you are prescribing one refill, you would write “1 (one) refill.”

    Prescriber’s Signature

    At the bottom of the prescription, you should sign your name. Oftentimes, you will include your National Provider Identifier (NPI) in this section. For controlled substances, you usually will include your Drug Enforcement Agency Number. These are necessary for the pharmacy to verify your prescription more easily.

    So for our hypothetical acetaminophen example, our prescription looks like this:

    How to write a prescriptionExample of a properly written prescription following the 7 steps.

    In 2020, over four and a half billion prescriptions were filled at pharmacies across the United States. Given their sheer prevalence, prescriptions are a key source of medical errors. In fact, prescription errors account for 70% of medication errors that result in harm. Thus, it is crucial that all clinicians master the ability to properly write a prescription.

    In learning to write a prescription properly, it is worth discussing two common sources of prescription errors. First, if you are handwriting your prescription, make sure that it is legible. While e-prescribing is increasingly making handwritten prescriptions a thing of the past, you will likely have to manually prescribe medications at some point in your career. Illegible prescriptions are a source of frustration for patients, pharmacists, and other medical providers, and can increase the risk of medication errors. No matter how busy you are, it is always better to spend a few extra seconds slowly writing out a legible prescription than risk your patient’s health.

    Always be cautious when using abbreviations. While abbreviations are commonly used in medicine, you should keep in mind that the risk of a medication error is increased when abbreviations are ambiguous or misused. So if you choose to use abbreviations in your prescriptions, be sure only to use well-known ones (commonly used medical abbreviations can be found here). If you are unsure whether you should use an abbreviation, spend the extra few seconds to write out your directions completely.

    This article will guide you to learn about how to write a prescription. Also learn about the format of prescription writing.

    Prescription Writing:

    A prescription is an order to a pharmacist by a clinician to prepare and dispense or sell the preparation to a patient or to an animal owner. It is a legally recognised document and clinician is held responsible for its accuracy. As a licensed practitioner, veterinarians are entitled by law to dispense, administer or prescribe medications for animal patients.

    A prescription focuses the diagnostic acumen and therapeutic proficiency of the clinician. It should be clearly written, so that misinterpretation in like-appearing names of drugs is avoided. Owner of patients should be instructed adequately on how to administer prescribed medication. The prescription must be written in ink or otherwise so as to be indelible.

    Form of the Prescription:

    The classical prescription should have the following essential parts in order:

    The date on which prescription is written.

    2. The identity, age, sex, breed of an animal and address of owner also be mentioned.

    3. Superscription:

    It consists of the symbol Rx, an abbreviation of the Latin word recipe which means “take thou of”. It is also the Roman symbol for Jupiter and is presumably intended to invoke his help in making the prescription effective in the cure of disease.

    4. Inscription:

    The inscription is the body of the prescription which lists the names and the amount of drugs to be incorporated in the prescription. The names of the drugs should be in English and total amounts required should be written in the metric system Abbreviations and chemical formulae of drug should be avoided.

    If prescriber desires the patient to have a particular proprietary preparation this should be stated in the prescription. In practice, prescription orders seldom contain more than one drug name. Traditionally when more than one ingredients are prescribed then their order should be – (a) basis, (b) adjuvant, (c) corrective and (d) vehicle.

    5. Subscription:

    The subscription directs pharmacist, dispenser what to make from ingredients i.e. mixture, liniment, ointment etc. and the quantity of the formulation to dispense. These instructions may be entirely in English or with Latin abbreviations.

    6. The Signa (Sig. or S.) or Signature:

    The signature does not refer to the prescriber’s signature but it is derived from the Latin word ‘Signature’ which means ‘let it be labeled’. It is the part of the prescription where the prescriber instructs the pharmacist what he wishes to be written on the label of the dispended product.

    Occasionally, this part of the prescription order is called the transcription. It is good prescription practice to include, under this part of any prescription the words for ‘animal treatment only’, the dose, and any particular directions or precautions relating to the use of the product.

    7. Prescriber’s Signature:

    The signature of the practitioner must appear on the prescription to make it a legal document. Physician’s full name his/her address and his/her registration number may also be mentioned. The essential parts of a classical prescription are presented in the following example.

    How to write a prescription

    The modern prescription is written as simply as possible. It consists of a minimum number of drugs, written in English, employs metric system and may use several abbreviations.

    Classes of Prescription Orders:

    Prescription orders are divided into two classes depending upon the availability of the prescribed medications.

    (i) Pre-compounded and

    (ii) Extemporaneous or Compounded or Magistral

    A pre-compounded prescription order is one that calls for a drug or mixture of drugs supplied by the pharmaceutical company by its official or proprietary name and pharmacist dispense the same in the form available without making any pharmaceutical alteration.

    Example of pre-compounded prescription order:

    Calamine lotion – 480 ml

    Shake well before use and apply daily on skin lesions.

    For animal treatment only.

    While in extemporaneous or compounded prescription, the clinician selects the drugs, doses and form of the preparation that he/she desires and the pharmacist prepares the medication accordingly.

    Examples of common extemporaneous or compounded prescription orders used in animal treatment are listed below:

    How to write a prescription

    How to write a prescription

    How to write a prescription


    A number of abbreviations of Latin words and phrases have been conventionally used in prescription writing. Leaving aside a few, most of them are gradually disappearing from the prescriptions.

    Names of the drugs to be included in the prescription should not be abbreviated. Chemical formulas must not be used in prescription writing as it may increase the probability of error. The following is the list of some abbreviations used in prescription writing.

    A prescription is one of the most important and significant papers which should contain only accurate information and there is no place for any typos or errors. The explanation has to be as clear as possible.

    Who can write a prescription? It can be a doctor, medical assistant, nurse, or paramedical worker. The information in the prescription has to be as minimized as possible. Not all the medicines need to be prescribed, so there are laws determining which of them need and which don’t.

    Prescription errors lead to negative consequences. So writing a prescription is a task that requires special attention. Let’s find out how to do it properly to avoid poor results.

    General Information

    When writing a prescription, you should include certain information in it. And here is what exactly:

    Patient’s identifiers

    First of all, you have to include at least two identifiers of your patient. The identity of the person who will use that prescription has to be clarified. So make sure to include at least two identifiers in every setting. The identifiers can be as follows:

    • Full name;
    • Date of birth;
    • Phone number;
    • Address.

    The first two identifiers are the most common. If the prescription is written not in the hospital, you should also include his phone number and current address. You cannot state just one identifier, even if you write the full name of the patient. There are people with identical names, so it will be difficult to identify whose prescription it is.

    Your information

    The name and contact information of the prescriber is a must. You should include your full name, the medical practice address, and its phone number. Make sure to include also such information, as the United States Drug Enforcement Administration number (DEA). As a rule, it is already stated on the form. But in case there is no such information, add it manually.

    There are prescriptions that have to be filed within a certain period of time. But you should state the date in any case, because there are schedule categories for time-sensitive drugs:

    • Schedule I drugs. They are not legally accepted for medical use in the USA because of a high risk of abuse;
    • Schedule II drugs. They are legally accepted for medical use in the USA although still have a high risk of abuse;
    • Schedule III drugs. They can be used for medical purposes and have some potential risk for abuse;
    • Schedule IV drugs. They are legally accepted for some medical purposes and have a pretty low risk of abuse;
    • Schedule V drugs. These drugs are allowed for medical use and have the lowest risk of abuse.

    Your signature

    Every prescription has to be signed by the prescriber, otherwise, it cannot be considered valid. The signature also has its place in the prescription and it is to be stated in a specific line at the bottom of your prescription form.

    Note! Avoid signing your prescriptions beforehand. First, fill in the body of the prescription and only then sign it up. This way, you will avoid problems in case a blank prescription is in someone’s bad hands.

    What Is Inscription?

    Now let’s find out how to write an inscription. Follow the tips below:

    The “Rx” symbol

    You should write this “superscription” symbol before your instructions. As a rule, this symbol is printed on the prescription form. The inscription information, including the information about the drug, follows that symbol.

    The medication and its strength

    Never use the name of the brand. Instead, write the generic name of the drug. Only if you are intended to prescribe the medicine of a specific brand, you can write it. But it may be expensive for your patient, so avoid specifying the brand names.

    If you choose to do so, write “No Generics” in your prescription. Some prescription forms have such fields as “No Generics” or “Brand Name Only”. So you can use them.

    The majority of medications have different strengths, so your duty is to specify the strength to be prescribed right after its name. Milligrams go for tablets and suppositories; milliliters go for fluids. Avoid using abbreviations not to confuse the patient.

    What Is Subscription?

    Now here is the full information on how to write the subscription:

    The amount of the prescription

    The pharmacist has to know exactly how much of the medication he or she should pass to the patient. That information will follow such words or signs as “dispense”, “disp”, “#”, “how much”. Don’t forget to spell the numbers.

    The number of permitted refills

    This information also has to be included in your prescription. If your patient has a chronic disease, you may allow a certain refills’ number instead of another prescription.

    When no refills are allowed, just write “Refills 0” or “Refills none”.

    The Directions for Patient Use

    The patient has to know how to use or take the medicines prescribed. So here is the information to include in the prescription:

    The route

    Specify the method of taking the prescribed medication, it is called the route. Write all the instructions using Latina abbreviations or English terms:

    • PO – by mouth;
    • IM – intramuscular;
    • PR – per rectum;
    • SL – sublingual;
    • IV – intravenous;
    • IN – intranasal;
    • TP – topical;
    • ID – intradermal;
    • IP – intraperitoneal;
    • BUCC – buccal.

    The dosage and frequency

    The dosage amount has to be specified as well. The patient has to know the exact dose of medicines to take each time. He also should know how and when to take the medicines. Avoid using abbreviations here, better write the frequency fully.

    Abbreviations for the medication to be used “daily” or “every other day” are forbidden! But there are abbreviations for other frequencies:

    • BID – twice a day;
    • Q4H – every four hours;
    • QHS – every bedtime;
    • TID – three times a day;
    • QID – four times a day;
    • QWK – every week;
    • Q4-6H – every four to six hours.

    Also, you should specify when the patient has to stop using the medication. The majority of them are taken until they run out. However, if you want your patient to stop taking the medicines once the symptoms disappear, state it.

    The diagnosis

    Write a brief diagnosis or reason for taking the medicines if it is used only when needed. The diagnosis should follow the PRN abbreviation. There are also some common instructions you may include in your prescription, for example, “take with food”, “do not freeze”, etc.

    What is a Prescription?

    Table of Contents

    A prescription is a legal document or order written by a qualified health care professional for diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a specific patient’s disease.

    • Is written by a licensed practitioner
    • Is written as part of a proper physician-patient relationship
    • Is a legal document, “prima facie” evidence in a court of law.

    (Note: A prima facie case is a lawsuit that alleges facts adequate to prove the underlying conduct supporting the cause of action and thereby prevail.)


    Literally, “Recipe” means simply “Take…” and when a medical practitioner writes a prescription beginning with “Rx”, he or she is completing the command.

    It is probably originally directed at the pharmacist who needed to take a certain amount of each ingredient to compound the medicine (rather than at the patient who must take/consume” it).

    How to write a prescription

    Types of Prescription forms:

    1. Private prescription form: This type of prescription is generally written on a form that includes the prescriber’s name, address, and qualification. Rx is written to indicate this is a prescription form. This is issued by private prescribers.
    2. National Health Service (NHS) prescription form: It is only issued for NHS patients i.e. patients suffering from certain diseases and is issued by Government Prescribers.

    Parts of the Prescription:

    1. Date:

    • All prescriptions expire after one year. In the case of narcotics and other habit-forming drugs, the date prevents the misuse of the drugs by the patient. It helps a pharmacist to know when the medicine was last dispensed if the prescription is brought for dispensing.

    2. Patient Information:

    • Name
    • Address
    • Age
    • Weight (optional, but useful – especially in pediatrics)
    • Time (used only with inpatient medication orders)

    3. Superscription:

    Represented by symbol Rxe traditional symbol for a prescription which is always written before writing a prescription. This is derived from the Latin word ‘recipe’ which means to take. Instruction is given to the pharmacist as well as the patient to take the medicine as prescribed. Another theory proposed by some scholars is that it drives by the symbol for the god Jupiter. The connection to healing was via prayers that a specific treatment would be effective and the individual would get better.

    4. Inscription:

    This is the main body of prescription which includes the name and quantity of medicine that are prescribed. This is written in the English language. All medicines are written in separate lines along with the required quantity needed to treat the disease.

    What is the pharmacist to take off the shelf?

    Dose = Quantity of drug per dose form

    Dose Form = The physical entity needed, i.e. tablet, suspension, capsule

    Simple versus compound prescriptions

    Manufactured versus compounded prescriptions

    Clarity of number forms 0.2, 20 not 2.0 (Zeros lead but do not follow!)

    5. Subscription:

    These are instructions given to the pharmacist for dispensing the number of doses to the patient and how the medicine has to be taken before meal or after the meal.

    What is the pharmacist to do with the ingredients?

    Quantity to be dispensed (determines the amount in bottle) Dispense # 24.

    For controlled substances write in numbers and letters (like a bank cheque)

    i.e., 24 (twenty-four)

    Any special compounding instructions.

    6. Signa, Signatura or Transcription:

    Sig – write, or let it be labeled (Latin terms: Signa or signature)

    Instructions for the patient

    • Route of administration

    Oral, nasally, rectally, etc

    Take by mouth …, Give, Chew, Swallow whole, etc.

    • Number of dosage units per dose

    Take one tablet, Give two teaspoonfuls, etc.

    • Frequency of dosing

    every six hours, once a day …

    • Duration of dosing

    for seven days, … until gone,…if needed for pain.

    • Purpose of medication

    for pain, for asthma, for headache, etc.

    VERY IMPORTANT to include purpose as this reduces errors!

    “As directed by a physician”

    • Special instructions (shake well, refrigerate, etc.)
    • Warnings

    7. Refills or renewal Instruction:

    Indicate either no refills or the number of refills you want (do not leave it blank). Determines the maximum duration of therapy.

    8. Signature, address, and registration of Prescriber:

    This makes the prescription a legal document. A signature, prescriber registration number is necessary especially in the case of habit-forming drugs. The prescriber must write “brand necessary,” “brand medically necessary,” or “DAW” (Dispense As Written) to get non-generics.

    How to write a prescription Fig: How to Write a Prescription.

    How to write a prescription

    Writing a prescription is both a science and an art. With the recent notification of the government and the council, indeed many medical practitioners have been left confused on how to go about writing their prescriptions. Yet doctors also need to keep in mind that there are many essential, sometimes legal requirements that are mandated in a practitioner’s prescription, and some very.

    Writing a prescription is both a science and an art. With the recent notification of the government and the council, indeed many medical practitioners have been left confused on how to go about writing their prescriptions. Yet doctors also need to keep in mind that there are many essential, sometimes legal requirements that are mandated in a practitioner’s prescription, and some very important points that we must remember, while undertaking this routine yet most significant task. While there are pointers for doctors to remember here and there, there are no set guidelines that medical practitioners in India can follow given by the government or the council.

    Having said that the Voluntary Health Association of Goa, with inputs from various stakeholders has come out with Guidelines for prescription writing and handling of prescriptions and prescription medicines

    A prescription has various parts; some of them “mandatory” (as per the Drugs & Cosmetics Act and Rules, or the Medical Council of India), and some of them though not mandatory, important for better understanding of the prescription by the pharmacist and the patient also. Here are some of the key elements that every prescription should contain as highlighted by the Voluntary Health Association Goa guidelines.

    Details pertaining to DOCTORS

    Details pertaining to PATIENT

    Details pertaining to MEDICINES

    Besides giving the important key points, the guideline also lays down some important tips for doctors

    Don’t hurt anything that has a name

    How to write a prescription

    According to exercise physiologist Michael Hewitt, PhD, health can be viewed as a four-legged stool. The four legs are physical activity, optimal nutrition, stress management and sleep. If any one of them is missing, the stool will wobble. If two are missing, it will fall. For practicing physicians and trainees, sleep is often the hardest of the four to manage. Stress is next – it is part of our job, but can be reduced with with meditation and exercise. Paying attention to what you eat (especially on call) and cooking your own food will help improve your nutrition. The fourth “leg” may be the most important (and most neglected) aspect of physician health – physical activity.

    It doesn’t matter how healthy (or not) you are – if you add more physical activity to your week you will improve your health. We all learn this in medical school – exercise helps prevent and treat a wide variety of chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, arthritis… the list goes on and on. Exercise is medicine! The message is clear, we should be increasing our own physical activity and “prescribing” activity for our patients.

    Dr. Hewitt suggests that it’s not that hard to write an actual prescription for exercise. First, decide what “dose” is needed – disease prevention, basic health level, enhanced fitness level, or performance level and then – literally – write a prescription that includes each of the 5 components of exercise.

    Here is what the prescriptions would look like (below). You can actually write them on prescription pads for your patients. (Don’t forget to write one for yourself… this is a really good exception to the rule that we shouldn’t write prescriptions for ourselves or our families.)

    Disease Prevention

    Cardiovascular Exercise: Accumulate 30-60 minutes of physical activity most days

    Strength Training: Include weight-bearing activity most days

    Flexibility: Maintain range of motion by bending and stretching in daily activities

    Body Composition: Men Basic Health Level

    Cardiovascular Exercise: Play or large muscle repetitive activity 20+ minutes 3 times a week

    Strength Training: Leg press or squat,chest press, lat pull down or row 1-2 sets 2x/week with enough weight to challenge your muscles

    Flexibility: 2-4 limitation-specific stretches after activity, hold 20-30 seconds

    Body Composition: Men Enhanced Fitness Level

    Cardiovascular Exercise: Play or aerobic activity 40-60+minutes 4-6 times per week

    Strength Training: Balanced whole-body machine or free weight program, 2-3 sets, 3x/week to “functional failure”

    Flexibility: 6-10+ whole-body stretches after activity, 1-2 reps

    Body Composition: Men: 12-20% body fat, Women 20-30% body fat

    Balance and Agility: Recreational sports: tennis, bicycle, tai chi, dancing, stability ball training

    Performance Level

    Cardiovascular Exercise: Add interval training and/or competition

    Strength Training: Add muscle endurance or power training, add pilates work, add ascending or descending pyramids

    Felixibility: Add yoga, pilates, facilitated stretching with a partner

    Body Composition: Men 8-15% body fat, Women 17-25% body fat

    Balance and Agility: High level sports: ski, skate, surf, yoga, martial arts

    How to write a prescription

    How to write a prescription

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    Lantus 100 Units/ml solution for injection in SoloStar pre-filled pen What is a Patient Information Leaflet and why is it useful? The Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) is the leaflet included in the pack with a medicine. It is written for patients and gives information about taking or using a medicine. It is possible that the leaflet in your medicine pack may differ from this version because it may have been updated since your medicine was packaged. Download Leaflet View the patient leaflet in PDF format Below is a text only representation of the Patient Information Leaflet, the original can be viewed in PDF format using the link above. The text only version may be available from RNIB in large print, Braille or audio CD. For further information call RNIB Medicine Leaflet Line on 0800 198 5000. The product code(s) for this leaflet are: EU/1/00/134/030, EU/1/00/134/037, EU/1/00/134/031, EU/1/00/134/033, EU/1/00/134/036, EU/1/00/134/034, EU/1/00/134/035, EU/1/00/134/032. Lantus 100 Units/ml solution for injection in SoloStar pre-filled pen Package leaflet: Information for the user 100 units/ml solution for injection in a pre-filled pen Read all of this leaflet carefully including the Instructions for Use of Lantus SoloStar, pre- filled pen, before you start using this medicine because it contains important information for you. Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. If you have any further questions, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours. If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4. 1. What Lantus is and what it is u Continue reading >>

    How to write a prescription

    Carol Eustice is a writer covering arthritis and chronic illness, who herself has been diagnosed with both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    How to write a prescription

    Violetta Shamilova, PharmD, is a board-certified pharmacist and assistant professor at Touro College in New York.

    How to write a prescription

    Elaine Hinzey is a registered dietitian, writer, and fact-checker with nearly two decades of experience in educating clients and other healthcare professionals.

    You may have seen letters like hs, q.i.d., or b.i.d. on your prescriptions. These are abbreviations for Latin phrases.

    Centuries ago, all prescriptions were written in Latin. Today these abbreviations are only used in the drug’s directions.

    Your pharmacy will translate your healthcare provider’s instructions on the medicine’s label. Sometimes, though, a mistake can happen.

    Many drugs, like arthritis medication or pain medication, can be dangerous if you take the wrong dose. Knowing how to read prescription abbreviations can protect you from dangerous errors.

    This article will discuss the Latin abbreviations healthcare providers use on prescriptions and help you learn how to translate them. It will also discuss steps you can take to protect yourself from prescribing errors.

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    Verywell / Ellen Lindner

    The Origins of “Rx” as an Abbreviation for “Prescription”

    Rx is an abbreviation for “prescription.” Most people think it comes from the Latin word “recipe,” which means “take.”

    According to another theory, the Rx symbol is based on the Roman deity Jupiter. Jupiter’s symbol looked similar to the Rx symbol. The symbol may have been placed on a prescription to invoke Jupiter’s blessing.

    An Example of Prescription Abbreviations

    Here is an example of what a healthcare provider might write on a prescription:

    Sig: 1 tab po qid pc & hs

    These abbreviations are instructions for taking the medication. The pharmacist will translate them for the medication label. In this case, the instructions will read: “Take one tablet by mouth four times a day, after meals, and at bedtime.”

    The abbreviations may be written in capital letters or small letters, and may or may not include periods.

    Common Latin Rx Terms

    Some common Latin prescription abbreviations include:

    • ac (ante cibum) means “before meals”
    • bid (bis in die) means “twice a day”
    • gt (gutta) means “drop”
    • hs (hora somni) means “at bedtime”
    • od (oculus dexter) means “right eye”
    • os (oculus sinister) means “left eye”
    • po (per os) means “by mouth”
    • pc (post cibum) means “after meals”
    • prn (pro re nata) means “as needed”
    • q3h (quaque 3 hora) means “every three hours”
    • qd (quaque die) means “every day”
    • qid (quater in die) means “four times a day”
    • Sig (signa) means “write”
    • tid (ter in die) means “three times a day”

    Declining Use of Abbreviations

    The Latin terms are still in use, but some healthcare providers are retiring them. It is becoming more common for healthcare providers to write prescription instructions in plain language.

    Readable prescriptions can help prevent medication errors. That is why many medical professionals think written instructions should be used instead of hard-to-read abbreviations.

    For example, the abbreviation qd, which means “daily,” could be mistaken for qid, which means “four times a day.” It could also be confused for od, which means “right eye.” Simply writing “daily” prevents confusion.

    E-prescribing, or electronic prescribing, can also help prevent medication errors. Instructions sent directly to the pharmacy electronically are less prone to human error. If your healthcare provider uses electronic prescribing, you may never see the abbreviations.

    E-prescribing improves patient safety in a number of ways:

    • It eliminates hard-to-read prescriptions.
    • It reduces the need for verbal communication, which can lead to mistakes.
    • It can let the healthcare provider know if the patient has a drug allergy.
    • It can alert the healthcare provider to possible drug interactions.
    • The healthcare provider can easily view the patient’s medication history.


    Healthcare providers sometimes use Latin abbreviations on prescriptions. Understanding these abbreviations can help you avoid a medication error.

    Some healthcare providers are moving away from Latin abbreviations and using plain language instead. Written instructions can help prevent medication errors. Electronic prescriptions can also reduce the chance of a mistake.

    A Word From Verywell

    If you receive a written prescription, make sure you understand the directions. If the directions are unclear or confusing, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist to explain. Do not take your medication unless you understand the instructions. Take no chances.

    If your medication is prescribed electronically, you may not see the instructions until they appear on the label. At that point, it is important to consult your pharmacist if you have questions. It is always a good idea to go over the instructions with your pharmacist. Do your part to avoid medication errors.

    At CFS Pharmacy, our compounding professionals are ready to work with you on a customized medication solution that fits the needs of your patient or patient population. But first, we will need a prescription order from the practitioner. The form on this page is your guide for writing a prescription for a compounded medication.

    For our compounded medication prescription, the prescription form should begin with the words “Compounded Medication.” We will need to know:

    • The generic name of the active ingredients
    • Strength or dose (in mg or percent)
    • Quantity
    • Directions for use

    Our pharmacists are always happy to answer any questions you may have about compounded medications, and to discuss formulations with you. Contact us if you need more information about writing a compounded medication prescription.

    We look forward to serving you and your patients with a customized medication solution that’s perfect for your needs!


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    Compounded Prescriptions Tailored to Your Patient’s Needs

    For a compounded prescription, we need the following information: Compounded prescriptions are tailored for your patients’ individual needs. For a compounded prescription, we need the following information:

    • Prescriber Info – First Name, Last Name, Address, Phone, and Fax. NPI and DEA.
    • Patient Info – First Name, Last Name, Date of Birth, and Cell Phone Number/Email
    • Complete Prescription Information – Drug, Dose, Dosage Form, Directions, Quantity, and Refills.
    • Cream Preparations – We are happy to do the math per application; just indicate the dose and we will calculate the concentration.
    • Prescriber Signature – Please provide an authentic prescriber signature for all controlled substances. Stamps and electronic signatures faxed in are not considered valid by the DEA.

    States requiring electronic prescribing for all prescriptions: California, Florida, Iowa, and New York.

    How to write a prescription

    Daily Supply Limits

    We are bound to state laws, and this can sometimes limit the days supply we can send to your patients. The following are some restrictions with what we can ship:

    • Maximum 30 days supply on all topical preparations.
    • 14 days on all water-based solutions (non-preserved).
    • Maximum 150 days supply on all compounds due to beyond use dating.
    • 90 days on suppositories and troches.

    How To Send a Prescription

    Call our Toll-Free Phone number 800.525.9473 and click 3 to speak with a pharmacist or leave a voicemail.

    Fax our Toll-Free number 866.415.2923. If there is any missing information, we will contact you back via fax asking for specific content.

    We use a secure 2-factor authentication that is compatible with most systems. Just search for Belmar Pharmacy and our connection information should populate.

    Our complimentary Prescriber Portal gives you access to view, track and write prescriptions online. For Prescriber Portal inquiries contact us.

    How to Send In a Pellet Order

    • Email (preferred) – Email your electronically fillable order form to your Solutions Engineer or to [email protected]
    • Fax – Fax to BSO directly 877.267.3409
    • Call – Call BSO directly 877.267.3410

    Download our Pellet Order Form to your computer for future use.

    It is recommended to place bulk orders to save on shipping costs and plan accordingly to avoid oversized orders and expired pellets. We cannot return, exchange or replace expired pellets. Your Solutions Engineer can provide you with an analytical forecast of your ordering process to stay organized. We are an extension of your practice and here to help you with inventory management.

    Belmar pellets have a 360-day shelf life from the date they were compound manufactured. If a lot is within 30 days of expiration, we will not send it out without notifying you first. If you are placing a large order, you may call and speak with our BSO Support Team to check lot expirations.

    For more information or help writing a compounded prescription, contact us.

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    For Providers

    Belmar Pharmacy now offers physicians free, secure online access to our electronic prescription management system. Here are some of the benefits of the prescriber portal:

    • User-friendly prescribing toolsp for swift, straightforward ordering
    • View real-time order statuses as your patient’s prescription moves through the pharmacy
    • Easy refill entry – completion takes seconds!
    • Access to patient order tracking linked directly to the shipping courier for quick delivery confirmation
    • Personalized medication lists customizable to your practice

    For Patients

    Belmar Patients can easily process refills and manage medications through the online patient portal. Our Portal allows patients to:

    • Request Refills Online
    • Receive Text and/or Email Notifications
    • Receive Prescription Updates
    • Track Shipping

    Contact Belmar Pharma Solutions

    Learn More

    If you’re a patient, we’re here to help you fill prescriptions or provide you the information you need to work with your doctor to help decide if a compounded prescription might be a good treatment for you.

    Prescribers, for a complete formulary or access to our clinical resources fill out the form below and one of our Solutions Engineers will be in touch shortly. If you are new to compounding, you may also find our page on How to Write a Compounding Prescription helpful.

    Thank you for reaching out. A member of our team is reviewing your message and will reach out as soon as possible. In the meantime, below are a few links, including our formulary, that we think you might find helpful:

    Thank you for reaching out. A member of our team is reviewing your message and will reach out as soon as possible. In the meantime, below are a few links, including our formulary, that we think you might find helpful:

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    Nurse Practitioner Career Advice

    It seems that working in the emergency department some days all I do is write prescriptions. Muscle relaxers for back pain, nausea medications for vomiting, and migraine meds for headaches. Prescribing is at the core of many nurse practitioner’s practice. Unfortunately, the guidelines surrounding this privilege can be difficult to sort through and understand.

    When it comes to prescribing as a nurse practitioner the list of rules and regulations is a long one. Not only must NPs prescribe in accordance with federal law, they must prescribe within state guidelines as well. The legal implications surrounding nurse practitioners and prescribing are many, but let’s look at a few of the most common questions and concerns NPs ask about prescribing.

    Do nurse practitioners need a DEA number in order to write prescriptions?

    The short answer to this question in “No”. Nurse practitioners must be licensed by their state in order to prescribe but do not need a DEA number. A DEA number is required only to write prescriptions for controlled substances, not for medications like antibiotics.

    Although a DEA number may not technically be required to write prescriptions, insurance companies and pharmacies often use the DEA number as a way to identify medical providers. Practicing without a DEA number be a hassle as these entities won’t have a systematic way to track things like insurance claims for your patients or prescriptions you write.

    Are You Ready to Thrive?

    Are nurse practitioners allowed to prescribe controlled substances?

    In every state except Alabama and Florida, nurse practitioners are allowed to prescribe at least some controlled substances. Controlled medications are categorized into groups called ‘schedules’ based on their potential for abuse. Schedule I medications have the highest potential for abuse and are not recognized by the DEA as having an accepted medical use. Schedule V medications are those like Lyrica or codeine containing cough syrups that have a much lower abuse potential. State nurse practice acts outline which schedules of medications nurse practitioners are permitted to prescribe. For example, in Georgia NPs are not allowed to prescribe schedule II medications but may prescribe schedules III-V.

    If nurse practitioners practicing in a particular state are permitted to prescribe all schedules of controlled medications, the state nurse practice act will usually refer to these medications as a group rather than outlining privileges based on each schedule. State laws regarding the prescribing of controlled substances vary significantly. Some states allow NPs to prescribe these drugs with few guidelines. Other states require, for example, that nurse practitioners work under a collaborative agreement with a physician in order to prescribe controlled substances.

    Can nurse practitioners write prescriptions for friends and family?

    The laws regarding writing prescriptions for friends and family vary by state. Many states allow nurse practitioners to prescribe for family members in ’emergency situations’. When writing a prescription, regardless of it it is for a friend or family member, federal law requires that medical treatment and prescribing be accompanied by written documentation, even if it occurs outside the clinic or hospital setting. Federal law also requires that the prescribing of controlled substances occurs only under a bona fide provider-patient relationship.

    Although prescribing for friends and family members is technically legal under certain circumstances in most states, approach this practice with caution. Once a patient-provider connection has been established through prescribing, as a nurse practitioner you are legally responsible for that interaction and its consequences.

    What legal pitfalls should nurse practitioners avoid related to prescribing?

    With some states having strict guidelines regarding nurse practitioner’s prescribing practices, it can be tempting to skirt these rules for the sake of convenience. These guidelines, however, must be followed exactly. In Georgia, for example, one primary care physician was prosecuted for pre-signing blank prescription sheets so that the nurse practitioner he worked with could write patients prescriptions for controlled medications on his day off. State and federal agents raided the clinic where he worked. He served seven months in federal prison as federal law prohibits the pre-signing of prescriptions.

    Keep up with federal and state laws writing when it comes to writing prescriptions. Cutting corners to avoid the practice inconveniences that come with following these guidelines can have serious consequences.

    Can nurse practitioners write prescriptions to be filled out-of-state?

    In most cases, laws allow prescriptions written by nurse practitioners to be filled out of state. When prescribing a medication to be filled in a different state, NPs must abide by the prescribing guidelines for the state where the prescription is to be filled. For example, if you practice in Tennessee and write a patient a prescription for a schedule II medication, the patient could not fill the prescription in Texas. This is because NPs practicing in Texas are not allowed to write prescriptions for schedule II controlled substances. The prescription could, however, be filled in New Mexico where nurse practitioners are permitted to prescribe controlled substances.

    In Washington State, pharmacies are not allowed to accept prescriptions for controlled substances written by nurse practitioners out-of-state.

    What state laws might I encounter in prescribing as a nurse practitioner?

    There are many restrictions states may impose when it comes to NP’s prescribing ability. Some states prohibit nurse practitioners from prescribing controlled substances completely while others may allow NPs to do so only under a collaborative agreement with a physician. Other states may limit the types of controlled substances or the quantity NPs may prescribe. Nurse practitioners must know and follow state laws closely to remain within their scope of practice when prescribing medications, especially controlled substances.

    What questions do you have about prescribing as a nurse practitioner?

    Further Reading on ThriveAP

    Need some cash to fund your NP education? Here are some good places to start.…

    States are increasingly passing laws allowing nurse practitioners more freedom in their practice. Some legislators…

    Growing up in Washington State, I have fond memories of visiting Idaho as a kid.…


    I’m an ER intern and I constantly have to write prescriptions and I’m always wondering if I’m doing it right. I especially hate writing prescriptions for kids and calculating the liquid amounts and how much to dispense. Is there a website that teaches doctors how to write prescriptions?

    I primarily use epocrates but i always find it confusing when calculating liquids and especially if it’s like a “div every 6-8h” which is different than just plain “q6-8h”

    some have told me to write, “use as directed” or whatever but that seems kinda wrong and extra work for the pharmacy.


    Pharmacy Supernerd
    • Aug 28, 2007
  • #2
  • This may be helpful for learning to write a complete Rx. I’m not sure exactly what you are looking for, though. Are you having trouble with components, dosing calculations, figuring out what doses and dose forms are available, or what?

    I’m not a fan of “Use as directed” either. It’s actually impermissable in some states.


    Senior Member
    • Aug 28, 2007
  • #3
  • I’m an ER intern and I constantly have to write prescriptions and I’m always wondering if I’m doing it right. I especially hate writing prescriptions for kids and calculating the liquid amounts and how much to dispense. Is there a website that teaches doctors how to write prescriptions?

    I primarily use epocrates but i always find it confusing when calculating liquids and especially if it’s like a “div every 6-8h” which is different than just plain “q6-8h”

    some have told me to write, “use as directed” or whatever but that seems kinda wrong and extra work for the pharmacy.

    This is what I recommend to interns for peds. On the rx, always note the pts weight (this way we can double check your calculations). Also, not what you are treating (ie. for cough, for infection, for rash, etc..) – helps to make sure we are reading what you are writing correctly & gives us some idea of what to reinforce when we counsel mom or dad.

    Now, for dosing, I recommend writing your dose in mg amounts – that way I can choose the most appropriate package size to fit your needs. Know, however, that some dosage forms are not interchangeable – if you order Augmentin liquid 250mg q6h for bronchitis – I can’t give tablets – because the clavulanate component is different. But, by writing the mgs you want in each dose. I can choose if I give 100mg/5ml, 200mg/5ml, 250mg/5ml – whatever.

    When your dosing recommends using divided doses q 6-8 hours. this means that it can be dosed 3-4 times a day (take the total mg/kg/day dose & divide it up 3-4 times per day). For most parents (in fact, for most people in general. ) a 3 times per day drug has more compliance than a 4 times per day drug. This is especially true for school age children – they can get the first dose in the AM before school, right after school & then again at bedtime. A fourth dose means the school has to get involved (teachers, office, extra bottle – was it refrig – not?, will it get home. ) – just too much trouble. So – choose the longer dosing interval unless you have some clinically compelling reason to do otherwise.

    That is different than q 6-8h prn pain or fever or spasm. That dosing means the pt can take it as frequently as every 6 hours if they need it, but it could go 8 hours (a night’s sleep for example). The prn added reinforces that it should be stopped when sx stop. That helps us encourage mom or dad to let Johnny sleep – don’t wake him if he’s not coughing (you’d be surprised. ).

    Dont use “as directed” unless you’ve also got some other instructions – ie Prednisone 5mg – Start with 5 tablets once daily & taper as directed over 4 days. Hopefully, you’ve written this out day by day for the parent & we can reinforce the taper without writing a whole novel on the label.


    Welcome to the third piece in the Home Hemodialysis series. After going through the history of home hemodialysis in the United States, and reviewing the literature evaluating the modality, we will now dive into how to prescribe home hemodialysis.

    But before we do, there are a few general themes to know:

    • While the traditional machines and prescriptions used in in-center home hemodialysis can be applied at home, (and this indeed was how home hemodialysis was performed prior to approval of the NxStage system by the FDA in 2005), urea kinetics, and therefore the prescription, are similar to that seen in in-center hemodialysis.
    • With now over 85% of patients in the United States that are on home hemodialysis using the low dialysate volume approach (on the NxStage system), and almost all new patients initiated on home hemodialysis being initiated with this treatment strategy, we are, in the rest of this piece, going to be learning to write a prescription for the low volume dialysate approach.
    • The major advantage of the low dialysate volume approach, as is intuitive by the description, is the utilization of lower volumes of dialysate to achieve similar clearances – while the weekly dialysate volume used in traditional hemodialysis is around 270 to 600 L per week, at flow rates of 600-800 ml per minute, the low dialysate volume approach utilizes 90 to 200 L per week, at flow rates of 100-200 ml per minute.
    • A disclaimer about the utilization of Kt/V(urea) to determine dialysis adequacy must be part of all discussions regarding dialysis prescriptions. However, though imperfect, it remains to-date the most widely used measure, and has been used to build home hemodialysis prescriptions as well. One must remember to assess the patient on multiple parameters – including symptoms of uremia, volume status, electrolytes, nutritional status, and not just rely on Kt/V to make changes to any dialysis prescription.

    Now let us really dive in.

    The concept of clearance and urea kinetics in the low dialysate volume approach:

    The low dialysate volume approach is based on the principle of the dialysate fluid being nearly completely saturated with urea, by lowering the dialysate flow in comparison to the blood flow – the slower dialysate flows as it opposes blood, the more time for mass transfer and saturation with urea.

    The concept of the dialysate fluid being maximally saturated with urea is similar to peritoneal dialysis – and this is very helpful to remember, as calculating the urea clearance, and Kt/V for the low dialysate volume approach is similar to peritoneal dialysis.

    We know that D/P(urea), or the saturation of dialysate fluid with urea, is determined by the dialysate flow relative to the blood flow. This brings us to an important component of the prescription in the low dialysate volume approach – the flow fraction (FF). This is the ratio of dialysate flow (Qd) to the blood flow (Qb), or Qd/Qb – the higher the flow fraction, lower the dialysate urea saturation. With standardization of the flow fraction comes standardization of dialysate saturation – for each treatment, this ratio is fixed, which allows for the dialysate flow rate to be adjusted automatically by the machine in response to any changes in blood flow that may occur, without the need for patient intervention, to maintain a desired saturation of urea. This assures that even in the setting of inability to maintain the targeted blood flow rate, e.g. during access stenosis, that the patient receives the same amount of clearance intended, but at the cost of time.

    As it can be seen from figure 1, at a FF of about 40%, the dialysate is about 90% saturated with urea.

    Let us recap one last concept, with the help of another key figure, before putting it all together as a home hemodialysis prescription.

    The target single pool Kt/V for 3 times a week in-center hemodialysis is about 1.2 to 1.4. Three weekly treatments with a single pool kt/v would provide a weekly standard kt/v of about 2.0. It is important to remember that the relationship between single pool and standard kt/v is not linear and the weekly clearance is not merely the sum of the clearance of each treatment. In home hemodialysis, as the number of sessions per week are higher, the target per session Kt/V is lower, around 0.5 to 0.6, depending on the number of sessions per week, to achieve a weekly standard Kt/V of 2 to 2.2

    Now, with the above information, let us calculate the urea kinetics for an 80 kg female (height 160 cm, age 55 years), who will perform home hemodialysis 5 times a week using the low dialysate approach

    Her target per session Kt/V is 0.6

    Her volume of distribution of urea is about 34L (the most common equation to calculate the total body water from weight is the Watson equation – access at

    Now we know that,

    How to write a prescription

    Now if we assume 100% saturation of dialysate fluid with urea, the D/P(urea) = 1, and we would need 20L of dialysate to achieve a per session Kt/V of 0.6. In this scenario, the filtration fraction would have to be

    • Remember that with a goal Kt/V per session of about 0.55 to 0.6 for 5 treatments a week, and 0.45 to 0.5 for 6 treatments a week, an initial dialysate volume required per session can be estimated
    • Remember the filtration fraction – the ratio of Qd/Qb, which is fixed.
    • Remember that roughly, a filtration fraction of 0.4 results in a 90% dialysate saturation with urea (or D/P(urea) = 0.9 with a filtration fraction of 0.4)
    • Remember that with a dialysate volume, and filtration fraction, the rest of the parameters of a home hemodialysis prescription – blood flow rate, dialysate flow rate, and time – can be calculated
    • And finally, remember to not to be too focused on the Kt/V. Think about the patient!

    Want to know more? Here are some additional resources

    Next up in the series – have you seen the water treatment room in your dialysis unit? Now think about how this reaches patients on home hemodialysis!

    Madhuri Ramakrishnan, MD
    Nephrology Fellow, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

    A Guide for Providers and Prescribers

    How to write a prescription

    Compounding is the art and science of preparing customized medications (ingredient doses, mode of application, etc.) to better suit what patients need. Many medical providers and specialists look for alternative options in compounding when current meds are not available, contain allergens, or fail.

    We Work With Providers for Prescription Compounding

    Community Clinical understands that medication is not one-size-fits-all . We make our compounded medications specifically for your individual patients’ needs. Our experts are happy to consult with prescribers that have questions about their patient cases. Oftentimes their patients are not getting results or are allergic to commercially available medications.

    How Do You Write a Compounded Medication Prescription?

    What do compounding pharmacists need when looking to prescribe compounded medications?

    How to write a prescription

    1. The Generic Name of Active Ingredients / Strength or Dose

    Control what active ingredients are present. Remove ingredients that the patient may have been allergic to in mass-produced medications. Consult with an expert pharmacist for any questions.

    How to write a prescription

    2. Dosage Form

    Your patients have different needs and this may include the form of the medication. Whether it be pills, syrups, troches, injectables, suppositories, or other modes of application, Community Clinical can formulate for maximized efficiency and patient compliance.

    3. Quantity

    Specify the amount per prescription container and any refills that you authorize.

    How to write a prescription

    4. Directions for Use

    Information for patients to follow when taking the medication. Specify when the medication should be taken, the amount, how it should be taken/administered (with food, etc.), and any pertinent information. Please consult with an expert pharmacist for any questions.

    For more options in approaching your patients’ well-being, contact Community Clinical today. Explore all the ways top medical specialists in Arizona like you utilize compounding in getting results for their patients. We also connect interested patients with trusted prescribers. Call or contact us online for more information and provider resources.

    1.Select ‘Clinical Desktop’/’EMR’ from the main menu on the left. Choose a patient.

    2. The Prescription can be done in either of the two ways listed below.

    2.1. For Visits, Click on ‘Prescription’ within encounter notes to redirect to Newcrop Portal to prescribe medication.

    How to write a prescription

    2..2 For non-visits/refills, Click on the Rx icon from the face sheet to redirect to Newcrop Portal to prescribe medication.

    How to write a prescription

    3. On the Compose page, type in the name of the medication you need to prescribe.

    How to write a prescription

    4. Click on the medication strength you need to prescribe. This will open the SIG edit screen.

    How to write a prescription

    5. Create the prescription providing details from left to right(Quantity->Form->route->Frequency). Click Save Rx as this will take the medication to a Pending status.

    How to write a prescription

    6. From the Pending status, click the Transmit/Prescribe button.

    How to write a prescription

    7. On the Transmit Page, choose the pharmacy to which the Rx needs to be transmitted and then click Transmit Rx/Add to record.

    How to write a prescription

    8. Once that button is selected the Rx will then be transmitted to the pharmacy, you will now see the Receipt page.

    How to write a prescription

    9. Click on the Compose Rx tab to see this medication in the patient’s Current Medications list.

    How to write a prescription

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    A prescription can be cancelled if it was sent to the wrong pharmacy or if . read more

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    The Rx history and patient benefit information can be displayed and imported if there is . read more

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    Electronic Prescription of Controlled Substance(EPCS)

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    Accu-Chek ® is ALWAYS COVERED on Medicare Part B. 1

    Your patient pays only $1.66 for 50 test strips and may pay a $0 co-pay. 2

    Give your patient a better testing experience. Prescribe Accu-Chek Guide Me, and send your patient to a retail pharmacy.

    How to write a prescription

    How to write Medicare Part B prescriptions to eliminate callbacks

    The following information is required for Medicare Part B coverage of blood glucose monitors and testing supplies: 3,4

    For beneficiaries who are insulin-dependent, Medicare provides coverage for up to 100 test strips and lancets every month, and one lancing device every 6 months.

    For beneficiaries who are not insulin-dependent, Medicare provides coverage for up to 100 test strips and lancets every 3 months, and one lancet device every 6 months.

    Note: Medicare allows additional test strips and lancets if deemed medically necessary. See MLN Matters SE1008 for more details.

    Additional tips to make sure your instructions are followed at the pharmacy

    • Write the exact brand of the products to avoid confusion.
    • To ensure your patient receives the Accu-Chek brand, write “DO NOT SUBSTITUTE” on the prescription.
    • If the prescription is denied, check that the pharmacy ran Medicare Part B.

    A provider can send an ePrescription from any patient chart. At the top of the page, click on “Rx” and click on “Prescription Form” to open a new prescription blank.

    How to write a prescription

    1. Write Your Script

    Enter in the required information which is marked with a red * symbol:

    • Type of Prescription (“Type”)
    • Medication Name and Strength (“Med”)
    • Directions (“Sig”)
    • Quantity (“Qty”)
    • Number of Refills (“Rf”)

    If you would like to add the medication to the medication list that displays on the left hand side (“Permanent Medications List”), check off the “Add to Permanent Med List” checkbox.

    How to write a prescription


    • You can enter “units” that belong to a short list of units that Surescripts, our prescribing partner accepts, as well as abbreviations for those units. For example, you can enter: milligrams/mg, tablets/tab, and capsules/cap.
    • If you would like to include additional information with your prescription, click the “more…” link in blue. You will be able to add Notes, Mark the script as “Do not substitute, dispense as written (DAW)”, document the Fill Date (if you want the script to be filled on a date that differs from the date you write the script) and Indication for the script.

    2. Choose the pharmacy where the script should be sent

    Note: This screen only appears if you have not previously sent an electronic prescription to a pharmacy for this patient. For future scripts for this patient, the pharmacy information will be defaulted.

    How to write a prescription

    Enter the Pharmacy Name and find the pharmacy you want to send the script to.

    Tip: The Pharmacy list includes every pharmacy across the country that accepts electronic prescriptions. To most quickly find your desired pharmacy, be sure to type one of the following along with the Pharmacy Name:

    • City (e.g. “CVS Short Hills” or “CVS, Short Hills”)
    • Street name Zip code (e.g., “CVS 07026”)
    • Phone Number
    • Store Number

    How to write a prescription

    Once you have located the pharmacy where you want to send the script, choose the pharmacy from the list and click on the “Select Pharmacy” button.

    3. Send prescription electronically to pharmacy

    The last step is to review the script that you are about to send to the pharmacy. Click on the “ePrescribe Only” button to send the script to the pharmacy.

    You may provide a copy of the script to the patient as well. Click on the “ePrescribe & Print Pt Copy” button to send the script to the pharmacy as well as print a copy of the script to give to your patient in one single step.

    Category: Uncategorized.

    As much as I am not a fan of Latin terms for prescription writing, I understand that following holds true:

    • These are globally taught terms. This allows almost a universal understanding and administration of a prescriptions.
    • Our books, software, infrastructure, processes, and other existing systems already use these terms.

    Clearly learning important terms and using them effectively is important for anyone who is part of the chain of drug administration (see first article in this series.)

    In this article we will learn following categories of terms:

    • Count/quantity of drug
    • Administration
    • Formulation
    • Frequency


    Count of a drug for example, 2 tablets at one time, or 2 capsules at one time, etc. were written originally as roman numerals. For example i for 1, ii for 2, and iii for 3. This then changed into T (which can be thought of the capital roman letter I) with a dot on it.


    For example to prescribe Amoxicillin 250 mg tablets, taken 2 tablets orally three times a day for 7 days you will write (note the T with dots in red):

    You can write the Ts or ii. Don’t, however, put one T with two dots on it. It is error prone.

    So what are some examples of the count/quantity?

    • ii tablets (two tablets)
    • i capsule or i cap (1 capsule)
    • 4 mL (suspension). See notes about the suspension below.

    Suspension Administration

    Administering table/tea spoons is error prone due to spilling and inaccuracy in filling. Putting quantity in measurable units is preferred. However, for the patient there has to be a way to measure this exact quantity and use. Syringes can be used. Problem with the syringes is the availability, and more importantly choking hazard by the syringe cap for small children.

    My opinion is that metric units can be used where the administration is in expert staff’s hand. For a patient table spoon and tea spoon are still the most easy method for compliance.

    Route of Administration

    A drug can be administered by many routes or exactly only one route depending upon its chemical formulation and the intent of administration. Common routes of administration and their terms are following:

    • p.o. (per os) mouth
    • p.r. (per rectum)
    • SubQ (subcutaneous)
    • IV (intravenous)
    • IM (intramuscular)
    • IN (intranasal)
    • IT (intrathecal)
    • SL (sublingual)
    • Vag (vaginally)

    In the Amoxicillin example above the p.o. is for oral administration.


    There can be various formulations of the same drug. This is to allow administration of a drug to patients of various ages and state of health. Scope of a drug’s distribution also dictates the formulation. Some common formulations are following:

    • Tab (tablet)
    • Cap. (capsule)
    • Bolus (discrete amount)
    • Susp. (suspension)
    • Syr. (syrup)
    • fl. (fluid)
    • Cr. (cream)
    • Ung. (unguentum) ointment

    In the Amoxicillin example above we used tablets, we could have used tab as well with the same clarity.

    Frequency of Administration

    Writing frequency is possibly the most commonly bothersome area. My approach is to teach the terms that make up the frequency. For example cibum in Latin is for meal, and anti is for before. So anything before meal will be said to be anti cibum and written as a.c.

    Here are some terms for Frequency to keep in mind

    • Cibum: meal
      • a.c. (ante-cibum) before meal.
      • p.c. (post cibum) after meal.
    • Meridian (noon)
      • a.m. (ante meridian) in the morning.
      • p.m. (post meridian) in the evening.
    • Die: day
    • Hora: hour
    • Somni: sleep
    • Quque: every
      • qh: every hour
    • Sumendus (take)
    • p.r.n. (pro re nata) as needed

    Frequency involving Days

    • o.d. (once a day). Note: this should be replaced with the word daily.
    • q.d. a.m. (quaque die ante meridien) every day after morning
    • b.i.d. (bis in die) two in a day. bds (bis die sumendus. Two in a day take).
    • t.i.d. (ter in die) three in a day. tds (tre die sumendus. Three in a day take)
    • q.i.d. (quarter in die) four in a day. qds (quarter die sumendus. Four in a day take.)
    • q.a.d. (quaque altera die) every alternate day
    • (bis in 7 d) every 7 days. Weekly.

    Frequency involving Hours

    • q.i.d. a.m. a.c. (quque in diem ante meridien ante cibum). Once daily before meal. Again the preferred writing method will be to once daily before meal.
    • q.i.d. p.c. (once daily after meal). See above point.
    • h.s. (hora somni) at sleeping time.
    • hor. alt (hora alternis) every other hour.
    • q.h. (every hour).
    • q.1.h. (every hour) q1h.
    • q.2.h. (every two hour) q2h.

    Hope these terms provide enough data to help you write prescriptions.


    This article series has not covered the following:

    • How to prescribe injections/infusions?
    • How to prescribe Insulin/Steroids?
    • How to perform dosage calculation?

    Let me know if you will like me to write about these as well?

    When I get a chance I will add some example prescriptions.

    Share this:

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    Written by Mobeen Syed
    May 28, 2016 . Leave a Comment

    Personnel to whom this applies: prescribers; nursing or pharmacy staff (who transcribe verbal prescription orders or rewrite transfer or admission orders when entering or leaving a health care facility); health care administrators/managers.

    Technology plays an important role in the delivery of healthcare. Use technology, as appropriate, but evaluate its effectiveness on an ongoing basis. While technology can reduce medication errors and enhance patient safety, it also has the potential to cause new types of unintentional errors. Whenever technology is selected and implemented, it should meet the requirements of this statement.

    The Council recommends the following:

    1. All prescription documents are legible. Verbal orders should be minimized. (See the Council’s Recommendations to Reduce Medication Errors Associated with Verbal Medication Orders and Prescriptions)
    2. Prescription orders should include a brief notation of purpose (e.g., for cough), unless considered inappropriate by the prescriber. Notation of purpose can help further assure that the proper medication is dispensed and creates an extra safety check in the process of prescribing and dispensing a medication. The Council does recognize, however, that certain medications and disease states may warrant maintaining confidentiality.
    3. All prescription orders are written in the metric system except for therapies that use standard units such as insulin, vitamins, etc. Units should be spelled out rather than writing “U.” The change to the use of the metric system from the archaic apothecary and avoirdupois systems will help avoid misinterpretations of these abbreviations and symbols, and miscalculations when converting to metric, which is used in product labeling and package inserts.
    4. Doses for oral liquids be expressed using only metric weight or volume, e.g mg or mL. If mLs are used it should be associated with a concentration or total dose in milligrams.
    5. Prescribers should include patient-reported age and, when appropriate, weight (metric units is the preferred scale) of the patient on the prescription or medication order. The most common errors in dosage result in pediatric and geriatric populations. For weight-based or body surface area-based drugs, the dose basis should be included. The age (and weight) of a patient can help dispensing health care professionals in their double check of the appropriate drug and dose.
    6. Prescriptions/medication orders include drug name 1 , exact metric weight or concentration, and dosage form. Strength should be expressed in metric amounts and concentration should be specified. Each order for a medication should be complete. The pharmacist should check with the prescriber if any information is missing or questionable.
    7. A leading zero always precedes a decimal expression of less than one (use 0.4 mg instead of .4 mg). A terminal or trailing zero should never be used after a decimal (express as 4 mg, not 4.0 mg). Ten-fold errors in drug strength and dosage have occurred with decimals due to the use of a trailing zero or the absence of a leading zero.

    Prescribers avoid the use of abbreviations including those for drug names (e.g., MOM, HCTZ) and Latin directions for use. The abbreviations in the chart below are found to be particularly dangerous because they have been consistently misunderstood and therefore, should never be used. The Council reviewed the uses for many abbreviations and determined that any attempt at standardization of abbreviations would not adequately address the problems of illegibility and misuse.

    At bedtime, hours of sleep

    Misinterpreted as the Latin abbreviation “HS” (hour of sleep).

    Mistaken as half-strength

  • Prescribers avoid vague instructions such as “Take as directed” or “Take/Use as needed” as the sole direction for use. Specific directions to the patient are useful to help reinforce proper medication use, particularly if therapy is to be interrupted for a time. Clear directions are a necessity for the dispenser to: (1) check the proper dose for the patient; and, (2) enable effective patient counseling.
  • Prescribers should avoid using vague dosing intervals such as “twice daily” or hourly intervals like “every 12 hours”. These instructions can be seen as implicit rather than explicit and harmful to patient understanding. Conversely, using precise dosing times (e.g. 8 AM and 10 PM) may decrease patient adherence due to individual lifestyle patterns, e.g. shiftwork. Write general times of morning, afternoon, and evening to describe dosing intervals. 2
  • Personnel should transcribe verbal prescriptions in designated areas that minimize interruption and distraction.
  • Practitioners should offer counseling to the patient about their prescriptions. Counseling is often seen as the last attempt in catching errors that occur in prescription writing. 3
  • All persons who prescribe medication have access to adequate and appropriate patient information about the patient at the point of prescribing including medical history, known allergies and their reactions, diagnoses, list of current medications, prescription monitoring program data, and treatment plan to assess the appropriateness of prescribing the medication.
  • Conduct both initial and ongoing training of prescribers on accepted standards of practice related to prescription writing processes with the ultimate goal of risk identification and medication error prevention.
  • Actions/Decisions are those of the Council as a whole and may not reflect the views/positions of individual member organizations.

    1 For medications with multiple formulations, be as specific as possible.

    2 USP NF 37-32 General Chapter Prescription Container Labeling

    3 Cohen MR, Smetzer JL, Westphal JE, Comden SC, Horn DM 2012 Sep-Oct;52(5):584-602. Risk models to improve safety of dispensing high-alert medications in community pharmacies. . J Am Pharm Assoc (2003).

    Create an Account

    Allow us to better serve you by enabling a faster line of communication, receive notifications when information you care about is updated and customize your support interests.

    After the template, pharmacy, and drug information are set up, following are the steps to create the prescription.

    1. From the Activities menu, select Rx Writer . The Prescriptions window will list all current prescriptions.
    2. Click the New button to create a prescription for a patient.

    If you need to refill a prescription:

  • Select a prescription and click the Refill button.
  • When you create a new prescription, select a patient. If the patient has a preferred pharmacy, the name and phone number will appear.
  • From the Template drop-down list box, select a template (if desired). If the template has not been set up in the Template window, click the underlined word Template. From this window, you can create, edit, and view templates. If you do not use a template, select the Drug and Pharmacy and the amount to dispense.
  • Enter or select a Valid Until date. This date is for how long the prescription should appear in the Prescriptions window as an active prescription.
  • Select the Add Alert check box if you want this prescription to appear along with the alerts. The alert is removed when the Valid Until date expires. If the Alert needs to be removed prior to the expiration date, edit the prescription and uncheck the Add Alert box.
  • Before saving the prescription and closing, there are a few more options:
    • Click the Print button to print a prescription form.
    • Click the Save button to Save the prescription.
    • Click the Setup button to view the printer setup.
    • Click the Rx History to view this patient’s Rx History.
  • Click OK to save and exit.

    An operatory and/or account note is generated when a prescription is created.

    Printed copies of this document are considered uncontrolled.
    215.Rev002 02.16.2021

    How to write a prescription

    A common question that I’ve been getting lately is about the types of doctors who can write a prescription or doctor’s note for a service dog. People aren’t sure who to ask for their prescription, though they really would like to get started on their journey with a service dog.

    Which Doctors Can Give a Service Dog Prescription?

    The answer to this is fairly simple. Any doctor that is treating your disability, who is legally licensed, can write you a doctor’s note for a service dog. Let’s go over what that means for different types of disabilities:

    Anxiety, Depression, PTSD, OCD and other mental illnesses: This might be a family doctor, psychiatrist, psychologist, therapist, licensed clinical social worker (LCSW), licensed professional counselor (LPC), mental health counselor, certified alcohol and drug abuse counselor, nurse psychotherapist, vocational case manager or a marital and family therapist.

    Seizures, mobility problems, MS, diabetes and other physical illnesses: This might be a family doctor, physical therapist, neurologist, endocrinologist, opthalmologist or other specialists, as well as the doctors listed for mental illnesses.

    What Should the Prescription Say?

    How to write a prescription

    Your doctor’s service dog prescription needs to be specific to be accepted by landlords and airlines.

    It will need to be on your doctor’s “letterhead.” This means it needs to give your doctor’s information.

    The letterhead should have:

    • The doctor’s name with any “attachments” (for example, Dr. John Smith, M.D. or Sarah Smith, LCSW)
    • The clinic address
    • The clinic phone number

    The letter body should include:

    • A date within the last year (Airlines require that it be dated within the last 12 months)
    • A statement that you have a physical or mental disability.
    • A statement that having the dog with you is necessary to your mental or physical health, or your treatment, or to assist you with your disability.
    • That you are under the care of the person writing the note and that the person writing the note is a licensed medical professional. (This includes the doctor’s licensing information: the date it was issued, what state/jurisdiction it was given in and what license it is.)

    Pretty simple! Use this template to create your own doctor’s note for a service dog for your next checkup and you should be all set.

    One Reply to “Doctors Who Can Write Prescriptions for Service Dogs”

    I don’t really know HOW to ask..I’m pretty sure I could qualify for one..I sent you an email going into detail yesterday..but my dad shot me down pretty quick. Its just hard for me to ask for it because I don’t want it to seem like I’m overreacting or just wanting one for funsies.

    To begin with, it must be borne in mind that only some health professionals are legally authorized to write a prescription, such as doctors, dentists or podiatrists. Also veterinarians can prescribe medications, provided they are for veterinary use.

    To make a prescription correctly, the healthcare professional will have to make an effective document, without any risk, always respecting the preferences of the patient, who will be the one who will ultimately decide whether or not to use the prescription.

    What is a prescription

    A prescription or medical prescription is defined as a legal document, made by a qualified health professional, which enables a patient to obtain certain medication in a pharmacy.

    The exact content of a recipe is indicated in Royal Decree 1718/2010, although it can be summarized in a simple and understandable way for anyone who wants to have this information.

    Parts of a prescription

    The recipe document consists of two parts:

    • Body of the recipe. It is the part destined for the pharmacist, the one that contains all the necessary information so that the patient can get the medication.

    • Information sheet for the patient. It can be included within the prescription or it can be another separate document. This page lists the necessary information for the patient, regarding treatment and diagnosis, detailing all prescribed medications and products.

    Details of a prescription

    Within the prescription document, there are some essential and mandatory requirements for it to be valid and for the pharmacist to dispense the prescribed medication.

    • Drug data. Obviously, the prescription must include the trademark of the drug or its active ingredient. In addition, other data will have to appear regarding the medication, such as the dosage, the pharmaceutical form, the route of administration, the format, the number of containers required and the posology. Some of these elements are generated automatically when the recipe is electronic, so they will only be required to be filled in in the case of manual recipes.

    •Patient’s data. The prescription will also have to carry the patient’s data, such as the name, with both surnames, and the year of birth; and the patient’s personal identification code if it is a public healthcare prescription. If it is a prescription for private medical assistance, the patient’s DNI or NIE will have to appear, or a legal guardian in the case of minors.

    • Doctor’s information. For the document to be valid, it must contain all the information related to the doctor who writes the prescription. In addition to the full name with the surnames, the prescription must include the collegiate number, the town and the address where it works. It is vitally important that you stamp your personal signature on the prescription, or electronic signature in the case of electronic prescriptions; otherwise, the prescription will be invalid.

    •Other data. Although they are not as relevant as the previous ones, the document must be marked with the date on which the prescription was made, the expected date to dispense the medication in case of chronic or renewable treatments, and the order number, also in case that it is a long-term treatment.

    Nowadays, various platforms have been designed that allow or facilitate the treating physician, the prescription of drugs of any type, in each of their patients this is thanks to the e-prescribing network software, which through the placement of data The EPCS generates the ideal medical prescription for the patient, thus avoiding therapeutic errors, which could bring problems to the doctor

    For more information about EPCS please visit .

    A prescription or medical prescription is defined as a legal document, made by a qualified health professional, which enables a patient to obtain certain medication in a pharmacy.

    M3 India Newsdesk Oct 25, 2020

    A doctor’s everyday activity of writing prescriptions needs to follow certain guidelines. Moreover, following protocol can save trouble later on. It is, therefore, imperative that doctors prescribe not only the right drug at the right time but also the right dose for the right duration.

    How to write a prescription

    According to Bangalore-based National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), over 14% of their patients are addicted to prescription drugs, including opioids. Not only patients, but also their family members tend to use surplus medication, such as sleeping pills. Withdrawal leads to cognitive issues and addiction to prescription drugs could lead to other side effects.

    The Medical Council of India has specified dos and don’ts when it comes to writing prescriptions. Getting medical prescriptions right is crucial to minimise the scope for medicine misuse. Therefore, it’s imperative that doctors prescribe not only the right drug at the right time but also the right dose for the right duration.

    Doctors are advised to adhere to the following protocol while writing a prescription:

    • The doctor’s full name, address, consultation timings, contact numbers have to be printed on the prescription letterhead
    • All the degrees, especially the primary degree, should be printed on the letterhead as well
    • The doctor’s registration number and the registering authority must be printed on the letterhead too
    • The doctor’s full signature with date, in blue indelible ink, should be present on the prescription
    • Date of issue of prescription should be mentioned
    • The stamp, including doctor’s full name, qualifications, and registration number should be present on the prescription
    • The patient’s full name, age, gender, weight and full address, including telephone number should also be mentioned

    Guidelines for writing medicines on prescriptions

    1. Name of the medicine: Write the generic name in capital letters, avoid abbreviation or scribbling the name of the medicine. According to an MCI circular, “While using of generic drug names, every doctor should prescribe drugs with generic names legibly and preferably in capital letters and shall also ensure that there is a rational use of drugs.”
    2. Mention the dose, strength, route of administration and duration. Steer clear of overprescribing drugs.
    3. Mention dosage form: Mention DT or tablet or syrup and even the total quantity. Clearly mention refill information. For example, write: “Medicines should not be refilled” or “Don’t dispense more than once.” This deters patients from refilling or repurchasing with the same prescription again and again, unless the doctor prescribes it.
    4. Don’t prescribe medicine over the telephone or through SMS. This is allowed only during emergency situations, but doctors still need to speak to the pharmacist to reinforce the prescribed order.
    5. Don’t leave behind blank, pre-signed prescriptions.
    6. Don’t endorse medical stores, like, “Available at XYZ medical stores.”
    7. Be cautious in prescribing habit-forming medicines or drugs such as sedatives, hypnotics, codeine-containing cough syrups and buprenorphine among other things. Inform the patient about their potential for addiction as well as the dangers of long-term and excessive use. Such drugs should be handwritten separately and not computerised or typed.

    Stick to your specialty

    1. Only a doctor registered with the respective state medical council is authorised to prescribe allopathic medicines.
    2. Dentists and veterinary doctors should prescribe medicines related to their branch alone. Prescribing for ailments outside their specialty is illegal and punishable by law.
    3. AYUSH doctors are not authorised to prescribe allopathic medicines to patients.

    This article was originally published on January 7, 2020.

    Looking for an answer to the question: Can a chiropractor write a prescription for physical therapy? On this page, we have gathered for you the most accurate and comprehensive information that will fully answer the question: Can a chiropractor write a prescription for physical therapy?

    Physios and podiatrists can now write prescriptions for patients in world first. New laws coming into force mean trained practitioners can give patients medication such as painkillers and anti-inflammatories.

    Legally, chiropractors are not allowed to prescribe drugs. Most of the concepts of chiropractic care revolve around drug-free treatments, so they would not need to prescribe medicines to supplement their treatment.

    Serious complications associated with chiropractic adjustment are overall rare, but may include: A herniated disk or a worsening of an existing disk herniation Compression of nerves in the lower spinal column (cauda equina syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation

    Chiropractors cannot prescribe medicine or do surgery. Chiropractors emphasize the alignment of the spine for good health. So they often perform spinal adjustments with their hands or a small tool. DOs and chiropractors share a few similar moves.

    Can a chiropractor certify CFRA?

    The Court disagreed, explaining that chiropractors can, indeed, be “heath care providers” able to certify CFRA leave. Moreover, all Faust needed to do was provide verbal notice sufficient to make the employer aware of the need for the CFRA-qualifying leave. The employee need not even mention the CFRA in his request.

    Can a chiropractor fix a pinched nerve?

    Can a Chiropractor Treat Pinched Nerve Pain? Yes, chiropractors provide a variety of safe, effective treatments for pinched nerve pain. Chiropractic care and decompression therapy may involve spinal manipulation to alleviate pressure from a herniated disc or bulging disc.

    Can my chiropractor write a letter of medical necessity?

    A patient can write the letter, but it needs to be made official by a doctor. . That means the doctor needs to know you, have some history with you, and in the end either write or ‘sign off on’ the letter.

    How much is a session of chiropractic?

    Overview. In general, chiropractic services range from approximately $30 to $200 per session. Of course, each type of treatment has a different cost. For example, an initial consultation with a chiropractor may be provided at no charge, while a typical therapy session costs about $65 on average.

    Is a chiropractor a medical provider?

    Chiropractors are trained medical professionals who use their hands to relieve pain in the spine and other areas of the body.

    Can a chiropractor write a work excuse?

    Absences certified by chiropractors are unique under the FMLA because chiropractors are the only health care providers whose capacity to excuse an employee from work depends on the diagnosis itself and the presence of x-rays.

    Can chiropractors write prescriptions for MRI?

    Generally, a chiropractor does not order or refer you for an MRI and is able to complete a thorough enough assessment without one.

    How do Chiropractors prove medical necessity?

    For chiropractic services, this means the patient must have “a significant health problem in the form of a neuromusculoskeletal condition necessitating treatment, and the manipulative services rendered must have a direct, therapeutic relationship to the patient’s condition and provide a reasonable expectation of .

    Can chiropractors write prescriptions for massage?

    A chiropractor can prescribe massage therapy treatments for you. Many clinics such as ours has chiropractic and massage therapy, therefore, you can see the chiropractor and get referred to massage therapy.

    Can a physical therapist write a letter of medical necessity?

    In order to be effective, the letter of medical necessity should be written by a healthcare professional familiar with the requesting party’s medical condition. . This professional may be a physician, a nurse, a physical therapist, an occupational therapist or other medical professional.

    Can chiropractors write scripts for physical therapy?

    Physical therapists are only able to prescribe medication to active military personnel in a military setting. They are not legally permitted to prescribe to civilians or ex-military. Chiropractors cannot prescribe medication under any circumstances.

    Can chiropractors prescribe medication?

    Chiropractors cannot prescribe medicine or do surgery. Chiropractors emphasize the alignment of the spine for good health. So they often perform spinal adjustments with their hands or a small tool.

    Do chiropractors have prescriptive authority?

    In the United States, approximately one-third of all licensed chiropractors currently practising in the state of New Mexico have limited prescriptive authority.

    Can chiropractors write doctors notes?

    If your employer refuses to provide reasonable accommodations simply because the medical provider is a chiropractor then it likely violates the Fair Employment and Housing Act. It does not have the right to demand only notes from a doctor.

    Can chiropractors write prescriptions for muscle relaxers?

    The question of whether or not Chiropractors can prescribe pain medication is something that many pain sufferers ask. The answer is that in most of the United States, Chiropractors are not licensed to write prescriptions for medications.

    Can chiropractor write medical necessity letter?

    Defining what constitutes medical necessity depends upon which carrier you ask, however most share the view that meeting the standard of medical necessity requires that the chiropractic service performed be “reasonable and necessary” or “appropriate” in light of the patient’s condition.

    Is a chiropractor considered a healthcare provider?

    Chiropractors are considered health care providers but only to the extent that their work with the patient involves, as the FMLA puts it, “treatment consisting of manual manipulation of the spine to correct a subluxation as demonstrated by X-ray to exist.”

    Can a chiropractor provide a letter of medical necessity?

    Defining what constitutes medical necessity depends upon which carrier you ask, however most share the view that meeting the standard of medical necessity requires that the chiropractic service performed be “reasonable and necessary” or “appropriate” in light of the patient’s condition.

  • How to read a multimeter

    The people with electrical backgrounds already know well how to read multimeters and their symbols but beginners and students may get confused while reading them. So this guide is basically for people who don’t know much about multimeter usage. We’ll try to cover all necessary topics to clarify to you how multimeters generate reading and how to evaluate final results.

    Although reading basic multimeter functions like voltage and current doesn’t need deep technical knowledge but there are some tips and metering factors for parameters like ohms, capacitance, milli volt, and milliamps etc. With a little learning, everyone can master meter readings.

    How to read a Multimeter

    The first step for reading a multimeter is to understand its symbols and ranges well. You should know ac/dc difference, auto, and manual range options, and the difference between kilo, milli, mega and micro readings. Actually, it’s all about decimal setting, we get all results in form of some number and have to adjust them according to their decimal values.

    Here we can take an example of millivolts, there are 1000 millivolts in 1 volt. Suppose, if we have to convert and show1 milli volt into volts then the value will be 0.0001 volts. That’s how decimal value difference works in multimeter reading.

    There’s also some difference between analog and digital multimeter reading conclusions. In analog, we have to do some more effort by calculating decimal values manually while digital meters do this task automatically and provide us immediate results.

    How to read Voltage on a Multimeter

    Reading voltage values by a multimeter is the simplest task we all know. One only has to adjust the meter dial to ac or dc voltage according to requirement, connecting testing leads to the source and seeing result on display.

    For voltage multimeter will show values like 400 v ac , 210 v dc , 12v dc etc. Just remember one thing here that always set multimeter on a higher range than the values you are measuring.

    How to read current/amps on Multimeter

    Digital multimeters usually come with a lower range of current measurement from 10A to 20A. For large current digital clamp meters are the best devices because they provide safety and accuracy at their best. Readings amps in dmm are simple, result come with a symbol of ac and dc that means amperes.

    Some multimeters have a resolution of milli and micro amps denoted by ma and µa respectively. 1 amp is equal to 1000 milli amps and 1000000 micro amps. If one wants to test a lower value of current then adjust the meter on milli or micro range setting.

    How to read a multimeter

    How to read resistance value on the Multimeter

    Reading an ohms value on a multimeter is little bit tricky due to large resistors values and more range availability. First step of testing a resistor is to conclude the resistor value manually by coding method if we don’t know its actual rating. Suppose if value is 870 ohms, now set the multimeter to a higher value range than 870.

    We may set meter on 2000 ohms range, connect test leads with resistor and see reading. Reading should be somewhat between 860 to 880 ohms if the resistor is in good condition. Now for learning set range to 200 ohms and you’ll find no results on the screen. It’s because the adjusted range of 200 is much lower then resistor you’re testing so meter can’t calculate its value.

    If we set a more high range like 2k ohms reading will be like 0.87 which actually means 0.87 k and if the setting is adjusted on 200k reading will be like 0.8 which means 800 ohms or more. It sounds confusing but with some exercise, you’ll be an expert on it.

    How to read an Analog Multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Reading an analog multimeter is different from a digital one. In analog meters result is shown through a needle pointing on scales. Typically they come with three scales that are for separate parameters that’s why new people may get confused.

    First and lower one scale is for db (decibels) value, AC is for ac voltage, DC for dc voltage reading, Ω is for resistance measurement. Some analog multimeters also have additional functions like capacitance, micro amps and milli amps current measurements. These are denoted by their signs on the right side of the scale respectively.

    Reading voltage on Analog Multimeters

    After adjusting meter switch to dc or ac voltage, connect probes to the source you want to analyze. Now carefully see row having ac or dc voltage scale, it’s generally on the second row after ohm. Now if you are testing 24v set meter on 50 or 100 volts.

    After connecting meter to the power source check needle movement on screen, you have to count scale lines manually here. For example, if there are 4 lines in between 0 to 50v that means every line will indicate a change of 10v. Similarly, if there are 3 lines between 50 to 70, it indicates 55, 60, and 65 v.

    How to read resistance on an Analog Multimeter

    Check analog multimeter dial you’ll find that the resistance range is different from other parameters. Rather than magnitude, the range is defined in form of multiples here like cross 10, 100, 1k, and 100k. It gives us a multiple of reading, if the needle is at 15 ohm while range was set on multiple of 10, then reading will be 15 * 10 = 150 ohms.

    If the reading you get was 50 and range is set on 100 then result will be 5000.

    Final Verdict

    There are only two things important in correct way of reading a multimeter, which are focus and numbers/symbols knowledge. With a little effort and training, everyone can do it well. We’ll suggest you that never try these things without enough education and safety training. We hope that this basic level guide helped you in understanding how to read a multimeter.

    How to read a multimeter

    So, this is your first time using a multimeter (doesn’t matter whether it is analog or digital). The initial days or weeks of using it could be very challenging, especially when reading it. Also, the multimeter comes with various symbols and signs which you need to learn and master to ensure accurate measures and tests. Ready to get started?

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    1. A Quick Recap about Ohms, Volts, and Amps
    2. Reading an Analog Multimeter Result
    3. How to Read the Dial Settings
    4. Multimeter Symbols and their Meanings

    Let us begin simply. A multimeter is an essential tool that electricians and individuals rely on for checking the resistance (ohms), current (amps), and voltage (volts) of certain devices that output electricity.

    A Quick Recap about Ohms, Volts, and Amps

    You should understand first some basic concepts about electricity before exploring the multimeter.

    Related: Our Best Multimeters for Projects & Repairs

    Ohms measure the resistance amount contained within a circuit. The electricity is slowed down if the resistance is higher.

    Volts measure the voltage or force amount that pushes the electrons to a circuit.

    Amps determine the total amount of electrons running through a circuit.

    Reading an Analog Multimeter Result

    Analog multimeter is sometimes called AMM or analog multitester. It usually makes use of a galvanometer to show the reading of a current, resistance, or voltage. Some AMMs use vacuum fluorescent displays, bar graphs, and LED.

    • Determine the right scale

    Analog multimeters feature a needle-like placed behind the glass window. Its main role is to indicate an accurate result. There are 3 different arcs shown behind the needle – dB scale, AC and DC for voltage, and omega for reading resistance.

    • Make a voltage scale reading about your range

    Take a careful look at the voltage scales (either AC or DC). You should see numerous rows of numbers under the scale. Check with your preferred range.

    • Calculate the value between numbers

    Do not be confused with this one because the voltage scales available in analog multimeters are just similar to that of an average ruler. However, the resistance scale here is logarithmic. Meaning to say the similar distance signifies a varying value change depending upon your position on the scale.

    • Multiply the resistance reading on your multimeter

    Check the range setting that your analog multimeter’s dial is adjusted to. It must provide you with a number for you to multiply the reading by.

    • Learn further information about the dB scale

    The decibel (dB) scale is usually the smallest and lowest on the analog multimeter. You should be experienced enough to handle such a thing. It is a logarithmic scale used to measure the voltage ratio.

    How to Read the Dial Settings

    • Test the DC or AC voltage

    The letter “V” you see on your multimeter stands for voltage. A straight line (V-) tells that there is a direct current while a squiggly line (V

    ) tells that there is alternating current.

    • Measure the current by setting your multimeter

    We measure current in amperes (A). Regardless of the type of circuit you’re testing, choose interchanging or direct current.

    Direct current: A-, A—, ADC & DCA

    Alternative current: A

    • Find out the resistance setting
    Recommended for You: Diagnose your Car with These Multimeters

    The resistance setting is commonly marked by an omega symbol. This symbol is used for showing ohms. But in older multimeters, this is indicated by R (resistance).

    • Make use of DC- and DC+

    Depend on DC+ if you are planning to test a direct current, though it is only applicable if your multimeter already has this setting. Otherwise, turn to DC- to rectify it without having the need to adjust the wires.

    • Determine other important symbols

    There are so many symbols you should familiarize with, aside from the resistance, voltage, and current. For instance, the symbol -|(- shows the capacitance settings while the Hz (Hertz) measures the AC circuit’s frequency.

    • Read the port labels

    Multimeters come with various ports. Sometimes, they are marked with symbols that match the symbols mentioned above. For example, the black probe should always be inserted in the COM port. On the other hand, the red probe must go in the smallest current label port if you want to measure the resistance or voltage.

    Multimeter Symbols and their Meanings

    Fortunately, one of the most popular multimeter brands has standardized the current symbols on a multimeter. Yes, we are talking about Fluke. This reduces the extra hassle for users when using the tool.

    Now, allow us to be additional assistance for helping you become acquainted with the current symbols on multimeters.

    1. Hold Button

    Can be found in the multimeter’s top left-hand corner. Simply press the button if you need to lock in your measurement or reading.

    2. AC Voltage

    One of the most common and important settings for voltage testing. The expected readings are from 100 to 240 volts.

    3. Shift: Hertz

    Used to measure the frequency of either an appliance or a circuit. Different circuits or equipment are intended to function at a variable or fixed frequency.

    4. AC Millivolts

    With a symbol mV with a squiggly line at the top of V. Use it for measuring smaller circuits with the AC setting voltage.

    5. Shift DC Millivolts

    It is another road symbol with 3 hyphens and a straight line over them. It utilizes DC voltage.

    6. Shift Capacitance

    The shift option on the diode test button. The symbol appears to be two T letters that face each other. Use it if you want to measure your capacitance.

    You Might Like: Top Multimeters for DIY Electronics
    7. Min/Max Button

    Designed to save input values. A beep sound will be produced once a low or high value is exceeded, thus, saving the new value.

    8. Range Button

    Enables users to click through meter ranges.

    9. Function Button

    Can be compared to an Alt or Ctrl key on a computer keyboard. It is typically shown with yellow icons or text.

    10. DC Voltage

    Has a symbol of capital V with three hyphens on top of it and one line above that. Use it for measuring smaller circuits.

    11. AC Voltage

    Has a symbol of capital V with a wavy line at the top. Used for measuring the object’s voltage.

    12. Continuity

    Seems like a pool of closed-end parenthesis within a row. It allows you to determine whether you have short or open circuits.

    Home Maker Guide created for informational purposes only. Thus, we neither endorse you in any way to buy specific products in our reviews, nor making you act like it’s written in our guides. We are reserving the rights for you to make your personal decision.

    How to read a multimeter

    Editor-in-Chief of the Home Maker Guide

    To any professional technician, a multimeter is an indispensable tool and a fantastic piece to keep in his or her ‘arsenal’. This remarkable device performs a bunch of functions. Testing batteries, diagnosing and checking electrical circuits as well as measuring electronic parameters are just a few of those we need to mention.

    But, how do you read a multimeter? Our step by step guide will tell you what to do when it comes to reading multimeter symbols in your analog and digital devices. We’ve also discovered that using the best multimeter tech gadgets, you can now measure resistance, current, and voltage with ease!

    How to Read Ohms on a Multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Interpreting readings on even the best multimeter devices will help you get the right value every time. Below we have put together a 3 step process to get you started. These tips are tried and tested by many technicians and related professionals. They include:

    • First step: When learning how to read ohms on a digital multimeter, start by getting a resistor. Then, set the resistance function, preferably at the lowest value. Connect the two test probes to the sampling resistor to read the ohm values on display.
    • Second step: checking the range of your resistor. The multimeter will only measure the resistance of up to 200ohms any value higher than that will require some range adjustment.
    • Third step: With that in mind, adjust its value range to 2000ohms. Since it’s, the highest possible value even in some of the best fluke multimeter devices and it will give you a greater value than 200ohms.

    How to Read Amps on a Multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Amperes are used in the measurement of current and come in the abbreviation “A”. Select interchanging or direct current, depending on the type of circuit you’re working with. In many cases though, an analog multimeter lacks the power needed to test current.

    Now, interpreting multimeter symbols starts by understanding the decimal adjustment concept. After all, it’s a wasted investment if you’ve just got yourself the best multimeter and can’t read the degrees of units. So, do you know how to read milliamps on a digital multimeter?

    Can you remember the basic skills of reading SI units? Can you quickly interpret decimal values? If you can answer these two questions, then you’re not too far away. For most people, there’s a huge ‘technical problem’, especially when switching from a digital to an analog multimeter.

    Years of work and experience have shown us that Analog amp meters huge amounts of manual calculation. This is why the best multimeter digital gadgets have become popular today. Many feel that what took hours in the calculation is now quickly turning into minutes!

    How to Read Resistance on a Multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Using the best multimeter devices to measure resistance is one of the simplest things you can do with this device. Once you’ve understood what each of their color codes stands for, you’re good to go! That said, there plenty of online calculators that you could also use.

    However, because of limited access to the internet, using the best multimeter has emerged as a suitable option. To start, on the meter’s selection knob, set it to 20kΩ then choose any resistor and make sure the probe is its voltage measuring position. Next, hold the two pins against the resistor’s ‘legs’.

    Normally, the multimeter will show symbols ranging from 0.00 to 1. For readings of 0.98, it means that the resistance value is around 1kΩ or 980Ω. Change the mode from 20kΩ to a lower value preferable 200Ω or even 2kΩ if it shows a zero reading. It’s also important to highlight that overloaded meter will show readings ‘OL’ or ‘1’, but there’s no need to panic, using the selector knob, adjust the mode to 200kΩ or 2MΩ.

    Lastly, note that some resistors carry a tolerance of almost 5%. Hence, here, a color code of 10kΩ could read up to 10.5kΩ or as low as 9.5kΩ. It’s simply a problem of inconsistent manufacturing found even in the best multimeter devices but the device will still function correctly.

    How to Read Analog Multimeters

    Even though you may boast of having a couple of high functioning resistors and maybe the best stud finder in your work shed, an analog multimeter can still come in handy. They are inexpensive, simple, and surprisingly inexpensive devices.

    Learning how to read analog multimeter scale values is a rather quick process. First, familiarise yourself with the scales needed to learn how to read a multimeter volts values. They include;

    How to read a multimeter

    • Alternate Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) for voltage
    • Ω for resistance
    • dB for scale.

    So, start by choosing the most ideal scale on your meter. The good thing is the best multimeter devices; both analog and digital have an easily readable scale. For the analog multimeter, it’s a small pin-like object which moves side to side, indicating a rise and fall in the results.

    With that in mind, using dc or ac, pick a suitable voltage scale. These meters have voltage scales that work just like a normal ruler. The only difference is that they use logarithmic scales where the distance represents a value change depending on your position on the scale.

    When measuring resistance, on the best multimeter, for instance, use the adjusted range on your meter’s dial and multiply it with your readings. How about the DB scale? It’s the lowest in any analog device and needs a sufficient amount of time to fully understand it. What’s quite interesting about it is, it’s a scale that uses logarithms to convert the voltage into ratio!


    Remember that every electrician, technician or engineer needs a multimeter. However, like experts from homemakerguide tell us; having the best tech devices is useless if you can’t use them. Luckily, learning how to read the voltage on a multimeter, current or even resistance will only take a short time.

    Besides, we understand that as a professional, you need a reliable gadget and by getting the best multimeter you can rest easy. All in all, let us know what you use your digital or analog multimeter for? Is it to measure current or resistance?

    You might be asking why you need to know how to use an analog-digital multimeter in this digital day. Well, there are numerous explanations for this.

    In the electronics testing field, analog multimeters are a reliable tool. Experts still use analog meters for troubleshooting in some areas because of their precision and genuine RMS value conversion.

    In general, here are the basic steps on how to read an analog multimeter:

    • Place the probes in the appropriate connections. Select whether to test for ohms, voltage, or current first.
    • Select an AC volt input. Make sure the maximum range is more than intended.
    • Contact the leads to the terminals of the object you are testing.
    • Check the results. The top scale is ohms. The right side indicates lesser resistance.

    So, to under how to read an analog multimeter, I highly suggest that you continue reading further below.

    How to Read an Analog Scale

    How to read a multimeter

    The analog scale seems comprised of a lot of lines and numbers. This could not be very clear for beginners, so here, you will learn the basic methods to read the scale correctly:

    1. You can use the ohmic scale (the top line – Ω) to calculate resistance from left to right. You must multiply the scale measurement with the range presently selected based on the range specified. If your range is 1k and your pointer is steady at 5, your reading will be 5k ohms.
    2. You should perform the range adjustment in the same way for all quantity measurements.
    3. You can measure voltage range and current scales below the ohmic scale. DC voltage and current are measured next to the ohmic scale on the black line. The red line always represents AC measurements. It’s important to remember that you should evaluate current and voltage data from right to left.

    Practical Activity to Read an Analog Meter

    Step 1: Attach your analog multimeter to the test leads. To measure varying quantities, use the following configurations:

    Purpose Test Leads
    To test DC voltage and current Use an AA battery
    To test AV voltage and current Use an AC socket
    To measure resistance Use a resistor
    To check for continuity Use a wire

    Test leads = The materials you need to prepare aside from the analog multimeter for this activity.

    How to read a multimeter

    Step 2: Attach the test probes to the item to be measured in each configuration and check the scale reading. We’ll use monitoring DC voltage as an example in this discussion.

    Step 3: Put the probes to the AA battery’s two ends (approx. 9V). Depending on your chosen range, the pointer should fluctuate across the scale. If your battery is fully charged, the needle should be between 8 and 10 on the scale in the figure.

    Step 4: Use the same method to measure the quantities in different configurations.

    As previously stated, range selection and multiplication are essential for accurate analog reading. (1)

    For example, if you’re measuring the voltage of a car battery with an analog-digital multimeter, the range must be greater. You’ll need to do some simple multiplication to read the final output.

    If your DC volt range is 250V and the needle is between 50 and 100, the voltage will be around 75 volts depending on the precise location.

    Getting to Know the Panel

    How to read a multimeter

    Understanding the device’s panel is also crucial in reading an analog multimeter. Here is what you need to know:

    First off is at the bottom left of the multimeter, you should see where you should attach your test leads.

    Next is you can access the advanced options through the ports in the bottom right corner. When you need to invert the polarity of your measurement, the additional polarity switch comes in helpful. You can use the center switch to select the amount to be measured as well as the desired range.

    For example, if you wish to measure voltage range (AC) using an analog multimeter, turn it to the left side of the dial.

    Important Tips and Techniques

    • When using analog multimeters, make sure to select a suitable range for reliable results. You should perform this should both before and during the quantity measurement. (2)
    • Before doing a big test or troubleshooting operation, always calibrate your analog multimeter. I highly recommend a weekly calibration if you use your device on a daily basis.
    • If you detect significant changes in measurements, it’s time to replace the batteries.
    • If you are sure about the exact value of the volt quantity to be measured, always select the highest range.

    We also have other multimeter learning guides. Please, check below;

    (1) multiplication –
    (2) quantity measurement –

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    How to read a multimeter

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    How to read a multimeter

    There is a difference between a digital manual multimeter and a digital auto-ranging multimeter. Auto-ranging multimeters automatically adjust to the voltage or ohm setting needed to test the component or circuit.

    With a conventional manual multimeter, the user would either know beforehand or rotate the dial to find the appropriate range. Start at a high value, and move the dial down until seeing the appropriate range. An auto-ranging multimeter automatically finds the range and indicates it on the screen for the technician. This is great when working with sensors, circuit boards, and resistors. Resistors have banded color codes that often require a chart to identify. Finding the resistance is quick and easy with an auto-ranging multimeter.

    Most auto-ranging digital meters contain fuses or circuit protection for today’s sensitive circuits. This is a big plus over the older analog dial meters used in the past. If the technician were looking for 1.35 kiloohms, the meter would automatically set to kiloohms and indicate this number on the screen. An improperly set manual meter set to ohms may indicate 0.001 confusing the operator and the test results.

    In the illustration above, the technician has set a manual multimeter to kiloohms and retrieved a reading of .016 K ohms. Since the meter is set for kiloohms, it is .016 x (K) or times (1000) equals 16 ohms. Just move the decimal three positions to the right. They are equal. The technician could have moved the manual lever to the ohms position and retrieved 16 Ohms. If the meter displayed .009 kiloohms, it would be indicating 9 ohms of resistance. They, too, are equal.

    Autoranging Multimeter

    Most circuits, sensors, and actuators can be tested using a digital multimeter. Autoranging is just another convenient add on to a digital meter. They’re great but cost more because of the extra computer chip offering additional capabilities. They are preferred by many due to their ease of use and convenience.

    For more information about ASE, visit the official ASE website at

    How to read an analog multimeter. People utilize multimeters, nowadays, on a larger scale as compared to the past. Modern-day technology has evolved the multimeters too according to meet the required conditions.

    Almost all electronic devices involve the utilization of a multimeter once a fault or drawback happens to appear in the very machine.

    They are specifically designed for measuring the values of voltages in the for of different units. The units of the values might vary according to the device and sometimes, it happens because of the need you are having presently.

    How to read an analog multimeter How to read a multimeter

    Reading a multimeter requires proper knowledge regarding them so that you may have them read properly without getting confused.

    The article includes all of the essentials needed to aid you in reading the analog multimeter. Make sure that you read it thoroughly.

    Analog multimeter

    The analog multimeter works on the same principle as the digital multimeter does. If you take the structure of the multimeter into your account, you will get to know the variations in the shape and form of an analogue multimeter. But there exist no variations in the working principle.

    Both types generate on a similar mechanism although they have differences in the structures and methods to calculate the exact values.

    You need to know the introduction of the analogue multimeter in case you are willing to get it utilized for measuring resistance or voltages in any electronic device. Make sure that you do not look down upon any of the mentioned information.

    Structure of the analog multimeter

    The structure of the analogue multimeter has major variances if you have it compared with the other type of multimeter. Although, both provide you with the same answers that similarity exists in the phenomenon they apply while conducting the tests.

    The multimeters are hugely utilized in conducting different types of tests on multiple electronic devices. The analog multimeter consists of the following elements.

    • A needle.
    • A wider scale.
    • Sockets or probes.

    Each one of said things is mentioned in detail one after one in the veery article. The information and techniques on how to have it read are also provided in the relative section. Make sure that you do not ignore any of it.

    A needle

    The needle falls in the unique elements of the multimeter. Without a needle, you will not be able to read the displayed values inside the visible glass of the analog multimeter. The needle moves back and forth for helping you understand the correct and exact values of the measured resistance.

    The point where the needle stops after a constant motion appears to be the readings of the multimeter. So make sure that you do not have any problem in your eyes while measuring the resistance via utilizing the analogue multimeter.

    A wider scale

    Right below the needle, there exists a drawn scale. The scale has the measured and calculated values of the resistance in various units. You will notice the wider range of the scale once you have an analogue multimeter. There are the values at the regular intervals mentioned on it.

    It has a needle over it which we have discussed in the above section. The scale has nothing to do with the functioning system. It’s the needle that makes the scale tell you the exact values. Both are the inevitable components of each other.

    Sockets or probes

    Every multimeter has two sockets or sometimes probes where a connection is established with a required device. The functions of the probes include sensing and sending the signals forward to get the measured values. Make sure that you have proper knowledge about the units while taking measurements.

    How to read a multimeter

    One of the easiest ways of measuring resistance is by using a multimeter. A multimeter is not only used to measure the resistance accuracy and whether it functions appropriately but also measuring other measurements such as amperage and voltage. Therefore, you can use a multimeter to find the resistance of an indefinite component. Likewise, you can also choose to use it to examine electrocuted or open circuit, with this vital as it allows you to measure resistance which is very crucial.

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    The use of digital multimeters is a lot easier to use as well as to read in comparison to the analogue multimeter. This is because it has a screen that displays the reading value of resistance, which is usually a figure close to 2 decimal places on your measurement scale. However, it would help if you took note that digital multimeters vary from one model to another though not so much, so you should always make you make good use of your manufacturer manual script.

    1. Reading the digital display
      • Read the resistance value
      • Check OL or 1 to show that your resistance range is too minimal
      • Switch on your multimeter
      • Select the resistance function
      • Ensure you remove the components you want to examine from the circuit
      • Examine the resistance of your electrical device using the leads.
    2. Conclusion

    Furthermore, you are encouraged to exercise safety measures to safeguard your wellbeing and some of the tips you need to observe include:

    • The circuit being examined should not be powered on as this could lead your multimeter to get damaged and also interfere with the reading value.
    • Only test for resistance when the component you are running a test on is unplugged from the circuit.
    • Keep your fingers out of the measuring sight as this could probably alter the reading value displayed on your multimeter resulting in an inaccurate measurement.

    Reading the digital display

    Look for a symbol ‘’M’’ or ‘’K’’ located next to the omega to come up with the scale of your reading value. Usually, the label on your digital meter shows the ohm level. If the reading value displayed on your multimeter ranges either in mega-ohm that is 1,000,000 ohm or in kilo-ohm that is 1,000 ohms, then you are likely to have an addition symbol of K or M particularly in front of your omega sign.

    Read the resistance value

    It is appropriate that you acquire basic knowledge and skills on how to handle the multimeter, especially when it comes to knowing the scale of your ohmmeter. Therefore, having a good understanding of the resistance reading value is a necessary thing in the readout procedure of the multimeter. On the digital multimeter, the numbers are usually displayed in front or at the centre of the multimeter screen, with this number typically close to 2 decimal places.

    Resistance is a measurement that is based on minimizing the amount of energy passing through a material. In case the reading value displayed is high, then consider having a maximum resistance value, hence meaning you need to add more power to regulate the element in your entire circuit.

    Check OL or 1 to show that your resistance range is too minimal

    Some digital multimeter do not come set automatically, so it is upon you to set it the range. Thus, you should start by setting the maximum range as you head towards the lower ranges until your multimeter displays a reading. Apply this even if you are sure of the range of the element you are examining.

    Switch on your multimeter

    This depends on the kind of multimeter you are probably using. However, switching on the multimeter is usually easy since you press the switch that indicates turn on. For more detailed information on how to set the resistance, you should check out the user manual.

    Select the resistance function

    An ohmmeter is typically found the multimeter suite. However, there is a variation when it comes to choosing the resistance function since the multimeter also differs in terms of the model. Thus, you need to check for a rotating dial to alter your settings, and in case you experience any difficulty, you can always refer to your user manual.

    Ensure you remove the components you want to examine from the circuit

    When looking to carry out tests to measure resistance, you need to examine whether your component is faulty, and this will always lead to you removing it from the circuit. After that, examine your component by holding both leads to 2 poles of your component, and this will give you an appropriate reading.

    Examine the resistance of your electrical device using the leads.

    Once you are ready to examine the resistance reading value of your component, hold the test leads of your device, you are examining. The leads are two thin silver wires coming out of your component. How you hold does not really matter as you will still find out the results. In case you find it tricky check your manufacturer script as mentioned earlier above

    You can also choose to work with an auto-range setting if you want. Most digital multimeters have been set automatically, so there is no need for you to panic because everything is usually set. This has been simplified for the purpose of serving your time. However, it is typically inbuilt, or you can also choose to have it from your millimeter’s menu. You can decide to commence with the maximum range of your digital multimeter maybe you might get an accurate reading.

    Therefore, hold your multimeter’s probes against the circuit’s side as you observe and take the readings. Your reading is likely to stay at zero on a maximum range. However, if your range is too minimal, it is likely to make the needle to move suddenly hence causing damage. So, for you to get an appropriate reading value, it is good that you use your range adjustment knob on your digital multimeter always, lower the range until you get the correct reading value.


    The above information will guide you on how to read ohms on your digital multimeter. Whereas sometimes this seems to be somewhat challenging, with the necessary skills and knowledge, all this is usually very simple and straightforward. However, if you are experiencing any troubles, you can always hire a professional to help you out or refer to the user manual. Consequently, you will be able to diagnose what the possible issue might be.

    Measuring resistance on a multimeter can be really easy with some very simple steps. Resistance, otherwise known as ohms, is needed to be measured for many reasons.

    You may want to check resistance in order to see the accuracy of a resistor. Or you may not know the resistance of a circuit and want to know what it is.

    Most circuits are color coded which makes it easy to determine their resistance, but in any case, you can always check this using your multimeter.

    No matter what your reason for measuring resistance, your digital multimeter is a great piece of equipment to do it with. You can utilize most of the Fluke brand devices to measure resistance including some of my favorites like the Fluke 116, Fluke 117, Fluke 87V, or Fluke 3000 FC.

    What you will need

    • Digital Multimeter with the ohms setting Ω, like Fluke 116 (see on
    • A socket or the item to be measured

    How to measure resistance

    There are a few simple steps to measure resistance with your digital multimeter:

    1. Pick the item you want to measure where resistance may be found.
    2. Select the appropriate ohms setting which you will know it because the section will show this sign: Ω
    3. You may not know right away which range to use when selecting the ohms setting, but if later on when you start to measure your multimeter show something strange like a 1 and a bunch of blank spaces (like this: 1__._), you’ll know that it’s too low and you’ll have to increase the range.
    4. For the probe leads, you’ll need to modify them when measuring resistance. The black lead will stay in the socket that says COM which is normal. For the red probe lead, you’ll need to make sure it’s put in the socket which shows the ohms symbol (Ω).
    5. Next, you’ll want to test if the meter is functioning properly by taking your red and black probe leads and touch the metallic parts together. The multimeter should say almost zero, but usually will say 1 or 2. If your multimeter shows a high number, then something is wrong with your multimeter and you probably will not have accurate results.
    6. Again, make sure your resistor is not connected to any circuit or power source.
    7. Take your black and red lead and connect them to opposite ends of the object you are looking to check resistance on (the resistor).
    8. Your device will then show you a number which is your resistance.

    How to read a multimeter

    Things You Should Know

    There are a few different setups that you may have when doing resistance measurement so it’s important to know the following:

    • Disconnect Object: Before you can start measuring resistance, you need to make sure that there is no electricity flowing through an object. If electricity is flowing through it, it will not measure resistance properly. First disconnect the device from any power source prior to testing its resistance.
    • Remove from Circuit: Another important reminder is to ensure that the device/resistor is not a part of a circuit as well. It is best to remove the resistor from the circuit prior to testing it for resistance as the additional paths within the circuit will affect the results of the resistance as they will have resistance as well.
    • Analog Meter: If you are using an analog multimeter, the steps are the same in both instances, but the device may look different with the needle showing you the actual measurement.

    Resistance is an easy measurement to make. If you’re looking for an instructional video, this one is great to check out:

    It’s always important when you’re finished making your measurement to turn the multimeter off as when it is put in this setting an electrical charge is being sent constantly through the probes.

    As well if you need your readings saved, many multimeters have a “hold” button which will save the reading if you need to refer back to it at a later time.

    One of the most basic household purposes to use a multimeter is battery testing. The simplest way to check a (AA) battery, is generally used in remote control of the TV. To check whether it is in good condition or not, connect it to a multimeter’s test probes and measure its voltage or amperage. If you have wondered how to test a battery with a multimeter, this guide will walk you through it.

    We will use a pocket digital multimeter because we need a simple tool to test and a 9-volt battery for this guide.

    For more knowledge about measuring other measures such as resistance or capacitance, check out our other articles.

    How to read a multimeter

    Table of Contents

    How to Test a Battery:

    The fundamental purpose is to check if a battery is capable of providing enough amperage to a load.

    In this case, We will consider the load as a TV remote control (RC). For a nine-volt battery, we will test both the voltage as well as the current.

    How to Check Battery Voltage Using a Multimeter?

    We are setting up a multimeter, along with the battery, to test. We will use a 9-volt transistor battery for this guide.

    Step 1:

    First, we will measure the voltage of the battery. Second, we will measure the current. To do this, Move the selector dial to select D/C voltage measurement. Since the battery generates D/C power, therefore, we will measure D/C voltage.

    Step 2:

    We previously knew that the battery’s voltage is 9 Volt maximum so we will point the dial to a higher range of 20 Volts.

    Step 3:

    Connect the test probes – black with negative, red with positive – to the battery and check the display.

    Step 4:

    The display should read a value that is just short of 9Volt. Because this battery has been in use for some time, it shows a reading of 8.74Volts, which is still sufficient to supply current to the load.

    Step 5:

    For a different (drained) battery, the reading looks like this

    In most cases, this voltage measurement of a battery is enough to understand that it’s working perfectly.

    However, to assure that it can supply enough current to a load; therefore, we also measure the ampere in milliampere-hour (mAh).

    How to Measure Battery Amps With A Multimeter?

    Step 1:

    Select the D/C current function using the dial and keep it at 200mA since the battery’s amperage will be around 100mAh.

    Step 2:

    Connect the test probes similarly, before as we did for voltage measurement and check the display.

    It could fluctuate around 98.3, which indicates that the amperage is 100mA – enough to run the small PCB of the TV remote control.

    It would be unmistakable that testing a battery using a multimeter is one of its most accessible applications.

    So, whenever your TV or any functioning remote control starts acting funny, you can immediately take out your multimeter and start getting some answers.

    Indeed if the battery shows a good reading, there can still be an issue while connected to a load.

    There are some multimeters open in the market that resemble a load to test the battery. These multimeters can be a great addition to your toolbox.

    While operating, if a battery has a voltage level that is half of its initial rating, it might be a good idea to get a new one; why? Because batteries drain out faster once they reach half-life.

    You may also use a simple voltmeter or an analog multimeter to test batteries. These multimeters will give you an accurate, direct reading on the scale instead of a digital display.

    How to use a multimeter to test a car battery?

    You may use a multimeter to test heavy-duty car batteries or alternators that might be giving you hazards such as delayed ignitions or dim headlights.

    In addition, you can check the health of your battery through the dashboard display, and sometimes the battery load can be empty, leaving you no choice but to open the bonnet. That is where the multimeter comes into the picture.

    The process is similar to what we did before, connect the test probes in black and red to the battery’s terminals and observe the reading.

    Car Batteries have different ratings for each make, it varies from car to car, but a good battery would be 15V to 20V D/C. In our case, we have the 20 Volt range battery.


    It is a good idea to turn on your headlights for a few minutes before checking the battery so that this will paddle off any surface charge that it might have.

    Hence, the reading we observe is 12.78V, which is suitable for a one-year-old car battery.

    If the observed reading is more than the minimum value (around 12 Volts), then it is evident that the battery has a reasonable charge.

    However, this process alone is not enough to understand whether it is in good condition or not. You still need to examine if your car can firmly pull power.

    So the simplest way to check that is to test the cold cranking amps (CCA) that trigger the ignition. Most car batteries are assumed to be suitable for 3-4 years approximately.

    How To Test The Cold Cranking Amps of a Car Battery with a Multimeter?

    Set the multimeter probes connected to the battery terminals and switch on the ignition.

    You required extra support for this specific task because you need to check how the reading fluctuates while cranking up the ignition. The value should drop (around 10V) in an ideal scenario and return to a higher value (more than 12V).

    And if the reading stays constant while the engine is still running, you can verify that the battery is in fresh and new condition.

    We have observed our reading is 14.73, which is also an excellent number for the cold-cranking amps value. If the initial reading is around 5V, your battery is working but will go bad. If the measured value is below 5V, now you should replace your battery.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    The unit of electric current measurement is amperage, whereas if we multiply the amperage amount of current by a time, this is called Amp Hour.

    Here are some factors that battery can last long:
    Quality, Proper alternator voltage output (the alternator has to work correctly), Power surges and short circuits (for instance, improper jump starting).Ground connection from the car battery to the car. How much the battery is used, Outside temperature, physical damage and maintenance of the battery.


    You are testing a battery, whether a car battery or a AA battery. As you can see, it is effortless and quick. So the solution is to try it out with different batteries that might be lying around (in your house or lab) to understand different charge positions.

    We hope this article will guide you and has been helpful on how to test a battery with a multimeter.

    Measurement of Frequency with a Digital Multimeter

    Frequency is the number of cycles completed in one second of time. There are different kinds of multimeters that can measure frequency. Alternating current and other electrical signals possess frequency that affects the operation of a device. By using a multimeter, we can measure multiple quantities such as voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, frequency temperature and continuity, etc and testing electrical and electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and cables & wires etc.

    In this article, we are going to study how a multimeter measures frequency and what are the factors that affect its reading.

    How to read a multimeter

    Table of Contents

    Working Principle

    A digital multimeter that can measure frequency has a peak-detection circuit. The meter measures the time between the two consecutive crests (peak of waveform) using the peak-detection circuit. it detects the peak of the input waveform and starts the timer. When the next peak of the waveform is detected, it stops the timer. The meter calculates the frequency using the time between the two crests of the waveform.

    Measuring Frequency

    Any digital multimeter that can measure frequency has “Hz” written anywhere on the dial and upon the ports where probes are inserted. It may also share a spot on the dial with “VAC” or “V

    There are two methods for measuring frequency on a multimeter. If your multimeter has a dedicated spot on the dial, then follow this method.

    Method 1

    • Turn the meter ON by switching the ON/OFF button.
    • Turn the dial to “Hz”, it shares a spot on the dial with any other function such as “VAC or V

    ”. Pressing the “shift” button access the secondary option and starts measuring frequency. “Hz” appears on the display to confirm the meter has switched to frequency measurement.

    How to read a multimeter

    • Some multimeters have a dedicated spot for frequency measurement on the dial that has “Hz” written on it.
    • Insert the black probe first into the “COM” port.
    • Then insert the red probe into the port having “Hz” written on it.

    How to read a multimeter

    • Connect the black lead first and then the red lead to the point of measurement.
    • Note the reading from the display.
    • If your multimeter has different ranges, reduce the range to get an accurate reading. Most multimeters have “auto range” button to select the proper range based on the reading.
    • When finished, remove the red lead first and then the black lead.
    • Remove the black and red lead from the meters ports.
    • Turn off the meter or turn the dial to “voltage measurement” to avoid any potential damage in case of quick reuse.

    Method 2:

    Some multimeters have a separate button for “Hz”. For such meters, follow the following procedure.

    • Turn the meter ON by switching the ON/OFF button.
    • Turn the dial to “VAC or V


  • Select the maximum voltage range, if the multimeter does not have an auto-range feature.
  • How to read a multimeter

    • Insert the black probe first into the “COM” port.
    • Then insert the red probe into the port having “V Ω” or “Hz” written upon it.
    • Connect the black lead first and then the red lead to the point of measurement. Swapping the leads does not affect the reading.
    • Press the “Hz” button to switch to frequency measurement.
    • Note the reading from the display.
    • If possible reduce the range to get an accurate reading. Auto-range feature selects proper range based on the reading.
    • When finished, remove the red lead first and then the black lead.
    • Remove the black and red lead from the meters ports.
    • Turn off the meter or turn the dial to “voltage measurement” to avoid any potential damage in case of quick reuse.

    Problems Incurred during Frequency Measurement

    There are many problems that can affect the frequency reading of a multimeter. We can reduce some of them to get an accurate reading.

    Range of the Meter

    The datasheet of a multimeter shows the lowest and highest frequency the meter can accurately measure. If the input frequency falls below the range, the multimeter may display a reading close to the actual reading but not accurate enough. The same thing will happen to a higher frequency above the range. The meters may not keep up with the actual frequency and display lower readings or show “OL” overload.

    Therefore, it is necessary to know the range of the meter and the approximate frequency of the input signal.

    Distortion in Input Signal

    If the input signal has frequency distortion, it can affect the reading of the multimeter and cause uncertainty in the reading. The reading may also fluctuate. The signal can be filtered from noise by using a low pass filter.

    Signal Radiation

    Sometimes, the multimeter may pick up the frequency reading without probes touching the line. it may occur due to the unshielded lines that act as antennas to radiate the EMI (Electromagnetic interference). The meter picks up the signal, amplify and measure It and display the reading. It may or may not be accurate. Therefore, it is best to physically connect the probes to the wire.

    Why do We Measure Frequency?

    Measuring frequency is important because circuits and machines are designed to operate at specific frequencies. They either operate at fixed frequency or variable frequency where the output depends on it.

    One such example is an AC electric motor whose speed is directly proportional to the frequency of the mains supply. A motor or transformer designed to operate at 50 Hz will run at a higher speed if connected to a 60 Hz supply. Similarly, a 60 Hz motor and transformer will be slower if it runs on a 50Hz supply. Here is an interesting question for you 🙂 Is it Possible to Operate a 50Hz Transformer on 5Hz or 500Hz Frequency?.

    This is measured using a digital multimeter and indicates if an electrical circuit is complete or broken. A component’s resistance relates to the manufacturer’s specification.

    By following these steps to complete the resistance test:

    1. Make that the component under test is isolated from the rest of the circuit. Isolate the component by removing it from the circuit or using an open switch.
    2. The selector dial should be set to Ω.
    3. Connect Simply the test leads and probes to the component terminals.
    4. Check the readout window to obtain the Ω reading.
    5. Compare the results to the manufacturer’s Ω specifications. Resistance is not an issue if the readings match the component. If the component is a load, there should be resistance that matches the manufacturer’s specs.
    6. When the reading is either infinite (I) or overloaded (OL), the component is open.
    7. If the reading is 0, then the component is stopped- If it’s a load, it’s an internal short.
    8. Double-check all power is turned off on the circuit you’re testing.

    Table of Contents

    A Complete Introduction to Ohm’s Law?

    Ohm’s law is used by engineers to calculate the resistance of a circuit. This formula was discovered by Joseph Henry Ohm, who was born in 1791. He discovered the law while working on the electromagnet for an electric generator which was being developed at his employer’s laboratory in Germany at that time. In 1817 he published his findings as “A New Principle of Electromagnetic Resistance.

    Ohm’s law is a fundamental law of physics. It states that electrical resistance is directly proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the voltage. Ohm’s law also describes how to measure resistance in terms of ohms (units: Ω). It is not just a mathematical equation, but also an engineering principle that describes how two different materials can be connected in series or parallel.

    Ohm’s law describes the relationship between voltage and current in a circuit. It is used to describe the relationship between power and current in many different circuits, such as electric motors, transformers, computers, etc.

    Ohm’s law is used in electronics to describe how currents flow through electrical components such as resistors and capacitors. It is also used in electronics to calculate voltages, currents, and power dissipation.

    Resistance is a measure of the electrical resistance of an object. It is expressed in ohms. Resistance can be expressed as resistance value or by a number called ohm’s law (R = I × V).

    Resistance is measured in ohms and it gives us a way to express the magnitude of current flow through an object, which can be measured with a multimeter.

    The resistance value for an object is usually expressed as R, where R is the resistance value and I represents the current flowing through that object. The current flowing through an object can be measured with a multimeter.

    The purpose of this test is to determine if the component is defective and can be replaced or repaired.

    What Does An Ohm Reading Mean?

    An Ohm reading is a measurement of electrical resistance. It is the resistance of an object when a current is applied to it. The resistance will increase as the current increases and decrease as the current decreases. Ohm Reading is the measurement of the resistance of a conductor between two points. Ohm Reading is calculated by measuring the resistance at two points on a wire, one at one end and another at the other end.

    Resistance is measured in Ohm’s Law:

    The resistance of a circuit can be measured in several ways, such as:

    1) Ohm’s law: The formula for calculating the resistance of any circuit, based on the number of turns and length of wire used.

    (2) Ohm’s law for resistors: This is an easy way to calculate the resistance value when you have only two resistors

    (3) Ohm’s Law for Inductance: This formula allows us to calculate the inductance value when we have two inductors

    (4) Ohm’s Law for Capacitors: This formula allows us to calculate capacitance value when we have a capacitor and an inductor

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    Multimeters (also referred to as “resistance” testers) are devices that measure the resistance of a circuit. They can be used in a wide variety of applications

    You can use Ohm’s Law to calculate resistance if you know the total current and voltage across the entire circuit: R = V / I.


    We learned how to measure resistance in this article. Measuring resistance (ohm) is a simple procedure if you are familiar with using a multimeter.

    Furthermore, since you’ll be working with potentially dangerous parameters, you must take caution. So, go with a safe that has advanced functionality.

    A multimeter is one device that you should have if you like to work with electrical systems. It can be useful in more ways than one, which makes it a great investment. While it can be beneficial, however, this will only be the case if you know how to use a multimeter properly, which will allow you to make the most out of its functions.

    In a nutshell, a multimeter is simply a device that will provide you with several measurements of electricity. It is a multi-functional tool as it can provide you with more than just measurements. To be specific, it will be useful for the measurement of voltage, current, and resistance. Clueless on how to use this equipment? Keep on reading and learn from the insights that we will be sharing.

    How to Use a Multimeter in Measuring Voltage

    Voltage refers to how hard electricity will be pushed in a circuit. The harder the push of the electricity is, the higher will be the voltage. Voltage is indicated in “V” and measured as volts. Here is how you can use your multimeter for the measurement of voltage:

    • Start with connecting the multimeter to the circuit. Insert the black probe into the COM port, which is the common terminal, and the red probe in the VΩmA port, which is specifically the port for the measurement of voltage and ohms. Before doing this, make sure as well to turn off the power to the wire or circuitry.
    • Determine whether you are measuring AC or DC voltage. Turn on the dial on the voltage that you intend to measure.
    • If you are measuring AC voltage, you can now place it in the component without the need to pay attention to polarity. On the other hand, if you are measuring DC, be sure to observe polarity.
    • Power the equipment and read the display that you can find in the multimeter.

    How to read a multimeter

    How to Use a Multimeter in Measuring Current

    Current, on the other hand, refers to the amount of electricity that flows in a circuit. If there is high electricity flowing, the current should also be high. To measure current with a multimeter, here are the things you have to do:

    • To start with, turn off the supply of electricity from the circuitry where the measurements where will be made. Multimeters have two sockets with different milliamperes. Choose which one is suitable.
    • Select the setting from the multimeter that is meant to measure current. Follow this up by breaking the circuit. While placing the probes in the breaks, be sure to pay attention to polarity. Connect the red probe on the positive break and the black probe on the negative break.
    • Turn on the power supply. This will let electricity pass through the circuitry, making it possible for the multimeter to make the appropriate measurement.
    • Read the display to know the current in the circuitry. In the case of some models, there is a feature wherein you can touch the Hold button for the readings to stay on the screen.

    How to read a multimeter

    How to Use a Multimeter in Measuring Resistance

    Expressed as ohms, resistance refers the obstruction that the electricity experiences as it flows through a current. If there is a higher resistance, this means that electricity is finding it more difficult to enter the current. Here is how to can use the multimeter in the measurement of resistance:

    • Connect the appropriate circuit in the multimeter. Attach the black probe to the common terminal. On the other hand, attach the red probe to the terminal for the measurement of voltage and resistance.
    • Turn the selector knob to choose the specific setting for the measurement of resistance. In some models, this may be represented by the Greek symbol of omega, which means ohms.
    • Turn off the supply of power.
    • Place the probes on the circuits that you will measure. Make sure to remove the resistor from the circuit board prior to measurement. Otherwise, there is a high likelihood that the result will be inaccurate.
    • Read the measurement on the display.

    How to read a multimeter
    To make the most out of this multi-functional device, it is important that you learn how to use a multimeter. It does not take an expert to figure this out. Nonetheless, it is important that you follow the right steps to be safe, and more importantly, to be sure of ending up with accurate measurements. Finally, if you don’t have a multimeter, read our reviews to pick the best one.

    About The Author


    We are home and garden enthusiasts, we share our unique knowledge and expertise. If you have home and garden ideas, feel free to write for us. However, your articles must be unique, informative, made of short and straightforward sentences.

    Measuring Voltage

    To start, let’s measure voltage on a AA battery: Plug the black probe into COM and the red probe into mAVΩ. Set the multimeter to “2V” in the DC (direct current) range. Almost all portable electronics use direct current), not alternating current. Connect the black probe to the battery’s ground or ‘-‘ and the red probe to power or ‘+’. Squeeze the probes with a little pressure against the positive and negative terminals of the AA battery. If you’ve got a fresh battery, you should see around 1.5V on the display (this battery is brand new, so its voltage is slightly higher than 1.5V).

    How to read a multimeter

    If you’re measuring DC voltage (such as a battery or a sensor hooked up to an Arduino) you want to set the knob where the V has a straight line. AC voltage (like what comes out of the wall) can be dangerous, so we rarely need to use the AC voltage setting (the V with a wavy line next to it). If you’re messing with AC, we recommend you get a non-contact tester rather than use a digital multimeter.

    How to read a multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    What happens if you switch the red and black probes? The reading on the multimeter is simply negative. Nothing bad happens! The multimeter measures voltage in relation to the common probe. How much voltage is there on the ‘+’ of the battery compared to common or the negative pin? 1.5V. If we switch the probes, we define ‘+’ as the common or zero point. How much voltage is there on the ‘-’ of the battery compared to our new zero? -1.5V!

    How to read a multimeter

    Now let’s construct a simple circuit to demonstrate how to measure voltage in a real world scenario. The circuit is simply a 1kΩ and a Blue super bright LED powered with a SparkFun Breadboard Power Supply Stick. To begin, let’s make sure the circuit you are working on is powered up correctly. If your project should be at 5V but is less than 4.5V or greater than 5.5V, this would quickly give you an indication that something is wrong and you may need to check your power connections or the wiring of your circuit.

    How to read a multimeter

    Set the knob to “20V” in the DC range (the DC Voltage range has a V with a straight line next to it). Multimeters are generally not autoranging. You have to set the multimeter to a range that it can measure. For example, 2V measures voltages up to 2 volts, and 20V measures voltages up to 20 volts. So if you’ve measuring a 12V battery, use the 20V setting. 5V system? Use the 20V setting. If you set it incorrectly, you will probably see the meter screen change and then read ‘1’.

    How to read a multimeter

    With some force (imagine poking a fork into a piece of cooked meat), push the probes onto two exposed pieces of metal. One probe should contact a GND connection. One probe to the VCC or 5V connection.

    We can test different parts of the circuit as well. This practice is called nodal analysis, and it is a basic building block in circuit analysis. By measuring the voltage across the circuit we can see how much voltage each component requires. Let’s measure the whole circuit first. Measuring from where the voltage is going in to the resistor and then where ground is on the LED, we should see the full voltage of the circuit, expected to be around 5V.

    How to read a multimeter

    We can then see how much voltage the LED is using. This is what is referred to as the voltage drop across the LED. If that doesn’t make sense now, fear not. It will as you explore the world of electronics more. The important thing to take away is that different parts of a circuit can be measured to analyze the circuit as a whole.

    How to read a multimeter


    What happens if you select a voltage setting that is too low for the voltage you’re trying to measure? Nothing bad. The meter will simply display a 1. This is the meter trying to tell you that it is overloaded or out-of-range. Whatever you’re trying to read is too much for that particular setting. Try changing the multimeter knob to a the next highest setting.

    How to read a multimeter

    Selection Knob

    How to read a multimeter

    Why does the meter knob read 20V and not 10V? If you’re looking to measure a voltage less than 20V, you turn to the 20V setting. This will allow you to read from 2.00 to 19.99.

    The first digit on many multimeters is only able to display a ‘1’ so the ranges are limited to 19.99 instead of 99.99. Hence the 20V max range instead of 99V max range.

    Steps for measuring dc voltage with a digital multimeter

    1. Then insert the red probes into the V Ω jack. When finished, remove the probes in reverse order: red first, then black.
    2. Connect the test probes to the circuit: black to the negative polarity test point (circuit ground), red to positive test point.

    Note: Most modern multimeters automatically detect polarity. When measuring dc voltage, it is not critical for the red lead to contact a positive terminal or black to touch negative. Just recognize if the probes touch opposite terminals, a negative symbol will appear in the display. With an analog multimeter, red leads should always touch a positive terminal and black a negative terminal. Otherwise, damage to the meter will occur.

    1. Read the measurement in the display.

    Other useful functions when measuring dc voltage

    1. Modern DMMs default to Autorange based on the function selected on the dial. To select a specific fixed measurement range, press the RANGE button multiple times until the desired range is selected. If the voltage measurement falls within the range of a lower dc millivolts setting, follow these steps:
      • Disconnect the test probes.
      • Change the dial setting to dc millivolts.
      • Reconnect the test probes and read the measurement.
    2. Press the HOLD button to capture a stable measurement. It can be viewed after the measurement is complete.
    3. Press the MIN/MAX button to capture the lowest and highest measurement. The DMM beeps each time a new reading is recorded.
    4. Press the relative (REL) or delta (?) button to set the DMM to a specific reference value. Measurements above and below the reference value are displayed

    Note: Avoid this common technician mistake: inserting test probes into incorrect input jacks. If measuring dc voltage, be certain to insert the red probe into the input jack marked V, not A. The display should show the dcV symbol. Placing test probes in A or mA inputs and then measuring voltage will create a short in the measurement circuit.

    Voltage measurement analysis

    • Voltage measurements are normally taken to a) establish that voltage exists at a given point and b) ensure that the voltage is at the proper level.
    • AC voltages can vary widely (between -10% and +5% of the power source rating) and cause no problems in a circuit. Yet with dc voltages, even small variations may indicate trouble.
    • The exact amount of acceptable dc voltage variation depends on the application. See chart below for an example.
    • In some dc applications, large dc variations are not only acceptable, but intentional.
      • Example: The speed of dc motors can be adjusted by varying the amount of dc voltage supplied. In this application, the measurement of dc motor voltage depends on the setting of the voltage regulator.
    • When taking and comparing dc voltage measurements, refer to manufacturer’s specifications for specific values in the circuit.

    How to read a multimeter

    As shown in the chart above, a fully charged auto battery rated for 12 volts may have an open-circuit voltage ranging from 11.9 V to 12.6 V (typically 2.2 V per cell).

    • A measurement of 11.9 V indicates a dead battery.
    • A measurement of 12.6 V indicates a battery with a 100% charge. In-between measurements indicate a charge of less than 100%.
    • A battery with a slightly higher voltage measurement (3% to 5%) is much better than a battery with a lower measurement. A dc voltage variation below the normal rated voltage indicates a problem.

    Ac and dc voltage measurements

    • In some applications, dc voltage measurements may be taken in circuits that include ac voltage.
    • To ensure maximum accuracy of a dc voltage measurement, first measure and record the ac voltage. Then measure dc voltage by selecting a dc voltage range (using the RANGE button) that is the same or higher than the ac voltage range.
    • Some DMMs can simultaneously measure and display the ac and dc components of a signal. The DMM display can show results three ways (see illustration below):
      1. The ac portion of the signal appears in the primary display and the dc portion in the smaller secondary display.
      2. The dc reading can be switched to the primary display while the ac drops to the secondary (on most DMMs).
      3. The combined AC+DC value – the signal’s equivalent rms signal value.

    How to read a multimeter

    Reference: Digital Multimeter Principles by Glen A. Mazur, American Technical Publishers.

    Disclaimer | This article may contain affiliate links, this means that at no cost to you, we may receive a small commission for qualifying purchases.

    With so many battery operated products in the house, multimeters have become the need of this day.

    Today, we are here to tell you how to use one correctly. From TV and AC remotes to battery operated lights, there are a lot of products that need proper functioning cells to run. Even our cars cannot run without cells.

    With multimeters available on the internet and in shops, it is easier to buy one and take care of all your batteries at home itself. As such, you would not need to visit a mechanic at a garage.

    But if you are confused about buying a multimeter because you do not know how to use it, here’s a guide that will provide the details. Read on to learn how to measure voltage levels for different types of cells. Also, we will tell you how to understand when to buy new batteries because they are running out of juice.

    Let’s turn on the ignition and proceed!

    How to Check Battery Voltage Using a Multi-meter

    How to read a multimeter

    Firstly take a multimeter and place it on the table. Also, bring in the battery you want to test. We will explain the process with a 9-volt battery for this guide. To correctly measure the voltage, turn your switch dial to DC voltage measurement.

    This needs to be done because a battery generates DC power, and this means you will need to measure it with the same unit. So it is essential to know the maximum voltage of the battery. Set the dial to 20 volts, which is the maximum range.

    Connect the test probes to your cell, with the black wire meeting the negative. The red wire should meet the positive and then check its display. If you get a number which is higher than 7 for a 9-volt battery, it is still usable, and the cell will last for some more time.

    On the other hand, if it is a dead battery, it would show results below 1. If that is the case, it is time to buy a new one. Mostly, it is enough to just check the voltage to get a clear understanding of the battery.

    But if you have to ensure that it can supply sufficient current to a load, you would need to measure the amperage in milliampere-hour (mAh). We will discuss this in the next part.

    How to Measure Battery Amps with A Multimeter

    So here we will talk about how to get accurate measurements of the current of a battery. The average amperage of the battery would be somewhere around 100 mAh. So before measuring, turn the dial to DC function and keep it at 200 mAh.

    Again connect your test probes in a similar way where the black wire meets the negative. The red one should connect to the positive. After you are done, check the reading on the display.

    If it fluctuates somewhere around 100 mAh, it is working alright and will run any small device efficiently. We tested it on our TV remote control battery, and we got 98.3 on our display, which was a satisfactory result.

    While testing your battery, if you find the number to be below half the voltage level of any cell, it is time to replace it. This is because once a battery reaches its midpoint, it starts to drain away quickly.

    If you do not have a digital multimeter, you can also try using a simple voltmeter or an analog multimeter. These do not come with a digital display but will let you take accurate measurements with a facility to read it from the scale directly.

    A digital variant is easier to use and will always be the preferred choice, but again, it is not the only way to get the job done. There are a number of multimeters available in the market today that simulate a load to test the battery. These devices can be great additions to your tool collection.

    How to Use A Multimeter To Test A Car Battery

    If your car battery is causing problems or you have an issue with dim headlights or delayed ignition, a multimeter can come to the rescue. This product can also be used to check the health of heavy-duty car batteries or alternators.

    Though you can already see the battery level on your dashboard display, it may so happen that the battery has completely drained out. In such a case, you would have to open the bonnet to get access to the battery, and that’s when you need a multimeter.

    The process is the same as above. You would need to connect the probes to the battery terminals. Then proceed to check the reading on the multimeter display.

    The battery ratings vary a lot from car to car, but choosing 15-20 Volt is good enough. We selected 20V before proceeding to measure the level. Allow us to give you a piece of advice here – you should keep the headlights on for a few minutes before checking the battery. This would drain away any remaining charge.

    If your measurement is more than the minimum value, which is usually 12 volts, the battery has a good charge and will last. However, this is not the only way to judge if the battery is in perfect condition. One also needs to check if the car is able to draw power successfully.

    A quick way to come to a conclusion is to test the cold cranking amps (CCA) that trigger the ignition. Most car batteries tend to function well for 3-4 years before deteriorating.

    How To Test The Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) of a Car Battery

    To test the cold cranking Amps, keep your multimeter connected to the battery terminals and then fire up the ignition of your car. This is a job for two people, where one needs to take control of the ignition while the other checks for fluctuations while the engine is cranked up.

    The ideal situation would be if the reading drops to 10V but then returns to a higher value around 12 V. If the reading stays constant after the initial value drop, then you would know your battery is in perfect condition. The engine needs to be running throughout the process.

    If the initial reading is around 5V and not below it, you should know that the battery is slowly dying and would not work for long. Also, if the reading is way below 5V, then it is time to replace the cell.

    Make sure that you do not try to do it all by yourself. Take another person’s help because if you try to handle both the engine as well as the measurement, you may end up with an incorrect reading.

    How to read a multimeter


    Now you know how to go about using a multimeter to test batteries. It is fairly easy once you are well-versed with the process.

    However, we strongly recommend that you practice on different cells to get the hang of it. Maybe consider practicing with the different batteries used for household items like the remote, video game, torch, and even a battery from a lamp. The more you play around with different cells, the better you understand various charge positions.

    We hope this guide was helpful in explaining to you how to test a battery with a multimeter. If you still face any problems, do let us know in the comments section below.

    No more scratching your head at malfunctioning appliances. With this guide, you’ll learn the ins and outs of troubleshooting your home and household electronics using one of your toolkit’s handiest instrument.

    By Glenda Taylor and Bob Vila | Updated Mar 15, 2021 1:34 PM

    How to read a multimeter How to read a multimeter How to read a multimeter How to read a multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Once reserved for engineers and electronic technicians, multimeters—sometimes called “multitesters”—have come down in price and size, making them indispensable for homeowners who have basic knowledge of circuitry. When troubleshooting problems with small appliances, smart-home modules, speaker systems, or just about any other electronic item, a multimeter will be among the most valued tools in your arsenal.

    If you’re new to multimeters, these gadgets may seem daunting at first. Learn the basics, however, and you’ll soon be able to perform a number of diagnostic tests on your own. Because multimeters vary from model to model, be sure to study your specific unit’s operating manual before you get started.

    How to read a multimeter

    Two Types of Multimeters

    Analog multimeters, or volt-ohm-milliammeters (VOM), have been around for decades and can still be found, affordably, at any do-it-yourself-type store. The new kids on the block—digital multimeters (DMM)—offer greater precision with decimal point readouts, even enhanced functions, such as the ability to auto-detect alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

    Applications and Limitations

    Both VOM and DMM models measure voltage, resistance, and current, replacing the need for individual voltmeters, ohmmeters, and ammeters. While you can test household voltage with a multimeter, electrical-current-testing is limited to low-voltage circuits, such as small direct current (DC) motors or low-voltage alternating current (AC) appliances—your thermostats and doorbells, for example. To avoid blowing a fuse, destroying the multimeter, or risking injury, do not attempt to test current higher than the maximum allowed for your unit.

    Among other things, multimeters can determine:

    • Available battery charge
    • Voltage at an outlet or switch
    • Damage in cables and cords
    • Viability of fuses, diodes and resisters
    • Conductive ability of an electrical pathway

    Measuring Voltage

    With a multimeter, you can measure both AC and DC voltage—particularly useful for locating short circuits or determining if a rechargeable battery is holding a charge. Start by selecting the corresponding current on the multimeter and a voltage range higher than the current you’re testing. For example, if you’re measuring the voltage in a 120-volt wall outlet, turn the multimeter knob to the next highest option—200 ACV. If you’re testing a 12-volt car battery, select the next highest option—20 DCV.

    Then make sure to connect your test leads to the proper jacks before testing: For voltage testing, plug the red lead in to the port labeled “V.” For this and all multimeter tests, the black lead plugs into the common (COM) port.

    To test a battery’s DC charge, touch the red probe to its positive terminal and the black probe to its negative terminal; the multimeter will display the existing charge in the battery. Since polarity isn’t an issue in AC voltage, it doesn’t matter which probe you insert in either hole of a wall outlet; insert both probes, and the multimeter will display the voltage at the outlet.

    Safety Tip: Hold probes by their insulated handles. Do not touch the metal part of the probes to avoid electrical shock.

    How to read a multimeter

    Testing Resistance and Continuity

    In electronics, “resistance,” is the amount of hindrance to the flow of electricity, and less is more—or, rather, good for the operation of your appliances. Multimeter in hand, you can test resistance in circuit board components and appliance elements throughout the house. If, for example, a microwave isn’t operating as it should, this checkup could help you you determine if you should replace a single non-functioning component on the circuit board or buy a new microwave outright.

    First, make sure the appliance is unplugged before testing. Plug the red lead into the port with the ohm’s symbol, “Ω,” and select the lowest ohms’ function on the dial. While you can test individual capacitors and components directly on a circuit board, you’ll get a more accurate reading if you remove a component and then test it. When you touch the black and red probes to both ends of a component, simultaneously, you’ll get a reading. The lower the reading, the less the resistance to electrical flow. By comparing the readings from other components on the circuit board, you can determine whether or not to replace a component with an unusually high reading.

    To test the continuity, or continuous flow, of an electrical path between two points, plug the red lead into the “Ω” jack and turn the dial to the continuity symbol. A small reading—or a beep—indicates there is a continuous path between the two points. No reading or beep, however, indicates a problem. For example, if you’ve just put a new bulb in your lamp but it still doesn’t turn on, running this test at both ends of its power cord can confirm that an internally broken cord is to blame for your dim room.

    Testing Low-voltage Current

    In order to measure low-voltage current, the multimeter must become part of the circuit, allowing the current to actually run through the multimeter. This is handy for determining whether a low-voltage circuit, such as a looped set of solar-powered landscape lights, is getting power to all the lights. For this test, plug the red lead into the port labeled, “A,” for Amps, and select the next-highest Amps function on the dial.

    Your operating manual may provide a chart, but if not, you can test a simple circuit by connecting the live feed from the power-supply (usually black) to the multimeter’s red probe. The multimeter’s black probe then connects to the positive wire (usually black) on the appliance you’re testing. Finally, the neutral power-supply lead (usually white) connects to negative appliance wire (also white). When you’ve hooked up the circuit correctly, turn on the power source to measure the electrical flow rate, or amps, through the circuit.

    Safety Tip: As previously mentioned, do not test a circuit that exceeds your multimeter’s capability. Multimeters are “fused” at a maximum amount of voltage, which is typically lower than household current. If a multimeter bears the words, “10A MAX FUSED,” do not test any current you suspect might be higher than 10 Amps.

    Digital multimeters are an important part of many professions and hobbies.

    If what you’re doing is related to electricity in any way, chances are you’ll use a multimeter at some point. But once you’ve bought a multimeter, how do you make the most of all the features it has to offer?

    In this article, we’ll go through the basics of using your multimeter. Chances are your multimeter will be able to do all these basics, but not every multimeter will look the same.

    After reading this article (or while), spend some time with your digital multimeter’s manual to find where you can find specific features on your model.

    Design of a digital multimeter

    Although each model of digital multimeter will look slightly different, they’re all set up the same way.

    There is a display at the top where you can read the measurement’s results, there is usually a round dial to select different types of measurements, and there will be some probe connectors (similar to an audio jack you’d hook a pair of headphones up to) that hold the test probes.

    How to read a multimeter

    To execute most measurements, you’ll need to hook up the test probes to the digital multimeter using the probe connectors.

    Not every measurement will use the same combination of probe connectors, so make sure you familiarize yourself with each unique setting.

    Basic features of a digital multimeter

    Not every digital multimeter will have the same features. Some can measure temperature, perform diode tests, or measure specifics about car engines. If you’re looking to use your digital multimeter for a specific purpose, make sure you buy one that serves that same purpose.

    But just as a multimeter’s design has a standard setup, there are some basic features that are present in every multimeter. In short, the three measurements that almost every multimeter will allow you to do, are continuity, voltage, and resistance.

    As we mentioned before, there is a chance your specific multimeter differs slightly, but as a general guideline, these will be standard features on your digital multimeter.

    How to read a multimeter

    Testing, Testing

    Testing continuity with a digital multimeter

    Continuity testing is one of the main functions of a digital multimeter, and many people will buy one just for this feature. A good electrical circuit is an uninterrupted line from point A to point B.

    Testing continuity means nothing more than testing whether that line is indeed uninterrupted, or if there is a break in a wire or circuit. It can be used to test a switch or a fuse.

    Before you test, make sure that there is no current going trough the object you’re testing. Then, put your black probe in your multimeter’s COM port, and the red probe into the port marked VΩmA.

    Next, select the continuity setting with the dial on your multimeter. If your model doesn’t have a dedicated continuity setting, select the lowest ‘resistance mode’ setting. This sends a small signal through the test object and sees if it comes through okay.

    With the probes in place and the correct setting selected, first push the metal ‘leads’ (the ends of the probes) together. The display should measure close to 0, and if your model has a continuity setting, you’ll probably hear a beep. This means you’re ready to test your object.

    To perform the test, place each probe at one end of the object you’re testing. If there are no problems in the object, you’ll again see a value on the display around 0 and you may hear a beep. Test complete!

    Testing DC voltage with a digital multimeter

    Another common test with a digital multimeter is testing DC voltage. There are two types of voltage (AC and DC), but because this is a beginner’s guide, we’ll stick with DC voltage.

    This is the type of voltage that you’ll find in household electronics, anything that runs on batteries, and batteries themselves. AC voltage is the kind of voltage that your house’s electrical circuits are made up of, and therefore much more dangerous (and less suited for a beginner’s guide).

    How to read a multimeter

    To start the test, place your probes in the same ports as we did with continuity testing; the black (negative) prompt in the common port indicated with COM, and the red (positive) prompt in the VΩmA port.

    Select the DC voltage meter function on your multimeter; it is displayed as a V with one straight line and a dotted line right under it. If you have a manual multimeter, you’ll also have to select the voltage range of the object you’re about to measure. For example, if you’re measuring a 1.5V AA battery, you’d select the 2V range.

    Next, place one lead on one end of the object, and the other lead on the other end. After a while, the reading should be displayed on the display section of your multimeter. It is not that important which end you use the positive and negative prompts; if the leads are reversed, the reading will display in the negative (but still be the same value).

    Testing resistance with a digital multimeter

    Our last test is a resistance test. You’d want to carry out a resistance test to analyze the condition of a circuit or object. The higher the resistance, the less of a current flow there is.

    Resistance is measured in ‘Ohms’ and is displayed with the Ω symbol on your multimeter’s dial. If you’re not sure about the range, start in the highest setting and work your way down from there.

    Testing resistance looks a lot like the other tests. Your probes go in the familiar ports, so black in the common port, and red in the VΩmA port. Once you’re ready, put each of the leads on opposite ends of the test object and wait until the display settles on a number.


    In this article, we’ve looked at the basics you’ll find in any digital multimeter. We’ve discussed design, features, and the three main functions of using a digital multimeter.

    Most multimeters will offer additional features and functionalities, so make sure you dive into your model’s manual as well to discover all that your digital multimeter has to offer!

    The point of checking for continuity with an analog multimeter is to determine whether the circuit you’re testing is closed or open. An open circuit will not function as the electric current is not being channeled properly or it is being stopped by a break in the system. For a light switch or an outlet to work, it has to be on a closed circuit. This means that the current can move from positive and negative to your device, making it run. As an example, an electrical outlet is an open circuit end or plug that becomes closed when you plug a cord into it, as the cord closes the circuit.

    Step 1 – Shut Off the Device

    Before checking for continuity with your analog multimeter, you will want to shut off or disconnect power to the device to avoid electrical shock or damage to your multimeter. If you’re testing wall outlets and connections, be sure to turn off power to that part of your home or office from the circuit breaker. Be sure to reverse the process once your testing has been completed.

    Step 2 – Set Multimeter to the Ohm Setting

    Now you will set your analog multimeter to the Ohm setting, represented by the Greek letter omega. On your device you should see a number of other settings as well, these are for other operating frequencies and tests that involve current checks. The Ohm setting is used for sending a small electrical charge through the line to check for a closed or open circuit.

    Step 3 – Read the Multimeter

    When the analog multimeter is not connected to anything, the needle will read infinity. When the connectors are not connected to anything and read an infinity reading, that means its an open circuit, so it would read this on a circuit that is not closed during a test. When you touch the two ends of your meter together, it then will read 0. This means that the circuit is closed or complete and functioning properly. This means that it will hold an electric current and the device will function properly without loosing its current.

    As an example, shutting off electricity to a socket, and then testing the outlet itself, by placing one tip in each opening in the outlet, ignoring the ground hole, you should get a complete circuit or a reading of zero. What is happening is a small charge is sent through the line from positive to negative, where it travels through the wires and back to the meter. If there is a broken wire or lost wired connection in your circuit, the meter will read infinity, which lets you know the circuit is open or broken. If it can not complete the loop, the line will not hold an electrical current and could be an electrical or fire hazard in the example of an electrical outlet.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 1: Image of an LED circuit on breadboard

    Image above shows a simple circuit that glows an LED when connected to power supply.. Connecting LED directly to the power supply will damage it, hence aresistance of suitable value must be connected in series for its proper operation. Following the standard color convention,red wire serves as the positive connection lead while black one is the common or negative lead. In this tutorial, we will be measuring DC voltage and current in the circuit.

    How to Measure Voltage using Multimeter

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 2: Image of LEd circuit working on a breadboard

    9V DC supply is used to power the circuit. The LED will glow as soon as we connect the wires to the power source. Make sure that all the connections are tight. If the LED doesn’t glow after connecting the supply, then check the connection and the LED.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 3: Image showing multimeter probes connected to LED circuit for voltage testing

    Step 1: Connect the testing leads to the multimeter.

    Step 2: Turn the knob to the DV voltage segment in the multimeter at 40DCV.

    Step 3: Connect the probes in the circuit according to the polarity.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 4: Image of multimeter showing DC voltage reading from LED circuit

    Step 4: Power on the Multimeter.

    Step 5: Note down the reading.

    The multimeter will show the voltage across the circuit. For example the voltage across this circuit is 6.84V

    How to Measure Current using Multimeter:

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 5: Image showing connection of probes in Multimeter for measuring current

    Multimeter has different procedure for measuring current. Current can be measured in the range ofmilliamperes (400mA max.) to Ampere (10A max.) as shown in the above image.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 6: Image showing multimeter probes connected to LED circuit for measuring current

    Multimeter works like an ammeter when ammeter.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 7: Image showing multimeter set to DCA region

    Step1: Turn the knob on the DCA section.

    Step2: Choose the current rating. The meter will display current in both rating.

    Step3: Connect the testing leads to the current measurement setting.

    Step4: Turn ON the multimeter.

    Step 5: The multimeter will display the current in the circuit shown as shown in the image below.

    How to read a multimeter

    Fig. 8: Image of multimeter showing DC current reading from LED circuit

    As shown, 0.4 mA of current flows into the ciruit.

    If your digital multimeter offers a frequency setting (Hz is the symbol) on the dial:

    1. Turn the dial to Hz. It usually shares a spot on the dial with at least one other function. Some meters enter the frequency through a secondary function accessed by pushing a button and setting the rotary switch to ac or dc.
    2. First insert the black test lead into the COM jack.
    3. Then insert the red lead into the V Ω jack. When finished, remove the leads in reverse order: red first, then black.
    4. Connect the black test lead first, the red test lead second. When finished, remove the leads in reverse order: red first, then black.
    5. Read the measurement in the display. The abbreviation Hz should appear to the right of the reading.

    If your digital multimeter offers a frequency (Hz) button:

    1. Turn the dial to ac voltage ( ). If voltage in the circuit is unknown, set the range to highest voltage setting.
      Note: Most digital multimeters power up in Autorange mode, automatically selecting the measurement range based on the voltage present.
    2. First insert the black test lead into the COM jack.
    3. Then insert the red lead into the V Ω jack.
    4. Connect the test leads to the circuit. The position of the test leads is arbitrary. When finished, remove the leads in reverse order: red first, then black.
    5. Read the voltage measurement in the display.
    6. With the multimeter still connected to the circuit, press the Hz button.
    7. Read the frequency measurement in the display. The Hz symbol should appear in the display to the right of the measurement.

    Frequency measurement overview

    Circuits and equipment may be designed to operate at a fixed or variable frequency. They may perform abnormally if operated at a different frequency than specified.

    Example: An ac motor designed to operate at 60 Hz operates slower if the frequency is less than 60 Hz, or faster if frequency exceeds 60 Hz. For ac motors, any change in frequency causes a proportional change in motor speed. A five percent reduction in frequency yields a five percent reduction in motor speed.

    Some digital multimeters include optional modes related to frequency measurement:

    • Frequency Counter mode: It measures the frequency of ac signals. It can be used to measure frequency when troubleshooting electrical and electronic equipment.
    • MIN MAX Recording mode: Permits frequency measurements to be recorded over a specific time period. It provides the same function with voltage, current and resistance.
    • Autorange mode: Automatically selects the frequency measurement range. If the frequency of the measured voltage is outside of the frequency measurement range, a DMM cannot display an accurate measurement. Refer to the user’s manual for specific frequency measurement ranges

    In some circuits, there may be enough distortion on the line to prevent an accurate frequency measurement. Example: ac variable frequency drives (VFDs) can produce frequency distortions.

    When testing VFDs, use the low-pass filter setting in the advanced multimeters for accurate readings. For multimeters without the low pass filter setting, turn the dial to dc voltage, then press the Hz button again to measure the frequency on the dc voltage setting. If the meter allows for a decoupled frequency measurement, you might also try changing the voltage range to compensate for the noise.

    Also Read: How to Test a Diode

    How to read a multimeter

    Need to troubleshoot a dead outlet? Purchasing a multimeter, the go-to tool for diagnosing electrical problems, could allow you to investigate and address outlet issues. Not sure how to test an outlet? Read on, and the experts at Mr. Electric® will help you learn how to use a multimeter to test an outlet.

    What Can a Multimeter Tell You?

    A multimeter can help you determine:

    • If power is actually reaching an outlet
    • If the outlet is properly grounded
    • Whether wiring within the outlet is reversed

    How to Test an Outlet with a Multimeter in 8 Simple Steps

    1. Learn the essentials of outlet testing safety.
      Because you will be performing these tests on a live outlet, ensure safety by holding both meter probes in the same hand. This will prevent shock from passing through your body. Never allow the metal portion of the probes to brush each other or touch, as this can create a dangerous short circuit.
    2. Get to know outlet geography.
      Modern outlets have three slots: one for hot, one for neutral, and one for ground. The rounded half circle is the ground, the longer slot (left) is the neutral and the shorter slot (right) is hot. Remember that any of the three wires can carry current, so treat each one with caution.
    3. Adjust your multimeter.
      Set your meter to measure voltage. Select the alternating current (AC) function on the multimeter, which is often depicted with a wavy line. The DC function will have a solid and a dashed line.
    4. Connect the leads.
      Push the short, thick connector (called a ‘banana plug’) of the BLACK lead into the connector labeled ‘COM’ (it may have a minus “-” sign beside it). Then, plug in the RED connector labeled with a “+” or horseshoe symbol (the Greek letter Omega).
    5. Measure the voltage to determine if the outlet has power.
      Using one hand, insert a probe into each vertical slot on the outlet. Red goes in the smaller slot, black into the larger one. A properly functioning outlet will give a reading of 110-120 volts. If there is no reading, either something is wrong with the wiring in the outlet or the circuit breaker is tripped.
    6. Determine if the outlet is properly grounded.
      Keep the red lead in the small slot and move the black lead and place it in the ground (Uu-shaped) outlet slot. The reading should remain the same. If it doesn’t, the outlet is improperly grounded.
    7. Check if the wiring is reversed.
      Place the red lead into the large slot and the black lead into small slot. If you get a reading, the wiring is reversed. This won’t affect simple equipment like lamps but can cause issues for more sophisticated appliances and electronics.
    8. Determine problems with a particular appliance.
      Learn “How to Make Electrical Tests” with the help of Mr. Appliance, a fellow Neighborly® home services company.

    Count On Mr. Electric for Safe, Prompt Electrical Service

    Need to resolve your outlet issue? Avoid a hair-raising electrical experience. Your local Mr. Electric will be happy to help with any electrical projects you’ve been putting off. Schedule an appointment online or call us at (844) 866-1367. Contact Mr. Electric today.

    This blog is made available by Mr. Electric for educational purposes only to give the reader general information and a general understanding on the specific subject above. The blog should not be used as a substitute for a licensed electrical professional in your state or region. Check with city and state laws before performing any household project.

    Set the multimeter in DC millivolts and connect the output wires of the load cell to the multimeter. Supply a voltage of 5V or 9V DC at the excitation leads and place a test weight on the load cell. The multimeter will register a change in voltage measured across the load cell’s output.

    How to Test a Load Cell

    To test a load cell before putting it to use, you’ll need a multimeter and a voltage source. Measure the resistance of the input and output leads of the load cell by setting up the multimeter in Ohms. Compare the measurement values with the calibration certificate from the manufacturer to see if they closely match each other. Similarly, check the load cell for accuracy by measuring the millivolts signal from the input leads. With no force applied to the load cell, the value should be zero. Apply a calibrated dead weight as specified in the calibration certificate and compare the values again.

    How to Measure Load Cell Output

    Load cell output is measured using a digital meter. The digital meter connects to the output of the load cell. It converts the digital signals produced by the load cell into readable digital values. You can also measure the output of a load cell using a multimeter. However, a multimeter will delete the output voltage in millivolts, and will not convert it into force or weight.

    How to Check Load Cell Resistance

    A load cell test is performed using a digital multimeter. The digital multimeter is connected between the positive signal wire and the negative signal wire of the load cell. The output between them should be equal or to a value specified in the datasheet. This is the test for load cell output resistance. Now check the signal between the positive excitation wire and the negative excitation wire. They should be equal. This is the test for input resistance.

    Load Cell Value Fluctuation

    Load cell values can fluctuate due to several reasons. From physical damage such as shock loading and overloading for a longer duration to environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, water ingress, or corrosion, the load cell is likely to produce erroneous output. Measurement values will also fluctuate if the cables break or if there’s a short circuit. To check what is causing fluctuations in the load cell value, perform a visual check to identify the fault location. Perform a zero balance check to identify if the strain gauge has undergone permanent deformation. An insulation resistance check can further help you identify if moisture is getting inside the load cell. Additionally, a bridge resistance check will determine if there’s a short circuit within the load cell.

    Load Cell Zero Drift

    Zero drift is the condition where zero measurements of the load cell change randomly under no-load conditions. It can also happen when the apparatus is loaded, and this phenomenon is called Drift. Several reasons such as mechanical errors, fluctuation in excitation voltage, and temperature variations could cause drift. To troubleshoot the load cell for zero drift, it is important to inspect the entire system.

    Load Cell Negative Reading

    Load cell negative reading occurs when the load cell is in an incorrect orientation. If the load cell is upside down, it would produce negative readings under loading. There is usually an arrow on the load cell that shows the direction of loading. A Load cell used to measure tension will not reflect negative reading if installed upside down and will result in an erroneous reading. However, if the load cell is installed correctly and the readings are still negative, verify the wire connection according to the color code specified by the manufacturer.

    Load Cell Overload

    Every load cell comes with rated capacity. Loading the load cells beyond the rated value overloads the load cell. The telltale signs of load cell overload are inconsistent display reading, reading not coming back to zero even after the load is removed, the dramatic change of zero balance, etc. Shock overload is one of the most damaging among overloads. Here the weight on the load changes to a significant degree in a very short period. Most load cells endure some overload and this value is called Safe overload. Anything beyond that can lead to permanent damage.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Although Google Sheets and Excel Online are two of the best free online spreadsheets editing apps, you may not like certain features of them. For example, the date format. In case you do not want to use the predefined date or time format, you can change them in Google Sheet and Excel Online. For your information, you do not need to use an add-on or any other third-party service to get it done.

    There is no limit on what you can write or insert in an Excel spreadsheet. From writing simple text to image to date and time, you can add almost anything to your Excel file. When you add a date, it uses a predefined format. Even though you need a format like 02/08/2021, Excel Online and Google Sheets may use something else, like 08-02-2021. At times, you might not like such a change due to a lack of familiarity. In such situations, you can follow this guide to use a custom or different date or time format in Google Sheets and Excel Online.

    How to change Date Format in Google Sheets

    To change the date format in Google Sheets, follow these steps:

    1. Open Google Sheets on your browser.
    2. Click on the date/time cell.
    3. Go to Format > Number.
    4. Select the Custom date and time option.
    5. Select a date/time format.
    6. Click the Apply button.

    To learn more about these steps, continue reading.

    First, you need to open the Google Sheet on your browser. Then, click on the cell, which displays the date and time.

    After that, click on the Format menu on the top menu bar, and select the Number option. Then, select the Custom date and time option.

    Here you can find a list of various formats for date and time. You can select an option that you like and click the Apply button.

    Once done, you can find the new format.

    The above-mentioned steps help you change the date or time format for a particular cell. However, if you want to apply the same change across all cells, you need to select the entire spreadsheet first. After that, you can follow the same method as above.

    How to change Date Format in Excel Online

    To change the date format in Excel Online, follow these steps:

    1. Open Excel Online on your computer.
    2. Right-click on the date/time cell.
    3. Select the Number Format option.
    4. Switch to the Date tab.
    5. Select a date format you like.
    6. Click the OK button.

    Let’s check out these steps in detail.

    To get started, you need to open a spreadsheet in Excel Online. Then, right-click on the date/time cell and select the Number Format option from the context menu.

    Once the window is opened, switch to the Date tab. Here you can find numerous options for dates. You can choose one as per your requirements.

    Then, click the OK button to save the change.

    For your information, you can visit the Time tab to set a custom format to time as well. Also, like Google Sheets, you can change the format of date and time for all cells at once if you select the entire spreadsheet first.

    Can I change the date format in Google Sheets?

    Yes, you can change the date format in Google Sheets. For that, you need to select the cell first. Then, go to Format > Number and select the Custom date and time option. After that, choose a format you like and click the Apply button. If you want to apply the change for the entire spreadsheet, you need to select it first.

    How do I change the date format in Excel 365?

    To change the date format in Excel 365, select the cell in your spreadsheet and go to Format > Format Cells. You can find this option in the Home tab. Then, switch to the Date tab and select a format as per your wish. At last, click the OK button to save the change.

    That’s all! Hope it helped.

    Date: February 12, 2022 Tags: Excel, Google Docs

    October 14, 2021

    Copy to Clipboard

    Using data formulas in Google Sheets can help professionals complete calculations quickly, possibly saving them time and effort when attempting to gain important information. One method professionals can use to apply formulas efficiently is ensuring that an entire column applies the same calculation based on the data within the cells of the rows to which it’s attached. Knowing how to apply a formula to an entire column of rows in Google Sheets can help you save time, make calculations easier and increase your computer proficiency.

    In this article, we discuss when to apply a formula to an entire column of data in Google Sheets and provide three different methods you can use to accomplish this.

    When to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets

    Professionals apply formulas in Google Sheets to make calculations quickly and automatically rather than manually. Sometimes, they may want to conduct a calculation multiple times within a set of data, such as within an entire column in a particular sheet. There are several reasons you may want to use a formula in an entire column in a document, such as:

    Making the same calculation using different cell references

    Applying the same methodology to each cell in a column

    Needing to make hundreds or thousands of calculations automatically

    Adding the same calculation to a cell when you or another user adds to a column

    Making a widespread transformation to data within a column

    How to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets

    There are three methods you can use to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets. The processes are different, but the benefits of one method compared to another depend on your particular data. Below are the three methods you can use to apply a formula to an entire column:

    1. The Fill handle method

    The first method you can use to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets is the fill handle, which manifests as a small square in the bottom right of a cell when you have the cell selected. You can click and drag the square to apply the contents of one cell to others as you drag the box over. Notably, if you remove the formula from the first cell, it removes the formula from the rest of the column. Below are steps you can use to apply a formula to an entire column of cells in Google Sheets:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications button on your computer or through a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to perform the desired calculation.

    Type the formula you want to use into the top-most empty cell in the column.

    Hover your cursor over the bottom right of the cell until it changes to a “+” symbol.

    Click and drag the box down the column until you apply the formula in the empty cell to every cell you require for the calculation.

    Repeat steps 4 and 5 each time you add a new row of data to the column.

    Check that some rows you filled with the fill handle are making the correct calculation to ensure the data is correct.

    2. The ArrayFormula function

    This method expands upon the fill handle method in that you can use the ArrayFormula function to fill the entire column with your calculation. For example, if you want cells in column A to calculate the sum of cells in columns B and C based on the row in which the data is located, you can use this function. The benefit of this method is that you can apply the formula you want to an entire column immediately, making any future calculations less tedious. You can write the formula for the ArrayFormula function as follows:

    =ArrayFormula(array _ formula)

    Here’s what each part of the above formula means:

    The “=” symbol alerts Google Sheets that you want the service to make a calculation for you.

    ArrayFormula is the calculation you want Google Sheets to make.

    array _ formula is a range, other formula or mathematical expression that outputs a result greater than a single cell.

    Once you understand the formula, you can use the below steps to help you write an ArrayFormula function, which applies a formula to an entire column of cells:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications on your computer or a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to make a calculation.

    Type the ArrayFormula function into a blank cell where you want the calculation to occur.

    Press “Enter” on your keyboard and let Google Sheets calculate the data that you want, filling the empty cells in the column with similar calculations.

    Check that you applied the formula correctly in rows you filled automatically to ensure data is correct.

    3. The AUTO FILL feature

    The third method you can use to apply a formula to an entire column is the AUTO FILL feature. Like the ArrayFormula feature, the AUTO FILL feature fills in the data for each empty cell in a column automatically, allowing you to add new rows of data without adding the calculation to the same column again. Below are steps you can use to fill a column with the AUTO FILL feature of Google Sheets:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications feature on your computer or a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to apply the formula.

    Type the formula you want to use into a blank cell at the top of the column.

    Click the check mark when Google Sheets prompts you with the option to fill the column.

    Check that you applied the formula correct for rows you filled automatically to ensure Google Sheets is making the correct calculation.

    Please note that none of the products or companies mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.

    Using data formulas in Google Sheets can help professionals complete calculations quickly, possibly saving them time and effort when attempting to gain important information. One method professionals can use to apply formulas efficiently is ensuring that an entire column applies the same calculation based on the data within the cells of the rows to which it’s attached. Knowing how to apply a formula to an entire column of rows in Google Sheets can help you save time, make calculations easier and increase your computer proficiency.

    In this article, we discuss when to apply a formula to an entire column of data in Google Sheets and provide three different methods you can use to accomplish this.

    When to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets

    Professionals apply formulas in Google Sheets to make calculations quickly and automatically rather than manually. Sometimes, they may want to conduct a calculation multiple times within a set of data, such as within an entire column in a particular sheet. There are several reasons you may want to use a formula in an entire column in a document, such as:

    Making the same calculation using different cell references

    Applying the same methodology to each cell in a column

    Needing to make hundreds or thousands of calculations automatically

    Adding the same calculation to a cell when you or another user adds to a column

    Making a widespread transformation to data within a column

    How to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets

    There are three methods you can use to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets. The processes are different, but the benefits of one method compared to another depend on your particular data. Below are the three methods you can use to apply a formula to an entire column:

    1. The Fill handle method

    The first method you can use to apply a formula to an entire column in Google Sheets is the fill handle, which manifests as a small square in the bottom right of a cell when you have the cell selected. You can click and drag the square to apply the contents of one cell to others as you drag the box over. Notably, if you remove the formula from the first cell, it removes the formula from the rest of the column. Below are steps you can use to apply a formula to an entire column of cells in Google Sheets:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications button on your computer or through a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to perform the desired calculation.

    Type the formula you want to use into the top-most empty cell in the column.

    Hover your cursor over the bottom right of the cell until it changes to a “+” symbol.

    Click and drag the box down the column until you apply the formula in the empty cell to every cell you require for the calculation.

    Repeat steps 4 and 5 each time you add a new row of data to the column.

    Check that some rows you filled with the fill handle are making the correct calculation to ensure the data is correct.

    2. The ArrayFormula function

    This method expands upon the fill handle method in that you can use the ArrayFormula function to fill the entire column with your calculation. For example, if you want cells in column A to calculate the sum of cells in columns B and C based on the row in which the data is located, you can use this function. The benefit of this method is that you can apply the formula you want to an entire column immediately, making any future calculations less tedious. You can write the formula for the ArrayFormula function as follows:

    Here’s what each part of the above formula means:

    The “=” symbol alerts Google Sheets that you want the service to make a calculation for you.

    ArrayFormula is the calculation you want Google Sheets to make.

    array_formula is a range, other formula or mathematical expression that outputs a result greater than a single cell.

    Once you understand the formula, you can use the below steps to help you write an ArrayFormula function, which applies a formula to an entire column of cells:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications on your computer or a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to make a calculation.

    Type the ArrayFormula function into a blank cell where you want the calculation to occur.

    Press “Enter” on your keyboard and let Google Sheets calculate the data that you want, filling the empty cells in the column with similar calculations.

    Check that you applied the formula correctly in rows you filled automatically to ensure data is correct.

    3. The AUTO FILL feature

    The third method you can use to apply a formula to an entire column is the AUTO FILL feature. Like the ArrayFormula feature, the AUTO FILL feature fills in the data for each empty cell in a column automatically, allowing you to add new rows of data without adding the calculation to the same column again. Below are steps you can use to fill a column with the AUTO FILL feature of Google Sheets:

    Open Google Sheets through the applications feature on your computer or a web-based search.

    Enter the data on which you want to apply the formula.

    Type the formula you want to use into a blank cell at the top of the column.

    Click the check mark when Google Sheets prompts you with the option to fill the column.

    Check that you applied the formula correct for rows you filled automatically to ensure Google Sheets is making the correct calculation.

    Please note that none of the products or companies mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.

    I’m changing all the zip codes from Column A into Column B with the formula:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    I want every cell in Column B to be transformed using the formula above. But I have over 40,000 rows, so it is not feasible to drag the formula down to apply it to the entire Column B because it takes so long.

    Are there any alternatives to dragging?

    14 Answers 14

    It looks like some of the other answers have become outdated, but for me this worked:

    1. Click on the cell with the text/formula to copy
    2. Shift+Click on the last cell to copy to
    3. Ctrl + Enter

    (Note that this replaces text if the destination cells aren’t empty)

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    I think it’s a more recent feature, but it works for me:

    Double clicking the square on the bottom right of the highlighted cell copies the formula of the highlighted cell.

    I think you are in luck. Please try entering in B1:

    (very similar!) but before hitting Enter hit Ctrl + Shift + Enter .

    This worked for me:

    • Input the formula in the first cell.
    • Press Enter .
    • Click on the first cell and press Ctrl + Shift + down_arrow . This will select the last cell in the column used on the worksheet.
    • Ctrl + D . This will fill copy the formula in the remaining cells.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    This is for those who want to overwrite the column cells quickly (without cutting and copying). This is the same as double-clicking the cell box but unlike double-clicking, it still works after the first try.

    1. Select the column cell you would like to copy downwards
    2. Press Ctrl + Shift + ⇓ to select the cells below
    3. Press Ctrl + Enter to copy the contents of the first cell into the cells below


    The shortcut for going to the bottom-most content (to double-check the copy) is Ctrl + ⇓ . To go back up you can use Ctrl + ⇑ but if your top rows are frozen you’ll also have to press Enter a few times.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Let’s say you want to substitute something in an array of string and you don’t want to perform the copy-paste on your entire sheet.

    Let’s take this as an example:

    • String array in column “A”:
    • You want to substitute the char of “a” to “x” to have:

    To apply this formula on the entire column (array) in a clean an elegant way, you can do:

    It works for 2D-arrays as well, let’s say:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Found another solution:

    • Apply the formula to the first 3 or 4 cells of the column
    • Ctrl + C the formula in one of the last rows (if you copy the first line it won’t work)
    • Click on the column header to select the whole column
    • Press Ctrl + V to paste it in all cells bellow

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Click on the first cell having the formula and press Ctrl + Shift + down_arrow. This will select the last cell in the column used on the worksheet.

    Command + D

    (don’t use ctrl). This will fill the formula in the remaining cells.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Just so I don’t lose my answer that works:

    1. Select the cell to copy
    2. Select the final cell in the column
    3. Press CTRL + D

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    You can use Ctrl+Shift+Down+D to add the formula to every cell in the column as well.

    Simply click/highlight the cell with the equation/formula you want to copy and then hold down Ctrl+Shift+Down+D and your formula will be added to each cell.

    To be clear when you us the drag indicator it will only copy the cell values down the column whilst there is a value in the adjacent cell in a given row. As soon as the drag operation sees an adjacent cell that is blank it will stop copying the formula down.

    If the above is a spreadsheet then using the double click drag indicator on the ‘b’ cell will fill row 2 but not row three or four.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The exact formula is:

    ArrayFormula works on multiple rows (in the above example, every row), and results are placed in the cell with the formula and the cells below it in the same column. It looks as if the same formula was copied into all those rows.

    If any of the cells in that column are not empty, they won’t get overwritten. Instead, you will get an error message.

    To save yourself typing, you can use the trick from the answer above by pnuts:

    Type: =text(A1:A,”00000″) and then hit the following key combination:

    On windows: Ctrl + Shift + Enter

    On a MAC: Command + Shift + Enter

    This will convert the formula to ArrayFormula.

    After hitting the key combination, you need to hit Enter, to actually apply the converted formula.

    If your sheet contains header row(s), and you want to apply formula from (for example) row 5 on, you would use =text(A5:A,”00000″) instead.

    This answer includes information from pnuts’s answer and LOAS’s comment.

    Well, Another easiest and simplest way is as in my file rows were above 16000, which is pretty huge number. So steps which helped me are:

    1. Select the cell in which formula is written.
    2. Then go to NameBox(it is the box which tells about active cell). Here in my case it was the cell where was formula was written(i.e P2).
    3. Then in that cell type your active cell number:your last row.For example last row of my column was 16745 and formula was written in P2. So write P2:P16745,
    4. Press Enter in Name Box and bingo your whole area of column till last row is selected.
    5. Now press Ctrl+D(Windows)

    You may fill the column by double-clicking on the bottom right hand corner of the cell which you want to copy from (the point on the box that you would otherwise drag) and it will be applied to whole column.

    NB: This doesn’t work if you have the filter applied, nor if there is already something already in the cells below.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Learn how to use the ARRAYFORMULA function in Google Sheets to quickly apply a formula to an entire column in the spreadsheet. The formula is also added to new rows automatically.

    You are working inside a Google Spreadsheet where a formula needs to copied down to the last row of the sheet. You also need the formula to be added automatically when a new row is added to the Google Sheet.

    There are several ways to solve this problem.

    Copy Formula Down in Google Sheets

    The easiest approach to copy down formulas is to use the fill handle in Google Sheets. Write your formula in the first row of your spreadsheet, and then point your mouse to the lower right corner of the formula cell.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The pointer changes into a fill handle (black plus symbol) that you can drag to the last row of the sheet. The fill handle will not just copy down the formulas to all the adjacent cells but also copies the visual formatting.

    If you need to copy the formulas across cells but sans any formatting, select the cell that contains the formatting and press Ctrl+C to copy it to the clipboard. Next, select the range where that formula needs to applied, right-click, choose Paste Special and Paste Formula only.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Apply Formula to the Entire Column in Google Sheets

    If you have hundreds of rows in a Google Spreadsheet and you want to apply the same formula to all rows of a particular column, there’s a more efficient solution than copy-paste – Array Formulas.

    Highlight the first cell in the column and type the formula as earlier. However, instead of specifying a single cell as a parameter, we’ll specify the entire column using the B2:B notation (start from cell B2 and go all the way down to the last row of column B).

    Then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter, or Cmd+Shift+Enter on Mac, and Google Sheets will automatically surround your formula with ARRAYFORMULA function.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Thus, we could apply the formula to the entire column of the spreadsheet with only a single cell. Array Formulas are more efficient as they process a batch of rows in one go. They are also easier to maintain as you only need to modify a single cell to edit the formula.

    One issue that you may have noticed with the above formulae is that it applies to every row in the column where you have only want to add formulas to rows that contain data and skip the blank rows.

    This can be done by adding an IF contain to our ARRAYFORMULA so that it doesn’t apply the formula the any of the blank rows.

    Google Spreadsheet offers two functions to help test whether a cell is empty or now.

    • ISBLANK(A1) – Returns TRUE if the referenced cell is empty.
    • LEN(A1) <> 0 – Returns TRUE if the referenced cell not empty, FALSE otherwise

    Our modified Array Formulas would therefore read:

    Using ISBLANK(Cell Reference):

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    There are several other ways to test if a cell is blank or not:

    Use Array Formulas inside Column Headers

    In our previous examples, the text of the column titles (like Tax, Total Amount) was pre-populated and the formulas were only added to the first row of the dataset.

    We can further improve our formula so that they can be applied to the column header itself. If the index of the current row is 1, calculated using the ROW() function, the formula outputs the column title else it performs the calculation using the formula.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Auto Fill Formulas into Google Form Submissions

    ARRAYFORMULA functions are particularly useful for Google Forms when the form responses are getting saved inside a Google Sheet. You cannot do live calculations inside Google Forms but they can be performed inside the spreadsheet that is collecting the responses.

    You can create new columns inside the Google Spreadsheet and apply the ARRAYFORMULA to the first row of the added columns.

    When a new form submission is received, a new row would be added to the Google Sheet and the formulas would be cloned and automatically applied to the new rows without you have to copy-paste stuff.

    How to Use VLOOKUP inside ARRAYFORMULA

    You can combine ARRAYFORMULA with VLOOKUP to quickly perform a lookup across an entire column.

    Say you have a “Fruits” sheet that lists the fruit names in column A and the corresponding prices in column B. The second sheet “Orders” has fruit names in column A, the quantity in column B and you are supposed to calculate the order amount in column C.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    In simple English, if the row of the current cell is 1, output the column title in plain text. If the row is greater than 1 and the column A of the current row is not empty, perform a VLOOKUP to fetch the price of the item from the Fruits sheet. Then multiply that price with the quantity in cell B and output the value in cell C.

    If your VLOOKUP range is in another Google Spreadsheet, use the IMPORTRANGE() function with the ID of the other Google Sheet.

    Please note that you may have to use semicolons in the spreadsheet formulas instead of commas for some locales.

    Often when working in Google Sheets you’ll want to enter the same formula in multiple cells.

    You could manually re-type the formula each time it appears, but this would be slow even for a small spreadsheet and could take hours on larger spreadsheets with more complex formulas.

    Instead of taking the time to retype your formulas, try one of the options below to copy formulas in Google Sheets.

    Copy Formulas Using the Menu

    Step 1

    Select the cell containing the formula you want to copy.

    Open the Edit menu and select the Copy option:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Step 2

    Select the cell you want to copy the formula to.

    Open the Edit menu and select the Paste option. The formula will appear in the selected cell.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Step 3

    If the cell you copied the formula from had any formatting, the formatting will be copied to the new cell along with the formula.

    If you do not want to copy the formatting, you can use the Paste Special submenu just below the Paste menu option to select the type of paste you want to use.

    Step 4

    To do this, open the Edit menu, hover over the Paste Special submenu to open it, and select Paste Formula Only

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Step 5

    This type of pasting formulas does not change the destination cell formatting

    Copy Formulas Using Keyboard Shortcuts

    You may have noticed in the screenshots for the menu option above that the copy and paste menu items had keyboard shortcuts beside them.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    You can use these keyboard shortcuts more quickly copy and paste formulas:

    1. Select the cell containing the formula you want to copy
    2. Hit the copy keyboard shortcut. This is Ctrl + c on Windows and Command + c on Mac
    3. Select the cell you want to copy the formula to
    4. Hit Ctrl + v on Windows or Command + v on Mac to paste the formula
    5. Note that you cannot use the keyboard shortcuts to Paste Special with Formulas Only

    Copy Formulas Using the Drag Handle

    A third way to copy formulas in Google Sheets is to use the drag handle to drag the formula to adjacent cells

    Step 1

    Select the cell containing the formula you want to copy.

    A small blue square will appear in the lower right-hand corner of the selected cell. This is the drag handle:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Step 2

    Click and drag the drag handle to select the cells you want to copy the formula to. You can drag across a row or up/down a column.

    Step 3

    When you release the mouse, the formula will be copied to all cells that you dragged the selection over.

    You can repeat this process to cover more cells until you’ve copied the formula to all necessary cells:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Note that you also cannot use Paste Special options here. All formatting from the original cell will be copied to all new cells along with the formula.


    In this tutorial, I covered how to copy a formula in Google Sheets. Want more? Check out all the Google Sheets Tutorials.

    With her B.S. in Information Technology, Sandy worked for many years in the IT industry as a Project Manager, Department Manager, and PMO Lead. She learned how technology can enrich both professional and personal lives by using the right tools. And, she has shared those suggestions and how-tos on many websites over time. With thousands of articles under her belt, Sandy strives to help others use technology to their advantage. Read more.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Google Sheets like Microsoft Excel offers many functions for calculations and tasks. While you can use symbols to perform mathematical comparisons, it may be beneficial to use the functions we’ll discuss instead.

    Why Use Google Sheets’ Operator Functions

    Comparison operation functions include things like greater than, less than, equal to, and the like. And if you use formulas in Google Sheets already, then you know you can use symbols for these operations. However, Google Sheets offers functions that do the same thing but you or a colleague might find more recognizable.

    For instance, maybe you share your sheet with others who aren’t as familiar with comparison operator symbols. Because the names of the functions represent their intent, others may find it easier to understand the formulas.

    In addition, using these functions can improve the readability of your sheet. This is especially helpful if you make updates often and don’t want to take time to think about what the symbols mean. If you’re using the function, you’ll know at a glance.

    One more benefit is that Google Sheets offers formula suggestions and assistance. As you type the function, you can get a little help from Sheets on completing the formula correctly. This isn’t something you’ll see when using comparison operator symbols.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Of course, you can continue to use the comparison operator symbols if they’re easier for you. But Google Sheets does provide these alternatives for those cases where they make more sense. Let’s take a look!

    Comparison Operator Functions

    Here are the functions that you can use to replace symbols when doing mathematical comparison in Google Sheets, along with one bonus function. We’ll explain each and provide some example uses.

    • EQ: Performs an equal to comparison and is the same as =.
    • NE: Performs a not equal to comparison and is the same as <>.
    • GT: Performs a greater than comparison and is the same as >.
    • GTE: Performs a greater than or equal to comparison and is the same as >=.
    • LT: Performs a less than comparison and is the same as GT(value1, value2) . You can enter cell references or values for the arguments, or a combination.

    For ISBETWEEN, the syntax is ISBETWEEN(compare_value, high_value, low_value, low_inclusive, high_inclusive) . The first three arguments give you the basic comparison; enter the value to compare and the high and low values for the in-between comparison.

    Use the last two arguments when you want the range to include the low and high values. Enter a True or False in the formula. The default is True for both arguments.

    Function Examples

    Now that you know the intent of each function and its syntax, we show you some examples so you can apply the functions to your own data.

    To see if the values in two cells are equal to each other, use this formula:

    To see if values in two different cells are not equal to each other, use this formula:

    To see if one value is greater than another in those same two cells, use this formula:

    To see if the inserted value is greater than or equal to one in a cell, use this formula:

    To see if a value in a cell is less than the inserted value, use this formula:

    To see if a value in one cell is less than or equal to one in another cell, use this formula:

    To see if a value (5) falls between two other values (1 and 10), use this formula:

    As another example for ISBETWEEN, you can use cell references. With this formula, you can see if the value in cell A1 falls between 1 and 300:

    Or here, you can see if a value (5) falls between the values in two cells, A1 and B1:

    When you need to do a comparison in Google Sheets, keep these functions in mind if they may work better for you or your team than symbols.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    ARRAYFORMULA in Google Sheets

    You rarely want to apply a formula to a single cell. Usually, you want to use them across a row or column and apply them to many cells.

    One solution is dragging the formula down to apply it to the whole column. Google Sheets automatically adjusts the cell references, so you don’t have to manually update each of them.

    But this is still uncomfortable dragging formulas down across hundreds or even thousands of cells. Having so many functions also can make your sheet work slower.

    Furthermore, if you want to change the formula, you have to do the whole dragging again to change it across the whole column.

    But not if you use an ARRAYFORMULA because it apples the formula to the whole column!

    What is the ARRAYFORMULA?

    The ARRAYFORMULA function can apply a formula to an entire column.

    It converts your original formula into an array, thus allowing you to use the same formula across multiple rows by writing only a single formula. You only need to put a formula in the first cell and define the size of the array.

    The way you can use an ARRAYFORMULA is:

    This means that the ARRAYFORMULA function is a wrapper function. You can wrap your formulas with it to apply it to a whole range of cells.

    When to use ARRAYFORMULA for marketing stuff?

    • Applying formulas across large data ranges.
    • Being lazy more efficient.

    How To Use The ARRAYFORMULA in Google Sheets

    In order to work with it, you need to change the single cell references in the original function. Instead of cell references, you would have to pass column or row references.

    As an example, let’s see how can you use an ARRAYFORMULA to copy a formula down an entire column. Go back to the example when we counted the number of characters in article titles.

    The original function looked like this:

    And then we dragged down this function to apply it to all of the titles. In the last row (9th row), the function was as follows:

    Now, to avoid having a function in every cell of the column, you can wrap this function in an ARRAYFORMULA and change the single-cell reference to a column reference in the following way:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Only the first cell (B2) has a function and it fills the whole array.

    Since the input of the function contains array references, its output is an array as well. You need to ensure having sufficient empty area next to your cell containing the ARRAYFORMULA in order to fully expand its results.

    In order to work with all the future entries, you can modify the function in the following way:

    This time the array will extend itself until the end of the column which means an infinite array.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The only drawback is that the function will be executed for the empty rows as well, leaving a lot of zeros in this case.

    Meanwhile, the advantage is that it doesn’t need any modifications when you insert new values to the sheet. You can choose from the two solutions which one fits your sheet better

    Alternatively, you can nest an IF function within this ARRAYFORMULA to avoid these infinite zeros or error. The inside content of an ARRAYFORMULA function can be anything that can be applied to an array, even very complex formulas.

    More ARRAYFORMULA Examples

    Because you can wrap most formulas in an ARRAYFORMULA, it’s really useful for speeding up marketing work in spreadsheets!

    For example, say you have a list of keywords and their ranking position. You want to categorise these to show you keywords that are ranking in positions 1 – 10 in the SERPs.

    To do that, you would use this formula:

    This IF formula will look at the ranking positions (COLUMN B) and label them “Top 10” if they are in position 1 – 10 and “Nope” if they are beyond the top 10.

    Now, instead of dragging this formula down to evaluate all your rankings, you can just wrap it in an ARRAY.

    Here’s what that same formula looks like now:

    As you can see, it applies the same labels to the whole range. No more dragging down. No more copy and pasting formulas.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android


    Once you got the hand of using the ARRAYFORMULA, you’ll wonder how you ever made it this far without it.

    Bye bye dragging down + copy/pasting formulas.

    Use Formulas in Google Sheets Like a Pro With These New Formula Suggestions

    Google Sheets has been gaining popularity with its free-to-use online model, making editing easier while sharing sheets. With already a few advantages up its sleeve against its competitors, Google has now pushed a new feature in Google Sheets where you can get automatic suggestions for formulas based on the entered data. Here’s how you can get Google Sheets Formula Suggestions on your computer right now.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Table of Contents

    What are Google Sheets Formula Suggestions?

    As the name says, Google Sheets Formula Suggestions will suggest some formulas based on the data being entered in the sheet. In its blog post, Google says that it has trained a Machine Learning Model to achieve this. For instance, when you have a column of certain data and try to use a command for some formula, Google will analyze the data in that row, column, or table and suggest you a suitable formula.

    How to Get Google Sheets Formula Suggestions?

    The new Google Sheets Formula Suggestions feature is being rolled out to users in phases. Google has kept it under observation to monitor it and collect feedback from early users. To enable Google Sheets Formula Suggestions, click on “Tools” and click on “Enable formula suggestions“. Even if you don’t see this option, the chances are that it would still work once you try to enter a formula command.

    Now navigate to the cell where you wish to use your formula. Once you type “=” Google will show you some aware suggestions based on the data from the table. From our experience, Google recommends SUM and AVERAGE quite regularly as these are two of the most commonly used formulas in Google Sheets. As per Google, this new feature also considers the labels and headings for rows and columns while suggesting a formula.

    I Don’t See “Enable Formula Suggestions Under Tools, What to Do?

    The new Google Sheets Formula Suggestions feature is being rolled out to users in phases, including personal users, Google Workspace, G Suite Basic, G Suite Business, etc. As per the company, it will take around 15 days for this feature to be rolled out to everyone. However, in most cases, formula suggestions show up in Google Sheets even after the toggle being missing from the tools section. So do try using a formula first and see if it is working for you.

    How to Use Formulas for Google Sheets?

    You can use formulas for Google Sheets in multiple ways, like using the formula box and more, but it is an easy way to get started.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    1. Select the cell where you want to store your result.
    2. Click on the Function button (Σ) on the toolbar, and select the operation you wish to apply.
    3. Now press the Ctrl key on your keyboard, and select the cells across which you want to apply the formula. You can manually select cells one by one, or scroll your mouse over a row or column to select multiple cells.
    4. Press the Enter key on your keyboard. Your result is now stored in the selected cell based on the applied formula.

    You can also enter the formula manually in this manner by using formula shortcuts.

    Note: You can also use this method to use a custom formula.

    1. Select the cell where you want your result.
    2. Type “=” followed by your formula command.
    3. Now enter the cell addresses across which you wish to apply the formula.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Syntax for applying formula in a row or column

    Syntax for applying a formula across selective cells

    Your result will now be stored in the selected cell.

    It is that easy to apply a formula in sheets. Here is a list of some basic spreadsheet formulas along with Array Formulas and Complex Formulas.

    How to Get Formula Hints Working on Google Sheets?

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Google Sheets provides Incremental Suggestions in the form of hints, where it shows a dropdown menu of all applicable formulae when you enter the first alphabet. Sometimes, this drop-down menu does not show up while typing the formula. In such cases, you can press ‘Shift + F1‘ on your keyboard to get formula hints working in Google Sheets. If you are someone who keeps forgetting formulas like us, then the hints work as a great formula suggestion tool.

    How to autofill formulas in Google Sheets?

    To apply a formula across an entire row or a column:

    1. First, execute the formula for a single row/column and store the result in an adjacent cell.
    2. Now place your mouse cursor on the blue square located in the bottom right corner of the cell where your result is stored.
    3. Hold the left click on your mouse and drag it to the point where you wish to apply the same formula.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    With the new Google Sheets Formula Suggestions, Google detects specific patterns in data and automatically shows a popup where you can apply the same formula across an entire cell or a row. You can allow this autofill by clicking the green tick with your mouse or by pressing ‘Ctrl + Enter‘ on your keyboard. This works very well as an Auto Complete Function and comes really handy when working with a huge database.

    Check How to Multiply Column by Constants in Google Sheets

    Learning how to use formulas in Google Sheets can help you calculate data more efficiently. It can also save you a lot of time, especially if you have to multiply two columns. However, these formulas can seem complicated. But once you understand them, they will make your life a lot easier. In this article, we will show you how to use a formula to multiply two columns in Google Sheets and other multiplication functions. For a formula to work in Google Sheets, it must contain a few characters to remember. The first thing that underlies each formula is an equal sign (=). To make your formula valid and display numbers, put this character at the beginning.

    Then to multiply numbers, use an asterisk

    among them. Finally, to get the sum and complete your formula, hit enter. Most people use Google Sheets for two basic purposes: creating a database of records, or doing simple calculations like multiplying cells or columns. There are many ways to multiply columns (or cells or numbers) in Google Sheets, and you can use any of the methods depending on the structure of your data. I will show you different methods that you can use to multiply in Google Sheets.

    Multiply by a constant

    You can simply multiply two numbers and get the result in one cell. Enter the equal sign (=), the first number, the multiplication sign

    and the second number; then hit Enter. For example, the formula in cell C3 below is:

    The result in cell C3 is 30.

    Instead of having two numbers, you can multiply a cell reference and a constant. Let’s say you want to multiply the number in B3 by 5 and get the result in C3. To do this, go into C3:

    Multiply column with cell references

    As in the previous example, you can use cell references to multiply an entire column by a constant or by another cell. Suppose you have a table with sales data. In Column B, you have the number of products sold; in Column C, you have a price per product; and in Column D, you want to calculate the total earned from products sold. To get the result, multiply B3 by C3, so the formula in D3 is:

    The result is 36, because the quantity and the unit price are both 6. If you want all the rows to be filled with the same formula, copy the formula down the table to Row 7.

    As you can see, when the formula is copied, each cell in D3: D7 is now populated based on the values ​​in Columns B and C.

    • Paste special multiply
    • Another way to multiply numbers is to use Paste Special. Doing this overwrites the selected data with the results of its multiplication. Let’s say you have some quantities in Columns B and you want to multiply them by the value in D3 (3).
    • First select cell D3, right click on it and click Copy (or use the keyboard shortcut CTRL + C).

    Now select the range you want to multiply by 5 (B3: B7), right click on the selected area and choose Paste Special. In the Paste Special window, select Multiply and click OK. As a result, all cells in the selected range are multiplied by the value of D3 (5).

    Final remarks: How to Multiply Column by Constants in Google Sheets

    I hope you understand this article, How to Multiply Column by Constants in Google Sheets. If your answer is no, you can ask anything via the contact forum section related to this article. And if your answer is yes, please share this article with your friends and family to give us your support.

    If you have been using Google Spreadsheet (or any spreadsheet app) for a while, then you certainly have used the fill handle. The fill handle is the one that appears on the bottom-right side of a highlighted cell once you hover over that area. You can drag the range or formula up, down, left or right. Depending on the value(s) you selected, the smart fill handle will put adjacent and matching values in the cells. It is a quick method to duplicate and apply formulas down an entire column (or even row) in Google Spreadsheet.

    While dragging the handle seems like an effective method, it’s not so efficient when you have to drag across thousands of cells.

    There are other quicker ways to do that. This post deals with two of those simple ways.

    Method 1: Double Click

    Did you ever think of double clicking the fill handle?

    Try it now. If there are values in the cells on the left or right, then the double click on the square (fill handle) works like a charm. It will copy the formula in the cells below.

    The number of cells that the formula is copied to depends on how many cells on the left or right are filled with values. It will prioritize the number of cells on the left.

    Method 2: Paste Formula Only

    In Google Spreadsheet, you can highlight certain cells and copy them the usual way. Then, you can highlight the cells that need to use the same formula and then, right click on it. On the right click menu, you will see Paste formula only. That option will paste the formula to the highlighted cells.

    This option is a bit different than the simple double click option. While the double click option doesn’t allow us to control the number of cells below that the formula is copied to, this one does. You can highlight as many cells as you want and then choose the Paste formula only right click option.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The COLUMN formula is one of the lookup functions available within Google Sheets. It gives us the column number where the specified cell or a range of cells are located.



    cell_reference – is the address reference to the cell whose column number we need. This is an optional parameter. So, if not specified, the COLUMN formula considers the address of the cell where we keyed in the formula.

    Please note that if the cell_reference parameter is not a single cell, but is a range of multiple cells, the formula returns only the column number of the first column within the cell_reference .

    Usage: COLUMN Formula

    Let us get our understanding of the formula more concrete by means of a few examples. Please see the snapshot below.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The first example took B1 for cell_reference and accordingly returned 2 as output. Similarly, for F1, it returned 6 as output for the second example. The third case doesn’t have any input for the cell_reference , hence it returned the column number of the cell in which we keyed in the formula.

    In the fourth example, we provided an address to a range of cells as opposed to a single cell. And, it returned the number of the first column within the range B1:F1, which is 2.

    It is interesting to note that we provided a named range reference as input for the cell_reference parameter in the last example case. As shown on the extreme right of the above image, the “COLUMN1!Ages” range spans from A2 to F2. Therefore, the result is the first column number of range A1:F2.

    Use case: Auto-filling numbers

    One of the useful ways we can use the COLUMN formula is when we use it in conjunction with the ARRAYFORMULA. We use the following method to have Google Sheets fill up series of numbers for us without having to enter them ourselves.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    This utility of the above formula is very handy indeed. Even if we try and insert a column anywhere between the existing columns, the numbering is taken care of automatically. To illustrate this, we will insert a column between columns F and G as shown below. And we will notice we don’t have to do anything to adjust the numbering – Google Sheets does that for us automatically.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    But then, there is a small problem. What if we try inserting a column above the before cell A1? Doing so would shift the cell right and accordingly adjusts the formula as shown below, which is probably undesirable.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    We can fix this issue using the INDIRECT formula as shown below. Even if we insert a column before, it doesn’t affect the numbering. However, the address reference A:L has now become static. So, inserting columns between A through L will not adjust the reference to A:M anymore (like it did in the third snapshot).

    With her B.S. in Information Technology, Sandy worked for many years in the IT industry as a Project Manager, Department Manager, and PMO Lead. She learned how technology can enrich both professional and personal lives by using the right tools. And, she has shared those suggestions and how-tos on many websites over time. With thousands of articles under her belt, Sandy strives to help others use technology to their advantage. Read more.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Want to get more efficient when working with ranges in your Google Sheets? While it’s often a matter of preference, there are situations where named ranges can be beneficial and make certain tasks easier.

    Why Name Ranges?

    First, you can easily edit named ranges to include more or fewer cells. So rather than editing various formulas or drop-down lists to adjust the cell references, you can just update the named range and the rest will comply.

    Second, when using named ranges in formulas or Google Apps Script, your syntax is easier to read. Rather than viewing cryptic cell references, you and your collaborators see the named range for good readability.

    How to Name a Range

    It takes only a minute to name a range of cells. Select the cells you want to name and go to Data > Named Ranges from the menu.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    When the sidebar opens, confirm the cell range and enter the name you want to use in the box above. Click “Done.”

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    You’ll notice that the cell range includes the sheet name. This allows you to use the named range throughout your workbook.

    1. Adding Links to Cell Ranges

    For a fast way to jump to a range of cells, you can create a hyperlink. Then with a click, you can move directly to that cell range. By using named ranges, you can simply use that name rather than selecting the range of cells, obtaining the link, and then inserting the link thus eliminating some steps.

    Go to the cell where you want to add the link. Click the Insert Link button in the toolbar or select Insert > Link from the menu.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    When the insert link window appears, optionally enter the text you want to link at the top. Then, click “Sheets and Named Ranges” at the bottom.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Move to the Named Range section, select the name, and your cell text will be automatically linked to your named range.

    2. Using Names in Formulas

    If you’re familiar with using functions and writing formulas in Google Sheets, then you know that many can contain cell ranges. By using named ranges, you can enter the name into the formula instead of the cell range. Here are a couple of basic examples.

    Maybe you want to add the values in a cell range. If it’s named, you can use that name in the formula for the SUM function as follows:

    This is the equivalent to: =SUM(A1:F13) in our sheet.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    For another example, you might want to see how many cells in your range that contain numbers. Using the COUNT function, you can enter this formula with your named range:

    This is the equivalent to: =COUNT(A1:F13) in our sheet.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    3. Navigating to Ranges

    Another advantage to using named ranges is that it gives you a quick way to navigate to those cells. Plus, you have two easy ways to do it from any sheet in your workbook. This eliminates the need to enter the sheet name and cell range.

    Method One: Select Data > Named Ranges from the menu. When the sidebar opens, click the named range. You’ll be directed right to it.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Method Two: Open the Go To feature using F5, Fn+F5, or the search field in the Help menu. Type the named range into the Enter a Range box and hit Enter or Return. You’ll jump directly to your named range.

    4. Inserting Drop-Down Lists

    Drop-down lists are wonderful tools for data entry because they let you quickly and easily select an item. You can use a named range for the list.

    Go to Data > Data Validation from the menu.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Next to Criteria, select “List From a Range” in the first drop-down list and enter the named range in the box next to it. Adjust any other details as needed for your list and click “Save.”

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    If you need to add or remove items from your list, you can do so in the named range rather than opening the Data Validation box to edit the cell references.

    In addition to independent drop-down lists like this, you’ll use named ranges when creating dependent drop-down lists.

    5. Using Google Apps Script

    If you use Google Apps Script in Google Sheets, named ranges come in handy there as well. You can use the following to create named ranges, read them, write to them, and even log them. This can give you a smoother way to write your scripts and better readability for you and others.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Create: createNamedRange()

    Get: getRangeByName()

    Read: readNamedRange()

    Write: writeToANamedRange()

    Log: logNamedRanges()

    Named ranges in Google Sheets, and even in Microsoft Excel, certainly have their benefits. If you think they’ll work for you, give them a try!

    Have you ever wanted to add a new column with a formula to your Transactions sheet that keeps up with the new rows added each day by the Tiller Feed Bot? This week on the blog we share how to use a Google Sheets ArrayFormula to trick out your Transactions sheet.

    • By Heather Phillips
    • On April 21, 2017

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Here at Tiller, we populate a number of columns automatically with your bank data each day, but what if you want a custom column with your own formula that runs alongside these transactions?

    One option is to write the formula in row 2 (just below the header) on your Transactions sheet and then copy/paste or drag it into the entire column. That works for historical data, but tomorrow Tiller will insert new rows into your Transactions sheet, and those rows won’t carry that formula forward.

    Using Google Sheets ARRAYFORMULA magic

    With a little bit of effort, and a couple handy tips, you can adapt many custom formulas into something that can be automatically and neatly expanded into every current and future row in your Transactions sheet using ARRAYFORMULA.

    As an example, the Tiller feedbot automatically populates a ‘Week’ column that uses Sunday as the start date of the week. With this data you can easily create pivot tables based on weekly spending, but what if you want the start of your week to be Monday? You’ll need to write your own formula.

    It’s a common scenario, and thankfully it’s easy to use Google Sheets’ ARRAYFORMULA to fill this alternate week start column. We’ll want to place the formula into the header row and tweak it a bit so that the data is displayed in a way that makes sense.

    Setting up the Google Sheets ArrayFormula for calculating a Monday week start date

    First, enter this formula into the header row for a new column where you want to see the “alternate week” start date, where the Date is in column A.

    At this point we also want to format the column to display the data as a date. Click the column letter header and then open the format menu and choose Format > Number > Date. If we left it here, we’d have the data, but now the header row says ‘#VALUE’:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on androidGoogle Sheets ARRAYFORMULA in action!

    To amend this, we can use an IF statement to program the array formula to know that if we’re looking at something other than a number we want to display “Alt Week”. The dates in Column A are numbers, but the header row value for column A, ‘Date’, is not a number.

    =ARRAYFORMULA(IF($A:$A <> “Date”, $A:$A-WEEKDAY($A:$A,3), “Alt Week”))

    However, if we scroll down to blank lines in the spreadsheet we see that some random date is being calculated for each empty row. To remove those extra values we’ll use another IF statement that adds an empty string in anywhere that column A was also blank:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on androidThe ARRAYFORMULA calculates dates on the blank lines.

    =ARRAYFORMULA(IF(ISBLANK($A:$A), “”, IF($A:$A <> “Date”, $A:$A-WEEKDAY($A:$A,3), “Alt Week”)))

    Voilà! We’ve now got an Alt Week column with no blank lines and that won’t break if we insert rows at the top.

    A small final tweak is to adjust the formatting of the header row of the new column to match the other header rows. You can quickly do this by selecting one of the other header rows, click the “paint format” button and then click the new header.

    A few things to keep in mind when using the ARRAYFORMULA:

    • You still won’t be able to edit calculated values on an individual row. In other words, in this example, if you wanted to change the week, your only option is to change the data in column A.
    • The Google Sheets 2 million cell limit kicks in faster as you add columns, so if you plan to use this extensively consider using ARRAYFORMULA on a separate sheet that also uses a QUERY or IMPORTRANGE to pull only a portion of the raw data (just one year of data for instance).
    • Inserting new columns or changing the order of the columns can be problematic so make sure you insert the column in a good spot when you’re setting it up the first time.

    The Google Sheets ARRAYFORMULA is incredibly powerful. You could write one that displays a category in all caps to make charts look nice, set up some year-month formatting for pivot tables or charts and pretty much anything else you can imagine. The applications are countless!

    In this article:

    Applies to

    • Pro
    • Business
    • Enterprise

    For more information about plan types and included capabilities, see the Smartsheet Plans page.

    This Help Article Appears in the Following Learning Tracks

    Learning Track

    This Help Article appears in the Level 2: Intermediate Users learning track. Get the most out of this learning track by starting at the beginning.


    Who can use this capability

    The Owner and Admins can set, edit, and remove column formulas. A license is required.

    Find out if this capability is included in Smartsheet Regions or Smartsheet Gov.

    With column formulas, you can apply uniform calculations and expressions to all rows in the sheet. Column formulas will also automatically apply to new rows added anywhere in the sheet. For example, you can:

    • Track the date variance for the planned and actual completion of all tasks in a project.
    • Configure an INDEX function to automatically populate information about an assigned resource, such as their title, department, and supervisor.
    • Automatically calculate totals for quote requests based on information submitted through a quote request form.

    Create and edit column formulas

    To create a column formula:

      In any cell in your desired column, write the formula you wish to use.

    NOTE: Column formulas cannot refer to cells or ranges with specific row numbers such as with absolute references, specific cell references, or partial-column ranges. Use @row, column references, and cross sheet references instead.

  • After writing the formula, right-click the cell to open the context menu and select Convert to Column Formula.
  • The formula will be applied to all cells in the specified column, and it will be automatically filled into any new rows that are added to the sheet.

    You can right-click any cell in the column and select Edit Column Formula or Convert to Cell Formula to change or remove the column formula.

    For the complete list of functions in Smartsheet, see our Functions list.

    Column formula limitations

    Only formulas which do not reference specific row numbers can be converted to column formulas. Use the following table as a guide when writing column formulas:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    VLOOKUP Formula in Google Sheets

    The VLOOKUP function is one of the most useful features that Google Sheets provides.

    It’s also the most popular one when it comes to searching for information in a huge data set.

    What is the VLOOKUP Formula?

    The V in VLOOKUP stands for vertical, so it performs a vertical lookup.

    It looks up data vertically in the first column of the input range, based on an associated key-value, and it returns a value in the same row from another column.

    The VLOOKUP function has the following syntax:

    =VLOOKUP(search_key, range, index, [is_sorted])

    When to use VLOOKUP for marketing stuff?

    • Combining different datasets for audits.
    • Pulling keyword data from different sources.
    • Cross-referencing ANY data with other metrics.

    How To Use VLOOKUP in Google Sheets

    The arguments of the VLOOKUP function are:

    • search_key is the key-value to search for. For example, you can search for the number 42, the word “Cats”, or the value in cell B4. The VLOOKUP searches are case-insensitive, meaning that it doesn’t distinguish upper-case and lower-case letters.
    • range must consist of two or more columns of data for the vertical search. The function always searches for the key in the first (leftmost) column of this range.
    • index is the column number in the range from which a matching value will be returned. The first column in the range is numbered 1, and the index must be between 1 and the number of columns the range has.
    • is_sorted (optional) indicates whether the VLOOKUP function should return the nearest match (when it’s TRUE) or exact match (when it’s FALSE). It’s TRUE by default, but it’s should be set to FALSE when your range is not in sorted order.

    If is_sorted is FALSE…

    The function returns an exact match.

    If the first column of the range contains 2 or more values that exactly match search_key, the fist value found is returned.

    If there is no exact match, you get an error. In most cases, this is the desired behaviour.

    If is_sorted is TRUE (which is its default value)…

    The function returns an approximate match.

    In this case, the first column of the range must be sorted in ascending order (smallest to largest or alphabetically).

    The formula searches for the exact match first and if it’s not found, it starts searching for the closest match that is less than or equal to the search_key.

    If every value in the search column is greater than the search key, an #N/A error is returned.

    VLOOKUP Formula Examples

    Let’s see a simple example. Using the VLOOKUP function, search for an order ID and return the name of the product it belongs to.

    The following formula will do this in this example:

    =VLOOKUP(E2, A2:C12, 2, FALSE)

    Here’s what it does:

    • The function looks for the search term that is in cell E2 (search_key = E2).
    • It will look up in the first column of the range A2:C12 (range = A2:C12) which is the Order ID.
    • Once it finds the search key in this column, it returns the value of the second column of this row (index = 2).
    • It only searches for exact matches, so approximate results won’t be returned (is_sorted = FALSE).

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    This is how VLOOKUP works with unsorted ranges. Now let’s take an example with a sorted lookup range. Suppose you want to see how much traffic a specific social media post got.

    With sorted ranges, you can search for approximate matches which works great with numbers.

    The function to do this looks like this:

    In this case, the VLOOKUP function looks for the number 5000 in the Visitors column (because it is the first column of the range) and returns the value of the third column (because of index = 3), so the platform of that post.

    The fourth argument, is_sorted is TRUE here meaning that the function searches for approximate matches in case there is no exact match.

    Since the exact number 5000 is not found in the list, the function returns the closest value that is lower than this number.

    If you look at the table, you can see that it is a Pinterest post with 4789 visitors.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Normally, the VLOOKUP function only allows you to return the value of one column (which you can set with the index variable). But there is a solution if you would like to include more than one columns in your results.

    Let’s look at the first sheet again. Say you want to search for an Order ID and you want to retrieve all the data that is associated with this ID.

    You can add a wrapping ARRAYFORMULA function to your VLOOKUP function to do this.

    And since the ARRAYFORMULA function needs array references, change the single column references to an array reference in the third argument.

    So instead of putting a single number as the index, write an array that contains all the column number you want to include in the following way: .

    The whole VLOOKUP function with a wrapping ARRAYFORMULA will look like this:

    =ARRAYFORMULA(VLOOKUP(F2, A2:D12, <2,3,4>, FALSE))

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    So far you have seen how to output the results of a VLOOKUP function.

    However, it’s possible that you don’t just want to output it, but also calculate with the results.

    You can use the returned value(s) of a VLOOKUP function as the arguments of other functions.

    For example, you can search for a keyword in a sheet that contains the number of sales for the keywords in different locations.

    You can look up a keyword and output the sales from more than one column with the above solution using an ARRAYFORMULA.

    After that, say you want to sum these numbers that were found in multiple columns. To do this, you can nest the result of the VLOOKUP function within another function such as SUM.

    The whole function is the same as before with an extra SUM function layer:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android


    As you can see, the VLOOKUP function has many possibilities.

    It can automate your work a lot when dealing with a huge amount of data and provides a helpful tool to search for complex information.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    A spreadsheet is a fantastic tool that allows you to tinker with numbers and also with text strings. When working with a lot of text in a spreadsheet, there are many situations where you may find yourself needing to obtain a specific word, letter, or number from a longer piece of text.

    You can do that with the help of the SEARCH function in Google Sheets. It works by obtaining the position of a substring within a text string.

    There is a close relative of the search function called FIND. This also returns the position of a substring within a string. The only difference is that the FIND function is case-sensitive, while SEARCH is not. So if you’re working with data where the capitalization of the text does not matter, or you want to search for text that may be either upper or lower case, then the SEARCH Google Sheets function is for you!


    =SEARCH(search_for, text_to_search, [starting_at])

    • search_for – is the substring that you need to look for within the text_to_search.
    • text_to_search – is the main text string within which you look for the first occurrence of the search_for substring.
    • starting_at – [ OPTIONAL – 1 by default ] – is the position within the text_to_search from which the function starts looking for the search_for substring.

    How to use SEARCH Google Sheets

    As you can see from the syntax, this function needs both the string and substring, as expected.

    But the third parameter, [starting_at], is optional. You only need to use this if there are multiple occurrences of the same substring.

    I’ll show you a few examples to help you get a better understanding of the SEARCH function.

    Take a look at the screenshot below and then I’ll talk you through each example.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Row 2

    Here I’m looking for “Hello”, which incidentally happens to occur in the very first position. As a result, the function returns 1 as the output when I input the formula =Search(“Hello”,”Hello, there!”). As you can see from this example, the SEARCH function identifies the position where the substring starts: the word “Hello” occupies the first 5 characters in the text, but the function tells you where it starts – the very first character in the string.

    Row 3

    The second function finds the comma (,) in the third position of the main string. The formula here uses cell referencing instead of typing the text directly: =Search(B3,A3).

    Row 4

    The third function is quite interesting. Here I am looking for an empty space within the main string. However, instead of leaving out the third optional parameter, I chose to enter 10 as the starting_at parameter. As you can see, the function ignored the first two occurrences of the space character (at 5 and 9) and returned the next immediate occurrence after the 10th position. The formula I typed here is =Search(” “,A4,10).

    Row 5

    The fourth example demonstrates the capability of the SEARCH function to ignore the case (upper or lower) of the text. This is the difference between this function and the FIND function.

    Row 6

    The last example shows that even if the main text is alpha-numeric in nature, the function still works.

    What if the substring does not occur at all in the text? The function returns an error, as illustrated below:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    That’s how to get started with the SEARCH function in Google Sheets. Looking for more spreadsheet tips and tutorials? Check out our other Google Sheets guides below.

    Editor’s note: This is a revised version of a previous post that has been updated for accuracy and comprehensiveness.

    Proper formatting in a spreadsheet can make it much easier for your audience to interpret the data that they are looking at. When the data in a row or column is uniform, it’s easier to spot problems or errors. This is particularly useful when you have monetary values in cells, as some of the values may have different numbers of decimal places, making it difficult to properly evaluate the data.

    Google Sheets has a number formatting option that lets you tell the spreadsheet that values in certain cells are currency. Those values will then be preceded by a dollar sign, and will all have a uniform number of decimal places, thereby making it much easier to read the data. Our guide below will show you how to select cells and apply currency formatting to those cells.

    See also

    • How to merge cells in Google Sheets
    • How to wrap text in Google Sheets
    • How to alphabetize in Google Sheets
    • How to subtract in Google Sheets
    • How to change row height in Google Sheets

    How to Format Values as Money in Google Sheets

    The steps in this guide were performed in the Web browser version of Google Sheets, specifically Google Chrome. This article assumes that you currently have cells in a Google Sheets spreadsheet that are not formatted as monetary values, but that you would like to be.

    Do you need to display an important currency amount in a prominent location? Find out how to merge cells in Google Sheets and add that value to a cell that is much larger than the other ones in the spreadsheet.

    Step 1: Go to Google Drive at and open the spreadsheet containing the cells that you would like to format.

    Step 2: Select the cells. Note that you can select an entire column by clicking the column letter, or you can select an entire row by clicking the row number.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Step 3: Click the $ sign in the gray toolbar above the spreadsheet.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Alternatively you can format cells as currency by clicking the Format tab at the top of the window, clicking Number, then selecting one of the currency formats there.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Do you have a spreadsheet in Google Sheets that has unwanted or incorrect fill colors? Learn how to remove fill colors from a spreadsheet if they are causing problems, or if you would simply prefer not to have them.

    Matthew Burleigh has been writing tech tutorials since 2008. His writing has appeared on dozens of different websites and been read over 50 million times.

    After receiving his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Computer Science he spent several years working in IT management for small businesses. However, he now works full time writing content online and creating websites.

    His main writing topics include iPhones, Microsoft Office, Google Apps, Android, and Photoshop, but he has also written about many other tech topics as well.

    This tutorial is about How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets. Recently I updated this tutorial and will try my best so that you understand this guide. I hope you guys like this blog, How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets. If your answer is yes after reading the article, please share this article with your friends and family to support us.

    • Check How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets
    • How to count the number of words in a cell in Google Sheets (using the LEN function)
    • How to count the number of words in a cell in Google Sheets (using COUNTA and SPLIT functions)
    • How to count the number of words in a complete column in Google Sheets
    • How to count the number of specific words in a cell in Google Sheets
    • How to count the number of words without a specific word in a cell in Google Sheets
    • How to count the number of words of a specific length in a cell in Google Sheets
    • Final remarks: How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets

    Check How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets

    Although Google Sheets is mostly used with numbers (while Google Docs is used for text), sometimes you have a limit of words per cell or the formula you are using requires multiple words. If you’ve ever been in a similar situation, you’ve probably wondered if there is an easy way to count the number of words in Google Sheets. What you need to know is that you cannot use a built-in function (like in Google Docs). However, with a combination of some functions, you can easily get the word count in your spreadsheet.

    Depending on whether you only need the total number of words in Google Sheets or if you are looking for variations, for example as a way to count the number of words. In this article, we’ll cover them all so you don’t have to waste time manually counting the number of words in your spreadsheets.

    How to count the number of words in a cell in Google Sheets (using the LEN function)

    Suppose you have a sheet with the list of titles and each of the titles cannot be more than 5 words. Sure, you can manually count the words in each and every title, but what if there are thousands of them? Instead of counting the words manually, we can use the LEN function together with the SUBSTITUTE function, to count the number of spaces between the words. If there is a space, that will mean there are two words, and if there are two spaces, that will mean there are three words, and so on.

    • First, click on the cell where you want to enter the total number of words. We will start with cell B2.
    • Paste the formula = LEN (A2) -LEN (SUBSTITUTE (A2, ”“, ””)) + 1 and press ENTER on your keyboard to close the formula and generate the result.

    How to count the number of words in a cell in Google Sheets (using COUNTA and SPLIT functions)

    There is another formula that works on a similar principle. We can also use the COUNTA and SPLIT functions, which will separate the text into a string based on the delimiter (and in our example, the delimiter will be a space character).

    • Select cell B2 and paste the following formula = IF (A2 = ””, ””, COUNTA (SPLIT (A2, ”“))).
    • Press ENTER on your keyboard. The result in cell B2 will be 5. If Google Sheets suggests that you auto-fill the column with this formula, you should accept it; otherwise do it yourself.

    How to count the number of words in a complete column in Google Sheets

    If you need to count the number of words in an entire column in Google Sheets, you can use the above formulas in conjunction with the ARRAYFORMULA function that we use when we want to apply a formula to an entire column.

    The first formula, with the LEN function will now be = ARRAYFORMULA (SUM (LEN (range) -LEN (SUBSTITUTE (range, ”“, ””)) + 1)), while the other will be = ARRAYFORMULA (SUM (COUNT ( SPLIT (range, ”“)))). Remember that these two formulas will count empty cells as 1.

    How to count the number of specific words in a cell in Google Sheets

    Let’s say you don’t need the total word count, but just count the number of specific words in a cell in Google Sheets. You can do this by using the COUNTIF function. This function combines IF and COUNT into one. To count the number of specific words in a cell, use the following formula = IF (cell = ””, ””, COUNTIF (SPLIT (cell, ”“), ”criterion”)) just change the ‘criterion’ with the word you want to count.

    How to count the number of words without a specific word in a cell in Google Sheets

    You can use the same logic if you need to count the number of words without a specific word or string in a cell in Google Sheets. The formula we will use is = IF (cell = ””, ””, COUNTIF (SPLIT (cell, ”“), ”<> criterion”)).

    How to count the number of words of a specific length in a cell in Google Sheets

    If for some reason you want to count the number of words of a specific length in a cell in Google Sheets, you can use the following formula = ARRAYFORMULA (COUNTIF (LEN (SPLIT (cell, ”“)), ”> 1 ″) ). This formula will count the number of words with more than 1 letter. To count words with more than two letters, change from 1 to 2, and so on.

    Final remarks: How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets

    I hope you understand this article, How to Count Specific Words in Google Sheets. If your answer is no, you can ask anything via the contact forum section related to this article. And if your answer is yes, please share this article with your friends and family to give us your support.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Learn how to add autofill formulas with Google Form responses in Google Sheets. The cell values are automatically calculated when a new Google Form response is submitted.

    When people submit your Google Form, a new row is inserted in the Google Sheet that is storing the form responses. This spreadsheet row contains a Timestamp column, the actual date when the form was submitted, and the other columns in the sheet contain all the user’s answers, one per column.

    You can extend the Google Forms sheet to also include formula fields and the cell values are automatically calculated whenever a new row is added to the sheet by the Google Form. For instance:

    • You can have an auto-number formula that assigns an auto-incrementing but sequential ID to every form response. It can be useful when you are using Google Forms for invoicing.
    • For customer order forms, a formula can be written in Google Sheets to calculate the total amount based on the item selection, the country (tax rates are different) and the quantity selected in the form.
    • For hotel reservations forms, a formula can automatically calculate the room rent based on the check-in and check-out date filled by the customer in the Google Form.
    • For quizzes, a teacher can automatically calculate the final score of the student by matching the values entered in the form with the actual answers and assigning scores.
    • If a users has made multiple form submissions, a formula can help you determine the total number of entries made by a user as soon as they submit a form.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Google Sheets Formulas for Google Forms

    In this step by step guide, you’ll learn how to add formulas to Google Sheets that are associated with Google Forms. The corresponding cell values in the response rows will be automatically calculated when a new response is submitted.

    To get a better understanding of what we are trying to achieve, open this Google Form and submit a response. Next, open this Google Sheet and you’ll find your response in a new row. The columns F-K are autofilled using formulas.

    All examples below will use the ArrayFormula function of Google Sheets though some of these example can also be written using the FILTER function.

    Auto-Number Form Responses with a Unique ID

    Open the Google Sheet that is storing form responses, go to first empty column and copy-paste the following formula in the row #1 of the empty column.

    The ROW() function returns the row number of the current response row. It returns 1 for the first row in the Invoice Column and thus we set the column title in the first row. For subsequent rows, if the first column of the row (usually Timestamp) is not empty, the invoice ID is auto generated.

    The IDs will be like 00001 , 00002 and so on. You only need to place the formula is first row of the column and it auto-populates all the other rows in the column.

    The IFERROR function returns the first argument if it is not an error value, otherwise returns the second argument if present, or a blank if the second argument is absent. So in this case 1/0 is an error and thus it always returns a blank value.

    Date Calculation Formula for Google Forms

    Your Google Form has two date fields – the check-in date and the check-out date. The hotel rates may vary every season so you have a separate table in the Google Sheet that maintains the room rent per month.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The Column C in the Google Sheet holds the responses for the check-in date while the D column is storing the check-out dates.

    The formulas uses VLOOKUP to get the room rates for the travel date specified in the form response and then calculates the room rent by multiplying the room rent with duration of stay.

    The same formula can also be written with IFS instead of VLOOKUP

    Calculate Tax Amount Based on Invoice Value

    In this approach, we’ll use the FILTER function and that could lead to a less complicated formula than using using IF function. The downside is that you have to write the column title in row #1 and paste the formulas in row #2 (so one form response should exist for the formula to work).

    Here we apply 35% tax to the invoice value and this formula should be added in the row #2 of the column titled “Tax Amount” as shown in the screenshot.

    Assign Quiz Scores in Google Forms

    Which city is known as the big apple? This is a short-answer question in Google Forms so students can give responses like New York, New York City, NYC and they’ll still be correct. The teacher has to assign 10 points to the correct answer.

    In this formula, we are making use of the IFS function that like an IF THEN statement in programming. We are using REGEXMATCH to match values like New York, New York, newyork in one go using regular expressions.

    The IFS function returns an NA if none of the conditions are true so we add a TRUE check at the end that will always be evaluated to true if none of the previous conditions matched and returns 0 .

    Extract the First Name of the Form Respondent

    If you have form field that asks the user to entire their full name, you can use Google Sheets function to extract the first name from the full name and use that field to send personalised emails.

    We’ve used RegexExtract method here to fetch the string before the first space in the name field. The PROPER function will capitalise the first letter of the name incase the user entered their name in lower case.

    Find Duplicate Google Form Submissions

    If your Google Form is collection email addresses, you can use that field to quickly detect responses that have been submitted by the same user multiple times.

    Assuming that the Column B is storing the email addresses of the form respondents, we can use the COUNTIF function to quickly mark duplicate entries in our responses spreadsheet. You can also use conditional formatting in Sheets to highlight rows that are possible duplicate entries.

    Email Form Responses with AutoFill Values

    You can use Document Studio to automatically send an email to the form respondents. The email is sent after the formular values are auto-filled by the Google Sheet. The original form response and the calculated values can also be included in the generated PDF document.

    Google Sheets Application is an excellent alternative to Microsoft Excel to work on spreadsheets on the fly. There is the flexibility to use Google Sheets from a web browser. The need to install the same locally on your PC is eliminated. If your work demands you to handle many spreadsheets, there may be a need to “Transpose” your data often. Transpose is the mathematical operation of converting Rows to Columns and vice-versa. (A “Row” is a set of values/numbers along a horizontal line. A “Column is a set of values/numbers arranged along the same vertical line.)

    In this article, we will discuss a couple of easy ways to execute google sheets transpose, i.e., convert rows to columns and the other way around.

    Convert Rows to Columns in Sheets Using Paste Special

    Before you move ahead with transposing our data, you need to key in the data itself on your Sheet. Open a new Google Sheet on your browser. Input the required data. Consider an example where you wish to transpose a couple of columns with the name of a few students and the marks they scored in a test. This is shown below. Column A depicts the Student names and Column B gives their respective Marks scored in a test.

    Transposing the above data means that the name of the students would appear in a single row and their marks in the row below the names. Transposing the above data means that the students’ names would appear in a single row and their marks in the row below the names.

    1. Select all the cells with your required data. Click Ctrl+C to copy the data.
    2. Click on the target cell. This cell would be from where you want your transposed data to get populated on the Google Sheet. In this case, we have selected cell D3 for pasting the target transposed data.
    3. Once your target cell is selected, perform a right-click.
    4. Select the “Paste Special” option. From the drop-down, click on “Paste Transponsed.”
    1. And there you have it! The columns are converted into rows. It is as easy as that. Row 3 has the data held previously by Column A. Row 4 consists of the data that was in Column B.
    1. To perform the reverse conversion, you need to follow the above steps. In this case, the original data to be arranged in row format. You will get the transposed data arranged as columns.

    The advantage of using the Paste Special Method is that it copies the formulas, values, and formatting along with the values. Having understood the Google Sheets’ switching of rows and columns using the Paste Special Method, let’s move ahead to the next one.

    Convert Rows to Columns in Google Sheets Using Transpose Function

    One of the primary reasons why Google Sheet is gaining widespread popularity is the presence of some useful built-in functions. This feature makes the lives of students and professionals very easy. The work gets done with minimal effort.

    The “Transpose” function is one of these built-in functions. The Transpose is designed to convert your row data into columns automatically and vice-versa.

    1. Once you have your dataset keyed in, select a target cell.
    2. To input the Transpose function, type “=Transpose(“ followed by selecting all the cells containing your data. Doing so will show the range of cells within your Transpose function. We have chosen cell D3 to apply the Transpose function. The data in Columns A and B till Row 10 is selected.
    1. Hit Enter. There you have it! Your columns have been converted into rows.

    Google Sheets is smart enough to automatically identifies the number of rows and columns and populates the target cell with the appropriate cell value. Data from Column A is populated in Row 3. Data from Column B is now placed in Row 4.

    Please ensure that there is a required number of empty target cells to accommodate the transposed data. If there are any cells with particular number/text or even a Space character, Google Sheets will give you a Reference Error. (Denoted by #REF!) The entire dataset will disappear, and the “#REF!” can be seen in the top-left cell of your set of cells.

    In the scenario shown below, an attempt was made to apply the Transpose function in cell E3. As E3 already contained data from the previous Transpose operation, Google Sheet notifies a Reference Error in cell D3.

    There are a couple of differences between Method 1 and Method 2:

    • Using the Transpose function only performs the data conversion from Row to Column-wise arrangement. The cell formatting is not replicated in the target cells. This situation was evident in Paste Special Method.
    • Transpose function is dynamic in nature. Any changes made in the cells consisting of the original data will be reflected in the target transposed cell.

    This scenario is not the case with Paste Special Method. Any changes made in the original cell will require the same modification to be created manually in the target cell.

    We hope you found value in the two methods in google sheets to convert rows into columns. These are pretty simple to execute and require minimal technical skillset dependency.

    Disclosure: Mashtips is supported by its audience. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Course Description

    Google Sheets is a spreadsheet app that is Google’s answer to Microsoft Excel. Because Google Sheets can be accessed on any device for which you have Internet access, it makes it more convenient for users. That said, Google Sheets does not contain all the features that you would find in Microsoft Excel. Instead, it is a basic spreadsheet program that leaves out many bells and whistles, but includes all the features you need to create professional spreadsheets.

    This course will teach you how to access and use Google Sheets, starting with the basics before working its way into the more advanced features. It includes instructions for setting up a Google account, as well as navigating the mobile app.

    In this course, you’ll learn how to.

    • Create a spreadsheet
    • Format cells, rows, columns, and entire worksheets so they fit and match your data
    • Enter data into a spreadsheet
    • Use formulas and functions for calculations
    • Create formulas and functions
    • Calculate data
    • Create charts for your data
    • Create forms
    • Create pivot tables and pivot charts.
    • Work with templates
    • And much more

    This course will teach you all the skills you’ll need to successfully use Google Sheets. Each lesson contains instructions and illustrations to show you how to use the features, then walks you through step-by-step so you can see how everything is done. You don’t need previous experience with Google Sheets or any other spreadsheet program to be able to complete this course. With clear and concise step-by-step directions, beautifully illustrated lessons with screenshots, and HD Video tutorials, this Google Sheets online course will teach you everything you need to know to become a Google Sheets power user.

    So, you’re working with Google Sheets and you realize, “Hey, I need to get a specific column. But wait… I need to be able to identify that column by name (i.e. the value of the cell in the first row) because I can’t be sure of the letter that represents each column.” You can do this. Here’s how.

    Now, at first you might think you’d need to create a script to retrieve the first row to select a column in Google Sheets by referencing a cell value in the first row, but you can actually do this quite easily with a relatively simple formula.

    Our goal for this formula is to get the letter name (A, B, C, etc.) of the column where a cell’s value in the first row matches the value we’re looking for.

    But before we get started, let’s set up an example. Here’s a table of data.

    Make Model Year
    Toyota Corolla 2010
    Ford Fusion 2011
    Honda Civic 2012
    Hyundai Elantra 2013

    The first step is to search the first row for the desired column name and return the column’s position. To do this, we’ll use MATCH.

    The will return the value “3“. In other words, the formula has found the value “Year” in the third column of the first row.

    So, now we know the column number. But now we need to transform that number into the corresponding letter.

    To accomplish this, we’ll use the ADDRESS function to retrieve the cell’s coordinates. The address function requires two parameters: 1) the column number, and 2) the row number. We now know the column number. And, of course, we’ve known the row number all along: 1. (Our column names are in the first row.)

    So, our address function looks like this:

    You may have noticed the third parameter in that formula. That third parameter tells Google Sheets whether the references to the row and column are relative or absolute. I’ve set the value to 4 which tells Google Sheets that both references are relative.

    The ADDRESS function returns the cell reference as a string. In this case, we get “C1“.

    Hey! There’s that column letter that we’re looking for. If only there were a function to get rid of that pesky row ID… 😉

    As you’ve probably guessed, we’ll apply SUBSTITUTE to get rid of the “1”, leaving just “C“.

    And there you have it. You’re now left with the letter name of the column where the cell in the first row matches the value you’re looking for. In other words, you’ve just looked up a column by its name (or “label”, if you prefer).

    Bonus How To

    Suppose you wanted to retrieve the entire column. In other words, suppose you wanted to get all the rows from the column you’ve just looked up. There are a couple ways you could do this.

    Use INDIRECT to get a column by name / label

    The INDIRECT function returns a cell reference specified by a string. What this means is that you can tell the INDIRECT function, “Hey, get me the column of data whose reference is represented by ‘data!C:C’”.

    The first step is to create the “string” that represents the column you want to retrieve. Of course, we want to get the column by name. So, we’ll incorporate our fancy column identification formula.

    That gives us “C”, right? We want our final string result to look like “data!C:C”. Here’s how to accomplish that.

    Now, just pass that formula to your indirect function.

    Use QUERY to get specific rows by column name / label

    Suppose that, rather than retrieving the values from a specific column, you wanted to retrieve a specific set of rows where the value in a specific column matches a value of your choosing. For example, suppose you wanted to say something like “Get me all the rows where the value of the column named ‘Year’ is ‘2010’.”

    This is where the QUERY function really comes in handy.

    Now you have at your disposal some powerful functions for looking up data by column name. I hope this proves useful. Please share your comments, ideas, and suggestions below.

    VLOOKUP is a commonly used search function that lets you look up a value in one table and use it in another. It takes its name from the fact that it performs a “vertical lookup” — it searches a specified column vertically for a search key and then returns the value you’re looking for from the same row.

    VLOOKUP works more or less the same way in both Excel and Google Sheets; if you already know how to use VLOOKUP in Excel, making the transition to Google is not difficult. There’s no wizard in Google Sheets, though, so you’ll need to enter all the values manually.

    How to use VLOOKUP with Google Sheets

    The easiest way to understand how to use VLOOKUP is with an example. Imagine you have a table in a Google Sheet that represents data about products in inventory, including part number, name, price, and so on. If you want to create a second table that only includes the part number and price, you could use VLOOKUP to extract price from the spreadsheet knowing only the part number.

    1. Enter the part number you want to find and then, in the field next to it, enter “=VLOOKUP” and press tab to start entering the arguments of the formula.
    2. The first argument is the search key, which is the part number you just entered in the cell to the left. Either type the value into the formula or click the cell to the left to automatically enter it into the formula. Type a comma.
    3. The second argument is the range. You’ll want to specify the set of columns to include in the search. You can type it, as in “A:E” or click on the first column header and then drag the mouse to the last column in the table. Type a comma.
    4. The third argument is the column that contains the value you’re looking for. In this example, we want the price, which is the third column in the range. Type a 3 and add a comma.
    5. Type “False” and add the closing parenthesis.

    The final formula will look like this:


    You should see the result appear in the cell with the formula.

    You can drag this cell down to copy it to subsequent cells in the column. For example, if you have a lot of parts, this would help you quickly make a table of prices for part numbers.

    One important note: VLOOKUP can’t return a value that is to the left of the search key, so you’ll need to be sure the value you are looking for in the table is to the right of the search key.

    Understanding VLOOKUP syntax

    Here is what the VLOOKUP formula looks like:

    =VLOOKUP(search_key, range, index, [is_sorted])

    • The “search_key” is the value you want to search for. For example, if you want to know the price of a product, you might search for the product name or item number in the same row.
    • The range is the columns that contain the data.
    • The index is the column that contains the value you want to find. In the example of finding the price of a product, this is the price column. Rather than using the column letter, you number the columns in the range; the first column is 1, and so on.
    • The final value is “true” or “false” and is used to indicate if the index column has been sorted. It’s optional, but defaults to “true” if you don’t include it — which will give you the wrong result if the table isn’t sorted.

    How to use VLOOKUP on multiple sheets

    That procedure will help you build a VLOOKUP table if you’re extracting information from a table on the same sheet, but if you want to build a table on a different sheet, you’ll need to make one small change: You need to modify the range to an absolute value that references the name of the spreadsheet.

    For example, suppose you have a Google Sheets workbook with a sheet named “Parts” and you want to extract prices but store them on a new sheet named “Audit.” The range needs to be prefaced with the name of the sheet and an exclamation mark (!). The formula will look the same but instead of this:


    It needs to look like this:


    How to use VLOOKUP with a wildcard

    You can also use VLOOKUP to search for partial matches using wildcards — you simply need to use the asterisk (*) or question mark (?) in the search key. The asterisk can be used to match any sequence of characters, while the question mark only replaces a single character.

    How to use VLOOKUP to find the closest match

    While most of the time you’ll want to find an exact match, you might sometimes need to find the closest match. For example, suppose you are looking for a part that’s less than a target price. Here’s how to do that:

    1. Sort the index column — in other words, the column with the price you are looking for. If you don’t sort the table, you won’t get accurate results. To do that, select the first row, then click “Data” in the menu. Choose “Sort sheet by column A -> Z.”
    2. Enter your formula as you normally would.
    3. To complete the formula, set the “is_sorted” argument to “True.”

    Often you may want to autofill dates in Google Sheets. Fortunately this is easy to do using the simple drag and fill feature built into Google Sheets.

    The following examples show how to autofill dates in Google Sheets in practice.

    Example 1: AutoFill Days in Google Sheets

    To autofill a list of days in Google Sheets, simply type in one date to start:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Then hover over the bottom right-hand corner of the cell until a tiny “+” appears. Then click and drag down to however many cells you’d like in the same column:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The result is a list of consecutive days.

    Example 2: AutoFill Weeks in Google Sheets

    To autofill a list of weeks in Google Sheets, simply type in two dates that are exactly one week apart:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    Then highlight both cell A1 and cell A2, then hover over the bottom right-hand corner of cell A2 until a tiny “+” appears.

    Then click and drag down to however many cells you’d like in the same column:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The result is a list of consecutive weeks.

    Example 3: AutoFill Months in Google Sheets

    To autofill a list of months in Google Sheets, simply type in two dates that are exactly one month apart in cells A1 and A2.

    Then highlight both cell A1 and cell A2, then hover over the bottom right-hand corner of cell A2 until a tiny “+” appears.

    Then click and drag down to however many cells you’d like in the same column:

    How to apply a formula to an entire column on google sheets on android

    The result is a list of consecutive months.

    Additional Resources

    The following tutorials explain how to perform other common operations with dates in Google Sheets:

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    By: Chewy Editorial Published: September 29, 2010

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Finding A Home For Guinea Pigs

    We have two guinea pigs that need to be rehomed ASAP because we are moving into apartment that doesn’t allow them. How do we find them a new home?

    I’m going to assume that you already asked your friends and family about taking on your guinea pigs. If you have a little time there are several sources you can use to list your guinea pigs for adoption.

    1. Your local elementary schools often have an internal newsletter that may, for a small fee, let you list your guinea pig.

    2. The elementary school may have a bulletin board that you can post your advertisement on to attract a family or a teacher.

    3. Set up a lawn chair near the local elementary school with your guinea pigs and see if you can connect with parents to adopt your guinea pig when they are picking up their kids. This may seem extreme but I have seen it often work for others. Be sure, though, that you are NOT on school property and be sure you have a sign that clearly states your intentions.

    4. Try Yahoo classified or Craigslist and choose your state and your city, they will have a tab for pets. In all cases in listing an animal on a site or paper, charge something for the adoption. It does not have to be a lot, just something to prevent snake breeders or collectors of animals from contacting you.

    If you do not have time to try to adopt out your guinea pigs, look for an animal shelter that has an open door policy. An open door policy means they take any species, they are not limited to just cats and dogs, but are versed in the basics of most creatures. Even if they are a kill shelter they usually work with a huge number of foster homes, rescues and other shelters and will contact them to transfer the animal to them. Despite what you may have heard, shelters have to keep track of the number of animals that they euthanize and often funding is dependent on how many they do NOT euthanize. They will actively seek out other solutions to helping an animal than automatically putting them down.

    When you surrender to this type of organization you usually lose all rights to the animal as soon as you sign off. You will not be able to contact the animal shelter to see if the animal has been adopted but you can watch their progress on its website if they are not transferred to another organization. Often animal shelters post pets to advertise their availability.

    If your guinea pigs are at an animal shelter for a long time and they do not seem to be getting adopted you can develop an action plan if you want to pull them out by adopting them back and then returning them at some point for another run at a chance to be adopted. Use social media! Facebook your guinea pigs’ availability, use Twitter or list on whatever social networks you are using and always include a picture. A picture, as they say, speaks louder than words and will more than likely attract someone to adopt. You will have to screen people, so think of questions that you want to ask an adopter. Sometimes other animal shelters will provide a courtesy listing even if they do not adopt out the species.

    By: Shannon Cauthen

    Featured Image: Daisy Daisy/Shutterstock

    Most cages marketed for guinea pigs are way too small. Guinea pigs need appropriate room to roam, with separate spaces for a nest, bathroom area and food and water. No animal is meant to live in a cage all the time, so make sure to provide your pig with time outside their enclosures at least once a day to stretch their legs, explore and exercise.

    Why size matters

    Guinea pigs are one of the largest rodents kept as pets and yet their typical cage is only marginally roomier than housing for much smaller relatives like hamsters and gerbils.

    While small animal cages often utilize vertical space to increase living area and encourage climbing, digging and burrowing, guinea pigs do not jump or climb and rely solely on floor space. Ramps and platforms at low heights provide variety, but guinea pigs need room to exercise, even with daily playtime outside of the cage.

    The following recommendations are meant to serve as guidelines to help you determine how much space you need for your guinea pig(s). Your local humane society or guinea pig rescue organization may have minimal caging requirements that differ from those listed here.

    The sides of your guinea pig enclosure must be at least 12” high and the top may be open, so long as other household pets do not have access to it. Many guinea pig rescue organizations recommend “C&C” cages, which are enclosures made from cubes and coroplast, a corrugated plastic. Plastic tubs, glass aquariums and cages with wire floors are NOT acceptable as guinea pig housing.

    • One guinea pig: 7.5 square feet, or about 30”x 36”, is the bare minimum recommended, but bigger is better. (Keep in mind that guinea pigs are highly social, so it is best to have at least two guinea pigs who get along with each other.)
    • Two guinea pigs: 7.5 square feet (minimum), but at least 10.5 square feet (30” x 50”) is preferred.
    • Three guinea pigs: 10.5 square feet (minimum), but at least 13 square feet (30” x 62”) is preferred.
    • Four guinea pigs: 13 square feet (minimum), but at least 30” x 76” is preferred.

    Sign up to receive our exclusive e-book full of important information about caring for your pet, including training techniques and answers to frequently asked questions.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Benefits to your guinea pig

    Roomier cages offer many advantages that will be enjoyed by both you and your pig:

    • Larger enclosures are one of the most basic types of enrichment you can provide. Guinea pigs can live five to seven years and can become bored and depressed without adequate stimulation. Imagine spending your whole life in a walk-in closet; even with occasional breaks, life would be pretty dreary.
    • Adequate room to exercise means that your guinea pigs are less likely to develop medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, bumblefoot and anal impaction—saving your guinea pigs pain and suffering, and minimizing your veterinary bills.
    • With a roomier enclosure, guinea pigs can exercise on their schedule, not yours. Guinea pigs tend to be most active in the morning and evening when it may not be convenient to take them out for playtime.
    • Larger digs increase the likelihood of peaceful co-existence among multiple guinea pigs (and since guinea pigs are social animals, they do best when housed together).
    • Larger spaces are actually easier to clean because they prevent the build-up of waste and allow guinea pigs to separate their bathroom area from other activities.
    • With the opportunity to express a wider range of natural behaviors, your guinea pigs will be happier and it will be easier to get to know their personalities.
    • For bedding, cedar and pine shavings are NOT recommended due to chemicals they both contain. Especially when soiled, these aromatic wood shavings can produce fumes that irritate a guinea pig’s respiratory system and feet. Use bedding made from paper. Provide two to three inches of bedding so absorption is maximized.

    Location is key

    Once you’ve selected the right housing for your guinea pigs, you’ll need to determine where in your home they will live. Here are some factors to consider:

    Temperature: The ideal temperature range for guinea pigs is approximately 65-75 degrees Fahrenheit. Guinea pig housing should be located away from strong heat sources such as direct sun, wood stoves, fireplaces and heating vents. Guinea pigs cannot sweat when they become too warm and are particularly susceptible to heat stroke.

    Don’t put your guinea pig’s cage in an unheated room, breezeway, garage or other chilly location. Place the cages in a draft-free area (i.e. away from doors and windows and on an elevated surface).

    Guinea pigs don’t do well under humid conditions. Dampness promotes the growth of mold in their hay and bedding and can make guinea pigs more prone to sickness.

    Activity level: Guinea pigs enjoy being near family activity and benefit from more attention when they’re easy to see and hear. A family room or living room works well, but make sure your pigs have a place to retreat if they need some quiet time.

    Noise: Guinea pigs have very sensitive hearing and their cages should not be placed next to stereos, televisions or other loud noises.

    Other considerations

    For sanitary reasons, don’t keep your guinea pig’s cage in your kitchen or other area where food is prepared.

    Make sure your guinea pig’s cage is safe from other pets who may see them as prey.

    If you have young children, put the cage in an area where you can control access and supervise child-guinea pig interactions.

    Reasons to avoid the great outdoors

    An outdoor hutch was once considered acceptable housing for guinea pigs. But keeping a pet outside robs them of regular interaction with the family. Outdoor exercise for guinea pigs should be supervised to reduce risks and for short periods of time in good weather.

    Checking in with your local humane society or guinea pig rescue group about different housing options is always a good idea if you’re unsure about what’s best for your pig!

    I’ve had quite a few e-mails from worried owners ( who haven’t kept guinea pigs before ) about their new guinea pig being very nervous and that they try to hide away as soon as they set eyes on them. Firstly, guinea pigs are nervous animals by nature. In the wild they are a prey animal and mother nature has given them one defence and that is to runaway. If you can try to see things from a guinea pigs point of view. First they are taken away from familiar surroundings and perhaps also taken away from their mother, even though at 6 weeks plus they are no longer dependant on their mother for nourishment, they still have a close bond with her. They are then taken to a very strange home, they don’t know you and are very confused and worried. It will take a few days for your guinea pig to adjust to their new home, getting used to the strange noises that go on in a busy household. For many guinea pigs it will take even longer for them to trust you. Please don’t see it as a rejection, it takes time for a guinea pigs confidence to grow. It dosen’t just happen in a few days, it can take many weeks and some piggies are naturally more nervous than others.

    I hope by reading some of my other pages that I have persuaded you to bring home two guinea pigs, main reason being is that they need company of their own kind. It will also help with the settling in period. Its a well known fact that two guinea pigs together feel less nervous than a solitary guinea pig. They can cuddle up for reasurrance and they won’t feel as afraid knowing they aren’t alone going through this very worrying time.

    Quarantine period: Please remember that if you are bringing home two guinea pigs that have come from different places, you will need to keep each guinea pig away from each other for a minimum of two weeks. This allows enough time for any illness to surface which they may have had before coming to you. Not all guinea pig illnesses show themselves straight away and guinea pigs are known to hide illness until an illness has really taken a hold. This is a survival strategy for wild guinea pigs so they don’t appear to look weak and could be singled out by predators. The domestic guinea pigs acts in the same way. The quarantine period also applies if you have brought a guinea pig home to join your exsisting guinea pig or herd.

    Getting to know you: For the first 24 hours leave your guinea pig to settle in their new home. Obviously watch out for signs of illness, but try and resist the urge to handle your new guinea pig, unless its necessary. Gently talk to your little friend. Yes, she may dart away as soon as she sees you, but just gently talk to her so she slowly becomes accustomed to your voice. On the second day you could try and handle her. Always let her see your hands first as this will make her even more nervous if you suddenly lift her and she didn’t see you coming. You’ll notice they will try to struggle so always have a firm grip ( do not squeeze ) so she dosen’t fall out of your hands. Read my page on Handling your guinea pig Remember that even after a while your piggy may still want to runaway from you. My Jasmine still dislikes being picked up even though she’s known me for over 3 years. Please don’t think your piggy doesn’t like you, its just their natural instinct and some are more confident than others. If the guinea pig is for a child, you will have to supervise at all times. A child will also be excited and want to show off their new piggy to all their friends. Please don’t allow the piggy to be seen as a parcel that needs to handed around, it really isn’t fair on the guinea pig. Even an older, adult guinea pig would find that stressful. At first, guinea pigs need to get used to their owner.

    All the very best with your new little friend and we hope you have many happy years with your guinea pig.

    Gone are the days when guinea pig owners would keep their pets alone in a hutch in the backyard with little interaction with the family or socialisation.

    Now many owners are choosing to keep their guineas inside as part of the family. All guinea pigs need a palace fit for royalty – read on for our best DIY tips for creating one for your pet.

    Indoor living guineas have many advantages. For one, it is easier to control their environment as you don’t need to deal with the elements outdoors. Having your GPs indoors also means they get to be more involved with the action and spend precious time with their favourite humans.

    Despite being small animal, guinea pigs need a lot of room to exercise and run around to be happy pigs, and for this reason are suited best to large accommodation. Exercise is very important for healthy guinea pigs; their best way of getting the exercise they need is to run laps around their housing. If their area is too small they will get bored and are at risk of serious health problems such as heart disease and diabetes.

    A house fit for a piggie Queen or King

    Indoor accommodation for your guinea pig can be fun and easy to create. It is also a great excuse to get creative and to build a perfect haven for your beloved companion.

    Most hutches found at pet stores are far too small for your guinea pigs to be able to display natural behaviours and live the life they deserve.

    To create a perfect and tailor-made house for your guineas then you may consider building a ‘C&C’ cage. A relatively new concept compared to the standard hutch, a ‘C&C’ cage stands for cubes and coroplast. Cubes refers to the metal grid system that forms the cage structure, and coroplast is the plastic ‘tray’ that forms the base of the cage.

    Building your own C&C cage

    The materials to build your cage can be easily sourced online or at hardware stores. To build a C&C cage, you will need a sheet of coroplast big enough to form the base of your cage, and the metal grid ‘cubes’ to form the walls. We recommend the following as preferred minimum sizing to adhere to ensure your guinea has all the space they need (dependant on the number of guinea pigs):

    • 1 guinea pig: Area – 0.7sq m / Grids – 2×3 grids / Size – 76×91cm
    • 2 guinea pigs: Area – 0.7sq m / Grids – 2×4 grids / Size – 76×127cm
    • 3 guinea pigs: Area – 1sq m / Grids – 2×5 grids / Size – 76×157cm
    • 4 guinea pigs: Area – 1.2sq m / Grids – 2×6 grids / Size – 76×193cm

    The structure and soft furnishings inside your DIY guinea pig house can be made from easily sourced and inexpensive materials. All that is required is some time, a few basic tools and some imagination. It’s the perfect way to get creative and put your own touch on the space. Whether it is an L-shape or using different levels, building your own creation means you can have it just how you want it.

    Undoubtedly the best part is seeing your piggies run around squeaking with joy at something you created for them.

    The best location for your guinea pig house is a room that isn’t too warm or prone to becoming damp, as GPs don’t cope well in these conditions. Choose somewhere safe away from other pets and loud noises, but close to the family.

    The best bedding

    Now you have your guinea pigs’ house built, it’s time to make it a home. When exploring bedding options remember that, above all, it needs to be absorbent as guinea pigs don’t use litter trays like rabbits. Common bedding options include recycled shredded paper, wood-shavings, and layered towels and fleecing. Just be sure to avoid any wood shavings that might have a high content of volatile oils or preservatives as these can be poisonous.

    Both wood shaving and shredded paper are single-use and will need to be disposed of and replaced when they are soiled.

    Using layered towels and fleecing can be more efficient as these can simply be washed and re-used. You can get creative with colours and patterns of fleecing and create a unique piggie palace to suit your guineas’ personalities.

    It’s all about the detail

    Once you’ve created the foundations, you can move onto the furnishings for your guineas’ pad.

    Guinea pigs need lots of stimulation and entertainment; the more for them to do, the better. They love running around, darting in and out of tunnels, up and down ramps and snuggling away in hiding-holes.

    Tunnels can be made to any length to suit their new house and can be made from plastic or material. These can easily be made from left over fleece blankets wrapped around cardboard.

    Create your own ramps that lead to a higher part of the cage. These can be made out of safe-to-use wood or plastic.

    These materials can also be used to create small platforms or igloo style dens for the guineas to hide in. Take note that your guinea pigs will need an area within their new house to hide away and sleep in. This could be a ‘hutch’ that is placed in a corner of the accommodation or a purpose-built undercover section.

    As long as the house and materials you use for your guinea pigs’ accommodation are safe and pose no risks to their health or wellbeing, you can set up their new home however you choose. Section it off or keep it flat with more floor space; it’s up to you. As long as the GPs have plenty of room and stimulation, they will be happy and living a wonderful life.

    For more information about creating a guinea pig palace, visit these websites:

    Good Physical Attributes, Temperament, and Selection Tips

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

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    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Sally Terrett / Getty Images

    Guinea pigs make great pets. They’re cute balls of fluffy fur that are amusing to watch and fun to play with and care for. When choosing a guinea pig to adopt, there are a few things you’ll want to look for to help you determine if the animal is healthy.

    Good Physical Attributes

    Look at the guinea pig’s overall body condition. A guinea pig should be neither fat nor skinny, with no swelling, lumps, or bumps.

    The guinea pig’s coat should be well-groomed (full, fluffy, and smooth looking), with no bare patches. Avoid guinea pigs with bald patches or red patches of skin. Also check for soiling around the rear end, as this may indicate a problem with diarrhea.

    The eyes, nose, and ears should be clean and free from discharge. Check the fur around the eyes and nose for signs of wetness, staining, or crusts.

    Try to get a look at the teeth as well. They should not be overgrown and should be well-aligned. Also, check for wet or matted fur on the chin.

    Observe the guinea pig’s breathing. It should be quiet and not labored, with no wheezing, clicking, or gurgling noises.


    Guinea pigs should be bright and curious in attitude and never lethargic. You want an active and alert guinea pig. Take as long as you need to watch the guinea pig move around. It should have no signs of lameness, stiffness, or reluctance to move around.

    Observe how the guinea pig reacts to people. Many tend to be skittish at first, which is understandable in a pet store, breeder, or animal shelter situation. Ideally, try to pick a guinea pig that is relatively calm when it’s approached and who is relatively okay with being handled.

    Look at the guinea pig’s surroundings. The cage should be clean, with good access to fresh food and water, and not overcrowded. Guinea pigs kept under good conditions will be less stressed and have less exposure to disease.

    Guinea Pigs to Pass on Bringing Home

    If any of the guinea pigs in the same cage, shelter, breeder, or store seem ill, resist the temptation to adopt from that place. If there is a contagious illness, your guinea pig may be next and there may be possible heartbreak ahead.

    Familiarize yourself with the differences between male and female guinea pigs. Make sure that wherever you get your guinea pig, they house the males and females separately. If the place does not separate them or seems unsure about the gender of the guinea pigs, then move on. It is best to avoid the possibility of a surprise litter after you get home.

    Do not get a piglet younger than six weeks old. Female piglets should remain with their mothers until at least four weeks old. You want to add a few weeks after mother separation to make sure the piglet can thrive on its own.

    Where to Get Your Guinea Pig

    Before you try a store or breeder, look to a shelter or your local guinea pig rescue. There are many guinea pigs who need a second chance at a forever home. Quite often, these pets are given up because their previous owner simply could not care for them or they didn’t get along with another pet in the household. There are typically very few behavior problems to worry about when adopting a rescue guinea pig, but you will want to be observant after you add a new guinea pig to a home with another guinea pig. Sometimes these pets don’t get along well with each other.

    If you go to a breeder, make sure they are breeding for specific goals such as temperament and health. And, if you go to a store, make sure you can handle the guinea pig before you buy it. Do a quick health check and assess its temperament.

    As much as you may really want a guinea pig right away, feel free to walk away if something doesn’t feel right. There are many excellent breeders and pet stores out there, but you may also come across ones that are less than reputable or keep their animals in unhealthy situations.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

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    If you love pets, you probably want to have more than one in your home. It can be fun to introduce new pets and learn about their personalities as they interact with you and one another.

    In most cases, it is safe to introduce guinea pigs, but you must do it very carefully. You want to avoid fighting among them and prevent the spread of illnesses.

    Ten tips for introducing a new guinea pig

    In order to correctly add a new piggy, there are some precautions you must take. Ensure their environment is prepared and have the necessary supplies to house two animals at once. Here are ten essential tips to follow when introducing a new guinea pig.

    1. It is easier to introduce younger guinea pigs to one another. If they grow up together, they will be less likely to fight as they get older. Also, they can establish boundaries and territories early on for a smooth cohabitation experience.
    2. If you have an older piggy, it is best to add a baby. Bringing in another older cavy will make your first one feel threatened and create issues over dominance. They will not feel as strongly towards a baby, though.
    3. Only put one male in with females. If multiple males are introduced to a group of females, they will fight for territory and attention. Make sure all of your cavies are safe by limiting the number of males you house with females.
    4. Before introducing a male to a female, make sure they are neutered. If you fail to do so, the female will have babies. Guinea pig pregnancies can be dangerous to their health and lead to the death of the female cavy.
    5. Make sure there is enough room in their crate. Each one needs their own space to eat, sleep, and play. Include two of everything in the cage to prevent fighting and territory disputes.
    6. Only buy hiding houses with two entrances. Having multiple pigs can lead to one accidentally trapping the other inside a hiding house. They must have an easy way to escape if necessary.
    7. Keep them separate for a few weeks and have a vet examine both to ensure they are healthy.
    8. Find neutral ground for introducing them. You should use a secluded and quiet place to keep them calm. Put out vegetables and teats to distract them as they get to know each other, and use towels to retrain them if they become aggressive. Make sure they get along for two hours before putting them in the same crate.
    9. Wash the cage to provide a more neutral territory. Thoroughly cleaning the crate will remove much of your older piggy’s scent and make your new one feel more comfortable.
    10. Nipping may be necessary to establish boundaries, but you should intervene if they fight or start inflicting wounds

    Common questions about introducing a new guinea pig:

    In addition to the ten tips above, there are some common questions guinea pig owners have when they introduce a new one. Keep reading to learn more about the process. I’ve owned a lot of piggies over the years and this is a great resource when you have questions.

    How long should you wait to introduce a new guinea pig?

    If you have a new guinea pig, you should keep it separated from your older one for at least two to three weeks. During this time, you should take both of them to the vet to ensure they are healthy. You do not want them to pass illnesses or diseases back and forth.

    Waiting a couple of weeks to introduce a new cavy can also help them become acclimated to their new environment. They can start to feel comfortable in your home and get to know you before you introduce them to their brother or sister.

    Is it better to have two guinea pigs or one?

    Guinea pigs are naturally social animals. They tend to do better in a herd than in isolation. If you want to do what is best for your cavy, two animals are better than one.

    However, the number you have should depend on your ability to care for them properly.

    Can you put two male guinea pigs together?

    Yes, you can put two male guinea pigs together for a cohesive living situation. Multiple males will get along if they are introduced to one another correctly.

    However, you should never put two males in the presence of a female. This arrangement will lead to fighting as they fight for dominance. It can also lead to hurt cavies and expensive medical costs.

    Is it better to have two male or two female guinea pigs?

    Whether you choose two male or two female guinea pigs is mostly a personal preference. It is typically better to have cavies of the same gender to avoid pregnant guinea pigs.

    Males may fight for territory or dominance more than females do, but you can adequately introduce pairs of either gender for successful results.

    Can guinea pigs live alone?

    It is always best to adopt two guinea pigs. They are very social, and they thrive in an environment that includes other animals of their kind. If they do not have a playmate, they can become very lonely. In the wild, they live and travel in herds.

    Rarely are they ever isolated from a group. In some countries, it is even against regulations to adopt just one guinea pig because the activity is considered cruel.

    Having multiple cavies provides them with the stimulation they need to avoid depression. They can enjoy a partner in their crate for social activity and company.

    Some guinea pig owners consider adding a rabbit or other type of animal to their piggy’s container.

    However, it is always best to keep guinea pigs together and away from other animals to prevent injury and death.

    Can one guinea pig die of loneliness?

    Yes, guinea pigs can actually die of loneliness. If they are isolated for long periods, you will notice an impact on their physical health.

    They require companions to remain active, social, and happy throughout their lives. Solitary cavies require much more attention than you can provide.


    If you have a single guinea pig, you should consider adding another one as soon as possible. Also, it is wise to purchase these animals in pairs to avoid isolation and depression.

    Guinea pigs are very social creatures, and they thrive in environments that include more than one piggy. While it may not be the most convenient solution for you, having multiple animals will keep your pet happy and healthy for longer.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Lydia King is a huge animal lover and has always been fascinated with learning about the animal kingdom. She enjoys writing about anything animal related from scientific information about rare species to animal references in pop culture.

    A Medical and Care Guide for Guinea Pigs

    Main content



    Guinea Pig Care Guide Overview

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigA guinea pig can be one of the most endearing and wonderful pets. They may live as long as 9 years (the average is 5 to 7), so the decision to bring one into your home must be made carefully.

    Your cavy (the proper name guinea pigs are known by) will depend on you for food, water, medical care and companionship. The advice on this site will help you give your pet a healthy start so you can enjoy each other’s company for many years.

    DIET — A basic diet of quality hay, pellets and vegs will keep your guinea pig healthy.

    • Nutrition — Guinea pigs are strict herbivores. Links to nutrient requirements and advice on what NOT to feed.
    • Hay — Find out how to recognize quality hay.
    • Forages — Your guinea pig will love these tasty weeds and grasses.
    • Food Chart — Vitamin C, Calcium, Phosphorus, and more. Use our calculator to see how your diet rates.
    • Pellets — Is your pellet a quality pellet?

    HOUSING — Large cages work best. Discover the best locations.

    • Bedding — Which bedding will work for you?
    • Free Range — Give your guinea pigs a room!
    • Cleaning Tips — Discover the key to easy cage cleaning.

    HEALTH TIPS — Learn the Secrets to Good Health!

    • Weigh Weekly! — What is a normal weight? How much weight loss is too much?
    • Handling — Want to know the safest way to carry your guinea pig?
    • Grooming — How often to shampoo? What is a grease gland?
    • Clipping Nails — Make nail trimming part of your care routine.
    • Exercise — Just as exercise is good for us, so is it good for our pets.
    • Quarantine — Adopting a new pig? Be sure to quarantine!
    • What’s Normal? And What’s Not? — What your mother never told you.

    BREEDING — Female guinea pigs can be sexually mature as early as 4 weeks old.

    Find out why breeding is risky and never recommended.

    SEXING — Have two or more pigs? Are you positive about the sex of your guinea pig?
    Read these tips to make sure you’ve sexed them correctly!

    BEHAVIOR — Find advice on taming your new pet, descriptions of chirping, popcorning, and more.

    COMPANIONSHIP — How important is having a guinea pig companion to your pet? Will male guinea pigs always fight? How can I help my guinea pigs to get along?

    AGING — As the years advance, we watch our dear pets age and then pass from our lives. The loss of a pet is heart breaking for many of us.

    • Pet Loss — Dealing with the loss of your pet.
    • Euthanasia — When is it time to say good-bye?


    This pamphlet is a concise reference offering advice on health, nutrition and housing. If you’re interested in more comprehensive health information, be sure to order a copy of the health book.

    Print out a pamphlet (translations into many languages available):

    Purchase a book:

    Please enjoy your new guinea pig. (S)he will prove to be a fascinating and wonderful pet. We are happy to share our lives with ours and wouldn’t have it any other way!


    Talk with fellow guinea pig owners on these popular forums:

    • Guinea Lynx (medical and general care)
    • Guinea Pig Cages (great housing advice)
    • French speakers may wish to visit Cobaye Aventure · Pour Bien s’occuper de son cochon d’inde
    • Portuguese speakers may wish to visit Porquinhos da Нndia BR


    Translations into Bulgarian of a few Guinea Lynx pages can be found here:

    Be sure to contact Lynx for permission to translate and post any information from GuineaLynx.Info

    Discover what Guinea Lynx has to offer!

    Use these valuable links for a complete list of topics and articles:

    In this Article

    Guinea pigs can make good pets, but though they may appear lower maintenance than a cat or a dog, they still require plenty of love and attention. If you get young guinea pigs, it’s easier to train them to cope with your home rules. Before you pick a guinea pig as a pet, there are certain things you need to know.

    Pet Guinea Pigs 101

    You need supplies. There are certain things you need to purchase before you bring guinea pigs into your home. The supplies include the following:

    • Bedding
    • Food dishes
    • Carrier
    • Exercise wheel
    • Hideouts
    • Water bottle

    You may need additional supplies based on the level of convenience you require for your pets. The main objective is to provide your guinea pigs with adequate living conditions. Guinea pigs will thrive best in a stimulating, comfortable environment.В

    Handling guinea pigs. Guinea pigs are easily tameable. They require special handling since they are friendly. Handle your pets with care to avoid injuring them. Wait for the pigs to remain still before picking them up, since you may cause pain if you handle them as they move. As you hold the pets, bring them close to your chest. This action will make them feel safe and protected.

    Guinea pig diet. Guinea Pig Pellets should make up most to the diet, and then supplemented.В Provide guinea pigs with food rich in vitamin C. Such foods include red or green pepper and tomatoes. Choose quality food that is always fresh. You can feed your guinea pig leafy greens like kales, and add carrots and sweet potatoes to the diet once or twice a week. This diet will help keep your Guinea pig active and healthy.

    Housing guinea pigs. Provide your guinea pigs with cages that have adequate room to exercise. If you do, your pets are less likely to develop medical conditions like heart disease and diabetes. Guinea pigs are most active in the morning and evening. Large spaces enable them to play as they wish and with ease. Guinea pigs do well when housed together. They are social animals, hence a large cage will enable them to co-exist peacefully.

    How long do guinea pigs live? Guinea pigs have a lifespan of five to seven years. The lifespan is longer than other small pets like mice and rats. If you handle your guinea pigs with care, you will enjoy a long life with them. В A sick and dying guinea pig will have a poor-looking coat. You may notice the animal appears dull, thin, and rough. Your pet may also develop patches of hair loss. Always observe your guinea pig for signs of parasites like ringworm, lice, and mites.В

    Guinea pig training. You can easily train your guinea pig to complete simple tasks, such as responding to his name. Place your guinea pig on the floor close to you. Place several treats in your hands, then call the pet by his name. Make sure the treat is visible to your guinea pig. Repeat the action until the guinea pig can respond to every call you make. You can use this method of positive reinforcement to teach your guinea pig many simple tasks.В

    Guinea pig noises. Your guinea pig will probably be a quieter pet than a dog, but they can still make many different noises. Your guinea pig may make a noise called “wheeking” when she’s hungry, or make a kind of growl when frightened. Make sure you’re paying attention to the noises your guinea pig makes and attending to any that signify discomfort or fear.

    Adding a second guinea pig. Guinea pigs are social creatures and enjoy living in groups. Keep pairs of the same sex together to avoid unwanted litters. Check for any personality differences in the animals. Like other animals, at times they may not get along very well, but there are ways to help ensure a positive relationship.В

    The best way to have a pair get along well is by introducing them as babies. If you acquire new adults, handle them with care as you introduce them to their counterparts. Introduce them slowly and carefully observe their responses to each other.В

    Introducing your children to guinea pigs. Set rules before your children and their friends interact with your pets. It’s easy for an excited child to frighten a guinea pig. Teach your child to calmly, slowly pick up a guinea pig and how to keep them securely on their lap, as well as peaceful means of interaction with them.В

    If your children stick to these rules, the guinea pigs will enjoy companionship.В

    Maintaining a guinea pig requires you to observe strict guidelines. The pets are sensitive to changes in the environment. They require special attention and commitment. Seek medical attention if you notice any body changes. Also, ensure you keep the cage clean to keep your guinea pig healthy.В

    Show Sources

    The Anti-Cruelty Society: “Guinea Pig Sounds.”

    Britannica: “Guinea pig.”

    National Association of Professional Pet Sitters: “Guinea Pig Care | Guinea Pig Schedule | Owning a Guinea Pig.”

    OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY: “Guinea Pigs as Pets.”

    THE HUMANE SOCIETY OF THE UNITED STATES: “Guinea pigs: The right pet for you.”


    The Spruce Pets: “What to Know Before Getting a Pet Guinea Pig.”

    VCA: “Feeding Guinea Pigs.”

    Wood Green: “Introducing Children to Guinea Pigs.”

    My kids have always begged me for a dog, but I know that our family isn’t ready for the time commitment and level of care a dog would need. I’m not walking one at 6am! They now want a guinea pig. I’m considering it, but I don’t know how much care guinea pigs usually need. Is it less than a dog, or the same? Are they expensive to buy or care for?


    We have three guinea pigs. They are easy and as long as you handle them often they seem to like being held in your lap. They have funny personalities all different. They squeel for treats and “pop-corn” (jump) when they are happy. They do need to have the cage changed often because they will smell. Take note. Make sure your kids are not allergic!! To the bedding or the piggies. They do shed. You might look into a bunny before you take the guinea pig plunge. They can be litter box trained very easily and tend to be cleaner, quiter, and adorable. After we adopted our bunny I was very surprised how easy they are to take care of and how much personality they have. They are very much like cats – Something to consider.

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    I don’t believe they are expensive to buy or care for. I have had 8 in my life and they were very easy to manage. The only issue is that their cages get dirty fast and need to be cleaned often.

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    My Guinea Pig was not smelly but the cage was frequently cleaned. You must be careful to keep your pet somewhere where the temperature is stable, otherwise it will contract pneumonia, which can be fatal. To reduce expenses you can purchase large. bags of horse shavings at a feed and grain store instead of the tiny ones they sell at the pet stores. You might consider a cat over a Guinea Pig. I believe they are easier and that as long as you know what to expect you will get more “mileage” out of such a pet.

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    They’re pretty easy but can get smelly. The family I babysit have 2 but the kids thrive over the responsibilities that come with it.

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    Go to petsmart and ask the pets are people for all the info. And hold a pig. See if the kids really want it

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    OK, I’ve seen noise mentioned a little bit but I’d like to seriously warn you – guinea pigs are SO. NOISY. I owned one as a kid and it seemed like no matter what I did, there was a constant ‘wheeeek, wheeeeEEK, WHEEEK’ noise coming from the cage. I wound up losing a lot of sleep! Maybe I just had a really neurotic guinea pig or I was doing something wrong, but the warning that they are REALLY noisy when unhappy still stands.

    Maybe it needed a playmate. They are said to be social animals.

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    I would suggest a pair of rats instead. Guinea pigs are a bit noisy and very smelly. All small furry pets are smelly but not to the degree that guinea pigs are. Either species would be cheaper and easier to care for than a dog.

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    We acquired a guinea pig a couple years ago. It was my daughter’s class pet she was to watch over the summer. She had been asking for one before but I have no experience with a guinea. Oh my goodness did we fall in LOVE! I’ve heard guinea pigs are good starter pets because they’re relatively small, they tend to not bite as often. They can be a bit smelly but if you clean the cage regularly and bathe the guinea the smell is infrequent. I don’t know if females smell less. Ours is male and tends to ‘musk’ which can be strong. I strongly encourage you to adopt a rescued guinea as opposed to a store bought. Foster parents can match you with a guinea that will suit your family nicely. Store guineas are very scared and can bite more frequently. They do have personalities and thrive on attention. Our guinea seems to be active both night and day but doesn’t disturb our rest. Again, I really urge you to adopt. No one knows the animal better than a good foster and will help you find the best guinea for your family. Best of luck!

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    Guinea Pigs are great pets. They will need their cage cleaned every other day, and always have fresh food and water. They like fresh veggies as well. They are easy to take care of and do not require a lot of time to clean. They do need socialized daily. They are a very friendly and compassionate species and will squeak every time you walk by the cage. I think they are great pets for kids, at one point I owned 14! They are fun and manageable. Best of luck!

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    Hello! My parents faced a similar dilemma when my brothers and I were kids. We had four guinea pigs at one time or another when I was growing up, and I think they’re great pets (especially as first pets). A couple of things to consider with guinea pigs to ensure their happiness: -They thrive with more than one because they are very social animals (you’ll often hear them squeaking and chattering to one another and it’s adorable). We started with two and it went really well. – They need daily pellets, timothy hay, citrus, and a variety of leafy greens and other vegetables. (Don’t do the treats they sell in the stores. Most of them aren’t good for guineas. Use fruits and vegetables as treats. Ours would go NUTS for watermelon). -I don’t remember our guinea pigs being overly smelly, but we did spot cleans of their cages every night (removing any wet spots or piles of poop) and did thorough cleans weekly. -The more you handle them the nicer they will be. Make sure your kids learn how to properly hold a guinea pig so they don’t accidentally hurt it. Sometime we would let our guinea pigs romp around on the floor (highly supervised), but most of the time they were content just sitting on our laps munching on a carrot while we watched TV It may seem like a lot, but I would get guinea pigs again in a Heartbeat. They’re adorable, friendly, and fun, and they’re more sociable than some of the smaller rodents. I had hamsters at the same time as the guinea pigs, and the guinea pigs were way more fun! (We also had ferrets, and I wouldn’t recommend going that route for a first pet choice) 🙂 I currently have a rabbit. He has a LOT of personality, but I personally think he’s a lot more work than our guinea pigs ever were.

    Tuna’s Guinea Pig Rescue is a Virginia-based, foster focused 501c3 rescue that helps to find perfect forever homes for Guinea Pigs. Check out our adoptable pigs and find the furry love of your life!

    Please note: We are NOT accepting surrenders at this time as we are over rescue capacity. If you need assistance finding other options for surrender or rehoming please contact us.


    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    We pride ourselves on assisting families in finding their perfect new friends. All our piggies are cleared by our partner vets and accessed by our volunteers for behavior, bonding and best fit before adoption is completed. Check out our available pigs today and adopt a new friend!


    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Our work would not be possible without our amazing network of foster homes. All homes are vetted per state standards and help our piggies prepare to be part of a family. We offer fosters “kits” to get started that include a temp cage, hides, water bottles, bowls and fleeces.


    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Understanding proper guinea pig care is vital to keeping piggies happy and healthy. Our volunteers work hard to educate our community and adopters on appropriate cage size, feeding, medical care and other items. Check out our Resources section to see more about proper care!

    A descendant of the wild guinea pigs of South America, today’s domesticated guinea pig is viewed by many as an “easy”pet for children. Soon enough, parents and children discover that this new companion animal requires substantially more care than the child’s favorite stuffed toy. You know what often happens next: The guinea pig is brought to your shelter, in need of special attention because his owners failed to give him proper care. You will need to provide that for him until he can be placed with responsible adopters who can meet his needs.

    Like rabbits, ferrets, and other small domesticated mammals, guinea pigs require an environment and treatment distinct from dogs and cats. By modifying what you already have in your shelter, adding a few extras, and following the steps below, you can help guinea pigs feel comfortable in your facility.

    1. Make Room at the Inn

    Ideally, guinea pigs should be kept with other small mammals in a room away from cats and dogs. If your shelter lacks a separate space, you can house guinea pigs in the cat room, but set up your caging so they do not have to face cats. Whatever room you use, maintain the temperature at 65-75 degrees to minimize the risk of respiratory disease.

    They may be small, but guinea pigs require ample space to move about. Make sure their living quarters are at least 18 inches wide, 14 inches high, and 25 inches deep. Even though their stay with you will be temporary, guinea pigs housed in larger cages are more likely to be active, and thus more likely to attract prospective adopters. Traditional stainless-steel cat cages will work; aquariums, however, provide poor ventilation, and mesh or wire-floor cages hurt guinea pigs’ tender feet.

    When choosing floor linings and cage furnishings, keep in mind that guinea pigs will chew on just about anything to wear down their constantly growing teeth, so everything placed in the cage must be nontoxic. Use plenty of lining materialshredded ink-free paper or commercial nesting materials available at pet-supply stores, for examplebecause guinea pigs will use the material as both bedding and bathroom.

    Remember also to provide plenty of high-quality hay, which these rodents use for nesting and snacking. Do not use materials such as sawdust, cedar chips, or fabrics that may cause respiratory or other health problems. Finally, provide your guests with a gnawing log (such as an untreated fruit tree branch), tunnels to crawl through, and platforms to climb on. Add a heavy food bowl resistant to tipping and gnawing and a water bottle with a sipper tube.

    2. Get a Little Closer

    Guinea pigs are easily stressed, so they require careful handling. To pick up the rodent, slowly place one hand under his chest just behind the front legs, and gently cup your other hand under his hindquarters. Once you have a firm but gentle grip on the animal, lift him. Then immediately pull him close to your chest or lap so he feels safe and doesn’t thrash around.

    3. Give ‘Em Their Greens

    Feed these animals commercial guinea pig food, formulated especially for the species. These herbivores require a lot of vitamin C, so feed them fresh veggies such as kale and cabbage and ask the assisting veterinarian about vitamin supplements. Treat guinea pigs to fruits, including melon slices and apples (but remove the seeds, which are toxic).

    4. Help With the Cleanup

    Guinea pigs try their best to keep clean, fastidiously grooming themselves with their front teeth, tongue, and back claws. But pigsparticularly the long-haired breedsrequire frequent brushing and combing to stay clean and tangle-free.

    Also, because their cage lining doubles as bedding and toilet, guinea pigs require daily housekeeping assistance. Scrub and disinfect the cage, then let it dry before lining the floor with fresh bedding and replacing the cage furnishings. Also clean the water bottle and sipper tube daily to prevent buildup of food, algae, and bacteria.

    5. Pair Them Off

    Guinea pigs are happiest when with other guinea pigs, so many pet care books urge owners to keep two or more together. Keep in mind, however, that what works best in a home isn’t necessarily what works best in a shelter environment. Don’t cage multiple guinea pigs together at your facility until you’ve resolved issues such as disease transmission and compatibility and verified that the pigs are the same sex.

    Then, before promoting the benefits of pairs to potential adopters, you’ll of course need to know which pairs are the same sex and temperamentally compatible. (For example, more than two male pigs together will likely fight.)

    One final note about placing guinea pigs: Many parents select a guinea pig as a first pet for their child, believing a small pet needs only a small amount of care. Make sure adopters understand that these little guys have lots of requirements, including a roomy cage, specialized diet, daily cleanup, and gentle handling, and that an adult should be the primary caretaker. Have a veterinarian knowledgeable in small-animal care show your staff how to examine incoming animals and guide your staff in monitoring potential health problems. Also, have an expert help you determine the sex of each guinea piga tricky taskbefore caging two or more together or sending multiple animals home with a new adopter.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

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    Taking your pet guinea pig on a plane can be expensive and subject your furry friend to a lot of stress. It is never ideal but sometimes the only option. If you plan to fly with your guinea pig, check your airline’s pet procedures well in advance and prepare a carrying case that will minimize your animal’s stress during travel. Guinea pigs are fragile, so always take your furry friend as carry-on baggage.

    Step 1

    Check with your airline for the rules and regulations regarding pet travel and restrictions on the size of your carrying case. Find out if your airline allows taking your guinea pig as carry-on baggage. Many airlines charge a fee to bring pets on board and some require a health certificate, especially when traveling internationally. The cost of bringing a guinea pig on an American Airlines flight is $125 at time of publication.

    Step 2

    Check the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s rules and regulations if you are flying within the United States. Hawaii has quarantine restrictions that may prevent you from taking your guinea pig with you when you arrive.

    Step 3

    Prepare a comfortably sized carrying case with enough space for your guinea pig to move around. Make sure the case is small enough to fit under an airline seat and is escape-proof. If your airline allows travel with rodents, always take your guinea pig as carry-on luggage, since guinea pigs are sensitive to the cold temperatures and loud noises that may be present in the cargo cabin.

    Step 4

    Place a towel in the carrier to keep it clean and ensure your guinea pig doesn’t get too cold. Guinea pigs should be kept warm when traveling by plane. Take an additional towel with you to drape over the cage to keep your pig warm and minimize its stress level. Providing extra towels or paper towels for your guinea to burrow into may also calm it during the flight.

    Step 5

    Provide food and water for your guinea pig during travel. Guinea pigs are grazers and spend much of their daily life eating. While traveling, do not place a water dish in your pig’s container – it could spill and cause your pet to catch a cold. If possible, provide a water bottle or give your guinea pig plenty of water-rich fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes or cucumbers. Since the Transportation Security Administration has restrictions on taking liquids on a plane, bring an empty water bottle and fill it once you have passed the security checkpoint.

    Step 6

    Take your guinea pig out of its carrying case before you go through airport security. TSA’s security procedures do not stop you from traveling with a pet, but you cannot let it go through the X-ray machine.

    Step 7

    Carry your pet with you through the metal detector while the carrier goes through the X-ray machine. If your guinea pig frightens easily, wrap it in a towel to calm it or hold it close to you. TSA officers reserve the right to conduct a visual and physical inspection of your guinea pig.

    Step 8

    Check on your guinea pig during the flight to see if it needs food or water. Don’t take your guinea pig out of its case — the new environment could stress it and it could bolt.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Image via Chertamchu/Shutterstock

    Guinea pigs (also known as cavies) have been domesticated for over 3,000 years. In fact, statues and other archeological findings in the Andean region of South America, where they originate, date them as living side-by-side with humans even longer than that. We’ve had many years to learn about guinea pigs and their needs, especially when it comes to setting up a healthy living space for them.

    The Basic Guinea Pig Cage Setup

    From a health perspective, the perfect enclosure space needs to meet a few requirements to ensure your guinea pig can thrive. One is space. According to Javier Nevarez, DVM, PhD, DACZM, DECZM, and associate professor of zoological medicine at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, guinea pig cages should be at least ­two feet wide by three feet long. The cage’s floor space is important, because guinea pigs don’t make as much use of vertical space as other small rodents do, according to the Humane Society. And take care not to use a wire bottom cage. “The cage should have a solid bottom to avoid damage to their feet,” Nevarez says.

    While glass aquariums and plastic tubs might meet the size requirements, Nevarez says they are better avoided, as they limit ventilation. “The cage can be open top if there are no other pets in the house (dogs and cats), or it can have a solid plastic bottom with a wire cage top,” says Nevarez. “If open top, the cage should be at least 8-10 inches tall.”

    Temperature Control

    Nevarez recommends keeping cages away from windows to avoid overheating and drafts. Because guinea pigs can’t sweat, their enclosure should not be placed where there’s a risk of overheating, such as a heat vent or direct sunlight, which could be fatal.

    Stocking Up Your Guinea Pig’s New Home

    Once you have the right space for your guinea pig, your next goal is to make sure it feels like a home. Nevarez recommends adding a guinea pig house so your guinea pig can hide and rest as needed.

    Because guinea pigs produce large amounts of very strong urine that can soak into their skin on their feet and cause ulceration, Nevarez emphasizes the importance of keeping cages clean – which means cleaning the cage and removing waste daily.

    You will also need safe guinea pig bedding. “Cedar and pine bedding should be avoided because of the risk of respiratory tract irritation from inhaling dust and oils associated with wood bedding and/or impaction from ingesting it,” says Nevarez. “The best substrate is soft recycled paper products and newspaper.”

    To avoid contamination and to make sure the water stays clean, water should be offered in a drinking bottle instead of a water dish. “The bottle must be monitored daily to ensure the pet is drinking and the water is not leaking, as guinea pigs are very prone to dehydration,” Nevarez says.

    Avoiding Stress for Your Guinea Pig

    “Avoid loud and sudden noises and anything else that seems to agitate them,” Nevarez says. “Most owners quickly learn to recognize the noises they make, including those associated with being scared.”

    Guinea pigs can be prone to stress, so the cage should be placed in an area where there isn’t a lot of noise or traffic. One good option is placing the enclosure in a room that’s visited regularly but that doesn’t have constant traffic. A little hide box, such as an upside down cardboard box with a door cut in one side, in the cage will also help control stress, he said, as your guinea pig can then hide and feel safe.

    Pet owner Matt Kovacs got two guinea pigs for his daughter, Audrey, two years ago. Dottie and Kathy, named after Audrey’s grandmothers, live in a wire cage with a green hideout structure.

    “We put Kathy and Dottie in Audrey’s play room, so they would get views throughout the room and out the front window to the outside world,” says Kovacs. “The cage is on top of a desk to provide easy access when they are taken out to play, as well as to give them the best views.” Be sure that if you use a wire cage, however, that the floor is solid, so that the pets don’t develop sores on their feet from pressure on the wire, and that the wire doesn’t contain metals, such as zinc, which guinea pigs can become sick from chewing on.

    Play Time for Guinea Pigs

    Because guinea pigs are more sedate and less likely to run away than other rodents, they do really well during play time outside their cage—but that doesn’t mean they can be left unsupervised. “Ours watch TV with my wife, Becky, and Audrey in the morning, along with our English Bulldog Lulu,” says Kovacs. “They also get to play on the carpet in the playroom, as well as on a wooden ramp structure that is movable.”

    The Kovacs also created an outdoor enclosure for their guinea pigs, which is made of wire fencing that encloses the guinea pigs safely as they explore the grass and flower beds. If you let your guinea pigs outside, be sure that they have shade and water to prevent overheating and that they are protected from wild predators such as hawks, foxes, coyotes, and neighbor’s dogs and cats.

    This article was verified and edited for accuracy by Dr. Laurie Hess, DVM, Dipl ABVP

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Rehoming Your Pet

    Please note: OHS is able to accept owner-relinquished animals only; any lost/stray animals must be brought to your local county animal services.

    OHS would like to assist you in keeping your pet or give you the right tips on how to rehome on your own.

    Here are some tips for ensuring your pet goes to a safe new home: Rehoming Packet (PDF) / Reubicación del paquete en español (PDF)– view online, or download and print.

    OHS has a Behavior Help Line where you can get advice on your pet’s behavior concerns. You’ll be able to leave a recorded message, and OHS will return your call and offer suggestions.

    For Spay and Neuter assistance, the Spay and Save Program offers low and no-cost spay/neuter surgeries for cats owned by low-income residents in the greater Portland metropolitan area.

    For low cost health exams, vaccinations, microchipping and preventative care, Good Neighbor Vet offers these services at multiple mobile locations in Oregon and Washington.

    Need to find a home that will accept you and your pets? Find pet-friendly rental resources here »

    Rehoming Your Pet Through OHS

    If you need to bring your pet to OHS for surrender, the first step is to fill out a Pet Personality Profile for each pet. We do not accept walk-in surrenders. All surrenders are by appointment only. Surrender appointments are made once the behavioral and medical history of a pet has been reviewed. After we receive your Pet Personality Profile, a staff member will contact you to review the pet’s profile and discuss the next steps in the surrender process. If you have additional questions, please call (503) 285-7722 ext. 212.

    A driver’s license or other government issued ID.

    Your pet’s veterinary records.

    Any of the pet’s items you would like to surrender with the pet (toys, bedding, collars/leashes).

    All dogs need to be on a leash or in a secured carrier.

    All cats need to be in a secured carrier.

    Our staff will review the animal’s history with you then take the animal back for an assessment. During the assessment, we are looking to make sure we can safely handle the animal and that the animal can be walked and/or housed around other animals. Scheduling an appointment does not guarantee admission to OHS.

    Why is there a surrender fee? On average, the cost of care for each animal in our care is $85 a day. This includes spay/neuter surgery, vaccines and flea/tick control, food and boarding and medical care.

    Kittens and Puppies: There is no surrender fee, although donations are greatly appreciated. (Puppies and Kittens are considered 6 months or younger).

    Dogs: $50 for the first surrendered dog and $10 for each additional dog.

    Cats: $45 for the first surrendered cat and $10 for each additional cat.

    Small Animals: (Domestic Rats, Gerbils, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Small Birds) $15 for the first small animal surrendered and $5 for each additional small animal.

    Why Do I Need to Make an Appointment?

    In order to ensure resources are ready and available when a pet arrives, Oregon Humane Society requires a scheduled surrender appointment. Without an appointment process, we would have no control over the number of pets that come into our care each day, and our ability to provide the best possible care for each animal would be hindered.

    What Pets are Not Eligible for Adoption?

    Animals who have been attack trained.

    Animals with a history of aggressive or unsociable behavior.

    Animals that display aggressive or unsociable behavior during a behavior assessment at OHS.

    Veterinary examination determines that the animal is medically unsuitable for adoption through OHS.

    Will My Pet Find a Good Home Through OHS?

    Pets at OHS receive excellent care from trained OHS staff and volunteers. OHS does not place any time limits on an animal’s stay: a pet may stay at the shelter until a new home is found, whether it takes days, weeks, or months.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    What can guinea pigs eat?

    And how much? Guinea pigs don’t usually overeat, but it’s important to provide the proper balance of pellets, hay and fresh vegetables. Like human beings, guinea pigs cannot make their own vitamin C, so they require vitamin C-rich foods in their daily diet.

    Commercial food: Choose vitamin C-fortified pellets with no seeds or dried fruit added. Because vitamin C usually degrades rather quickly, it is crucial to also offer your guinea pig vitamin C-rich vegetables and fruit on a daily basis. About 1/8 cup of pellets once a day—supplemented by hay and fresh vegetables as described below—will be enough.

    Timothy hay: Provide an unlimited quantity of fresh timothy hay every day. Guinea pigs need continuous access to hay to aid their digestion and limit the growth of their teeth.

    Fruit and vegetables: Fresh vegetables can be offered once a day and should be equivalent to about one cup total per guinea pig per day. Leafy greens like romaine lettuce, red and green leaf lettuces, kale, cilantro and parsley should comprise the bulk of your pig’s fresh produce. It’s best to provide variety by feeding different greens each day. Vegetables like red or green pepper and broccoli have high levels of vitamin C in them and are great daily options. Add carrots, zucchini, tomato or sweet potato once or twice a week.

    Fruit works well as an occasional treat that is offered once a day or several times a week. Keep the portion size small since fruit is high in sugar; a small wedge of orange or apple, several blueberries or a thin slice of banana is perfectly adequate. Kiwis, strawberries and citrus have high levels of vitamin C.

    Introduce new fruits and veggies gradually to avoid diarrhea. If your guinea pig develops loose stool, reduce the amount of fresh produce for several days, then reintroduce it in smaller portions.

    Note: Because guinea pigs are susceptible to developing painful bladder stones, and some bladder stones are comprised of calcium oxalate, reducing or eliminating foods high in oxalates—such as spinach, parsley and strawberries—can provide benefit in guinea pigs who develop calcium oxalate stones. Read a more detailed explanation and consult a veterinarian who specializes in guinea pigs with specific questions about diet.

    Time for treats

    There are a variety of commercial treats marketed for guinea pigs and other small animals. Loaded with artificial sweeteners such as high fructose corn syrup, fructose or sucrose, they provide little nutritional value and lots of empty calories.

    Commercial treats are unnecessary and a waste of money. Your pig will be perfectly happy with high quality pellets and hay and treats of fruits and vegetables. For a special snack, try mixing some rolled oats into your guinea pig’s pellets or stuff a small cardboard tube with fresh hay.

    Sign up to receive our exclusive e-book full of important information about caring for your pet, including training techniques and answers to frequently asked questions.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Photo Credit: Thinkstock

    People are often unaware that many local shelters have guinea pigs, or that a cavy rescue could be located nearby. In many parts of the country, hundreds of rescued guinea pigs need homes – primarily as a result of caretaker surrenders. Doug Duke, director of the Nevada SPCA in Las Vegas, finds that in his area, half of their adoptable guinea pigs are turned in by owners and the other half are transferred from the county shelter. He notes, “We try to keep the county shelter, which shares the complex with us, from euthanizing any who are healthy.”

    A pet store guinea pig purchase is often unplanned and unresearched. Getting information on proper care into the hands of prospective new guardians helps them make better-informed decisions. Since January 1, 2003, California pet stores have been required by law to provide care sheets with the purchase of each animal. Several dedicated guinea pig people were instrumental in getting this legislation passed. Be proactive: encourage your state representatives to address this important issue for all pet-store animals in your state.

    Julie Morris, ASPCA senior vice president for National Shelter Outreach, designated March as Adopt-a-Rescued-Guinea Pig celebration month. “The idea behind the celebration month is to encourage future adopters to think of shelters and rescue groups first.” Her promotional team has assembled an online page hosted on with fun and educational materials contributed from various sources. Websites like Petfinder are an invaluable resource for people who wish to adopt homeless guinea pigs from shelters and rescue groups. On average, Petfinder alone lists approximately 10,000 adoptable guinea pigs a year.

    Guinea pigs are not for everyone. They’re definitely not just for kids! But an informed, committed guardian who is willing to care for them day after day and seek health care when needed will find them charming companions.

    Lyn Zantow maintains an informational cavy care website and active message board at She lives in Charlottesville, Virginia, with her two guinea pigs, Nina and Snowflake.

    Reprinted from ASPCA Animal Watch, Spring 2004 Vol. 24, No. 1, with permission from The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 424 East 92nd Street, New York, NY 10128-6804

    Guinea pigs are curious and inquisitive, and with this comes a need for mental stimulation. Toys that will give them enrichment during their day will keep your guinea pigs happy and help them refrain from becoming bored while spending their day in an enclosure. Perhaps you’ve spent a lot of money in the past on guinea pig toys for your cute little companion, only to offer them to him and find that he wants nothing to do with them. With a bit of creativity and resourcefulness, making toys from homemade goods around the house can be the perfect option for your guinea pig. Even better, these toys will save money. Switching out toys periodically will help keep your guinea pig engaged and give him something new to play with.

    Video of the Day

    Cardboard Box Playhouse

    A simple cardboard box can provide hours of fun for your guinea pig, who will chew on the cardboard and hide in it. Cut out small “doors” in a cardboard box. Get more creative by using cardboard containers with the ends cut off, such as oatmeal canisters, to create “tunnels” leading from one box to another. Cut out “windows” in the boxes so your guinea pigs can burrow inside the box and have a window to look out of. Turn over the cardboard box and a cardboard palace awaits.

    Surprise Bag with Treats

    Give your guinea a treat toy that requires a bit of effort. Fill a brown paper bag with hay and a few treats. Fold the paper bag down to keep the hay and treats in. If your guinea pig is extra smart, he may figure out how to fold the flap up and get inside the bag. Cut small holes in the bag and allow your guinea pig to have at it. He will be intrigued with what’s inside the bag and will work his way to it.

    Hanging Kabobs

    Some guinea pigs just can’t resist yanking and tugging on things with their teeth. Hanging toys from the top of their enclosure provides something fun and entertaining for them to do. Get some twine and hang it from the top of the cage. String a few toys, such as wooden blocks of different shapes with holes in the middle. Add a bell or two to the end of the toy for extra intrigue.

    Obstacle Course

    Every guinea pig needs a “day out” now and then — a day out of the cage or enclosure, that is. Allow your cavy some free time to romp and roam after you set up an obstacle course to explore. Use things around the house such as sofa cushions, cardboard boxes and toy blocks to create an enticing obstacle course complete with treats at the end to pique your guinea pig’s interest. The mental stimulation and fun this activity will provide will help keep your cavy content while giving him a bit of exercise.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    It is not everyday that a box of piglets gets brought to your doorstep, but the day that happens is certainly one worth squealing about. Or so it is if you happen to run a farm animal sanctuary.

    Pigs are some of the most abused farm animals, many of whom spend their lives in gestation crates on factory farms. Sows are confined to crates so small that they never even get the chance to turn around during their severely truncated lifetime. Many piglets grow up without their mothers and are never given the chance to just be pigs, but are forced into the same vicious cycle their parents experienced.

    Luckily, this is not the case of the little piggies who found their way to the PIGS Animal Sanctuary early one morning. Melissa Susko, the executive director of PIGS, tells OGP that the piglets were brought to the sanctuary, by a person, “stating they lost the mother and couldn’t bottle feed them all.”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    It was clear that this kind person had the piglet’s best interest in mind, but they were hesitant to give away anymore information as to how the pigs had come to be orphaned, Susko explains this is “common”with the animals they receive.

    The piglets were no more than a few days old and thankfully had been able to receive the colostrum from their mother. Upon arrival at the sanctuary, the baby pigs were a little dehydrated, had some eye drainage and a case of the sniffles. It took a little while for them to adjust to being handled by humans, adding more difficulties to the feat of feeding them. According to Susko, bottle feeding piglets is no easy task.

    Susko explains, “Piglets squeal as soon as you feed them too much them and they can very easily aspirate, which can lead to aspiration pneumonia.”

    The solution to this, is one of the cutest things you will probably see all day…pan feeding. To do this, the piglets are placed in a shallow pan filled with milk, Susko tells OGP, ” You try to dip their noses in the milk so they lick it up, or put a little on the tip of the mouth.”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary/Facebbok

    Susko continues, “It takes a couple tries for them to get the gist, so I syringe feed –putting the tip of a syringe in the side of their mouth and slightly push the formula in inside of having them suck from a bottle and I can’t control how much goes in. After 36 hours of syringe feedings, the piglets figured it out and now dive into their pan of milk at each feeding! We gave them some iron, eye ointment and a warming blanket in a crate.”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary/Facebook

    After only two days, the little piggies who initially shied away from humans now run to greet PIGS staff when they come for feedings and they love to crawl on and play with “Levi,” Susko’s “supervised dog.”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    When asked by OGP what the most special part of the piglet’s rescue was, Susko replies, “Any rescue is special. We usually get in older, sick, neglected or abused animals, it’s such a nice treat to be able to watch the piglets thrive, grow and blossom into their own personality. Many times we deal with the worse- case scenario that breaks our hearts. Any baby animal is adorable, but there is just something so special about a young piglet!”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    Truly, these little piglets are like any other animal deserving of love, care, and the freedom to enjoy all the wonders of their lives.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    As Susko says, “How wonderful and amazing pigs are! They are no different than puppies and kittens and other animals that people accept as part of the family. I want people to see that they are gentle, smart, sensitive beings.”

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    Levi has certainly adopted these piggies into the family! The piglets are now a whopping 10 days old and are already beginning to play with one another and trot around. They have graduated to a puppy-pen filled with straw that gives them more room to move around.

    Thanks to Melissa Susko and the other wonderful staff at PIGS, these orphaned piglets will have the chance to grow up and enjoy the simple luxury of being allowed to just be a pig, happy and friendly as can be.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary How to find a new home for your guinea pigPIGS Animal Sanctuary

    To learn more about PIGS Animal Sanctuary check out their Facebook page and website. To make a donation to keep these little piggies in treats and all the other things they need, click here.

    Lead image source: PIGS Animal Sanctuary

    Juliia Blokhina

    Designed for iPad

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    Do you like house pets? Then this awesome game is made exactly for you! Live the whole life of a small cavy – from little defenseless cub to the old and wise rodent! Explore the house, fight with different enemies, find your mate and raise a family in Guinea Pig Simulator Game!

    Enjoy our ultimate animal survival simulator for everyone as the nice house guinea pig – eat, drink, run to find another cavy to mate or to journey together! The garden around your house is not so harsh, cruel and unfriendly place, like a true wilderness, but it’s full of different city animals – insects (ants and bugs), arachnids, frogs, rats and stray cats! Some of them are harmless, but others are your direct rivals or even predators that want to feed on your dead body! Wage the battle for your life and territory against other city animals, earn experience and raise up your skills!

    Find the special food for your rodents like apples or berries and feed yourself! Make friends with other guinea pigs or fight with them – this choice is up to you! Find your mate to raise your own family of house rodents! Protect them from house predators and don’t forget about your own indicators – if one of them drops, your chances to survive will immediately drop too!
    Be very attentive to stray and house cats! They may seem cute and pretty, but don’t let them cheat on you: every kitty wants to kill you at the first moment of seeing! You and your little furry brothers are the prey, so hide or fight to the death!

    Earn points for each successfully done mission and power your guinea pig’s characteristics up to become more dexterous and just stronger! Unlock new interesting skins for your rodent to customize it as you wish – buy new age categories and abilities, or even new breeds like White Crested, Teddy, Abyssinian, Silkie, Merino, Roan cavy, or even Skinny Pig! Choose the best ones to fight with cats and people and test your skills as different pet rodents with Guinea Pig Simulator Game Guinea Pig Simulator Game!

    Guinea Pig Simulator Game features:
    • Wonderful pet rodent survival simulator
    • Wide range of different missions and rivals
    • Chance to have your own little cubs
    • Communication and battles with the other animals
    • A lot of upgrades for your cavy

    Become this cute little animal, explore the large world of country house, find your mate to raise the family of guinea pigs and just have fun playing Guinea Pig Simulator Game!

    The guinea pig digestive system is pretty amazing – it’s not easy to survive on a diet of mostly grass! But this complicated system is also very delicate, and it’s important that your piggie gets the right diet in order to stay happy and well. Read on to find out more about the guinea pig digestive system and learn how to keep your pet in the best of digestive health.

    What do guinea pigs eat in the wild?
    In the wild, guinea pigs live in the Andes Mountains in South America. They mainly eat grass, although this will generally be tougher and dryer than the grass we’re used to seeing in our gardens! They’ll also forage other wild plants as and when they find them.

    A diet based mainly on grass isn’t exactly full of energy, and it would be pretty indigestible for us humans. However, guinea pigs have developed a highly specialised digestive system so they can live on this high-fibre vegetation.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How does the guinea pig digestive system work?
    The first clever thing about the guinea pig digestive system is the teeth. Since guinea pigs need to munch on tough vegetation all day, their teeth would get worn shorter and shorter if they were like ours! But instead, guinea pigs have ‘open rooted’ teeth that continually grow to compensate for all that wear.

    After the teeth, the most impressive part of the guinea pig digestive system is the large intestine. This is the part that’s super specialised to extract energy and nutrients from a diet of tough vegetation.

    At the start of the large intestine, guinea pigs have a huge sac called the caecum and this is full of loads and loads of microbes. These ‘friendly bacteria’ are the secret to success for our guinea pig friends, as they can break down tough fibre and release lots of nutrients for the piggie to take in!

    There is a catch though: some of these nutrients can’t be absorbed in the caecum. In particular, certain vitamins and other goodies can only be absorbed earlier in the digestive tract. But guinea pigs can’t make the contents of their large intestine flow backwards towards their stomach! So they’ve developed a cunning way of dealing with this problem that seems quite disgusting to us humans.

    Put simply, they eat their own poo. But not all of it – just certain special pellets that are called ‘caecotrophs’. These caecotrophs contain valuable nutrients from the caecum, such as amino acids and vitamins B and K. By eating these poop pellets, the guinea pig can absorb all the goodness they missed out on the first time round.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    What’s really special about guinea pig dietary needs?
    While everything we’ve described about the guinea pig digestive system so far is pretty impressive, guinea pigs share these traits with rabbits and other herbivores who also need a high-fibre diet. But is there anything really special about the dietary needs of our piggies? The answer’s actually yes – they do have an unusual quirk that none of our other pets share.

    This quirk is that they have a special requirement for vitamin C. While other animals can make their own vitamin C in their bodies, guinea pigs aren’t able to do this. Interestingly enough, out of all the animals we commonly talk about, it’s just guinea pigs and primates like us humans that must be careful to eat enough vitamin C in our diets.

    Vitamin C is really important in the body – it’s needed for healthy gums, joints and skin, and it’s also important for the immune system to work properly and for wounds to heal well. Without enough of this vitamin in their diet, guinea pigs can become very poorly with scurvy. You can learn more about guinea pigs and vitamin C in our guide.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to support a healthy guinea pig digestive system
    The secret to supporting healthy guinea pig digestion is to feed a diet based on what they’d eat in the wild. Since the natural diet for guinea pigs is mostly grass, our pet piggies should have a diet that’s 80% hay or grass. All this fibre will help keep their herbivore teeth and guts nice and healthy.

    When it comes to hay, there are loads of different options to choose from and the wide array of options can be bewildering! In general, the tastiest and healthiest choices for guinea pigs are Meadow hay, such as Russel Rabbit Tasty Hay, or Timothy hay, such as Science Selective Timothy Hay. To learn more about the importance of hay in a guinea pig’s diet, check out our blog.

    Alongside their hay, piggies will need a portion of fresh veg and some high-quality food that’s been formulated specifically for guinea pigs. It’s important that the food contains enough vitamin C, and ideally this should be stabilised so it will remain at high levels throughout the shelf life of the product. Both our muesli-style mix Gerty Guinea Pig Tasty Mix and our single-component diets Gerty Guinea Pig Tasty Nuggets and Science Selective Guinea Pig contain stabilised vitamin C to meet your furry friend’s nutritional needs.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to identify guinea pig digestive system problems
    Choosing the right diet is a big step towards keeping your piggie’s digestive system healthy, but it’s also important to know the signs that might indicate there’s a problem that needs treating. If you see that your pet has loose poo or diarrhoea, it’s best to take them to the vet to get them checked out.

    A lack of appetite is another sign that should set the alarm bells ringing. The incredibly complicated guinea pig digestive system relies on a constant input of food, and so these creatures can run into no end of problems if it grinds to a halt. It’s a big issue for our piggies to go off their food, and it’s best to get veterinary help as soon as possible to stop them getting very ill.

    A third sign to look out for is if your guinea pig stops eating their caecotrophs. Obese piggies or those with arthritis may struggle to get around to reach these pellets, and this can upset their delicate digestion. It can also increase the risk of flystrike, as their back end can get quite messy. If you think that your guinea pig may not be eating their caecotrophs, take them along to your vet to find out what care they need and whether there’s an underlying cause.

    We hope you’ve found this a useful guide to the guinea pig digestive system! The important thing to remember is that a good diet is the key to keeping your piggie’s digestion ticking along well. If you give your little friend lots of hay, some good quality food containing enough vitamin C and a portion of fresh veg every day, they’ll be well set up to keep happy and healthy.

    Making sure your guinea pigs have a suitable place to live is the first step to keeping your guinea pigs healthy and happy. On this page, we’ll take you through things you should do to make sure your guinea pigs’ home environment meets their needs.

    Indoor and outdoor space to live

    In terms of their living space, your guinea pig needs:

    • A secure space that’s large enough for them to exercise and high enough to stand up fully on their back legs.
    • Indoor accommodation that’s well-ventilated, dry and away from direct heat sources (such as radiators or sunny windows) and draughts. Room temperatures of 17-20°C are ideal. Some areas of centrally heated houses may get too hot, so be careful where you put their hutch.
    • A large exercise area and secure shelter where they can rest, feel safe and protected from predators and extremes of weather and temperature.
    • Outdoor accommodation – if you’re keeping your guinea pigs outside, their hutch should be sheltered from direct sun and direct wind. In temperatures below 15°C, you should move them indoors. They’ll also need sufficient bedding throughout the whole enclosure to keep them warm.

    Making your guinea pigs’ house a home

    Here’s what you should do to make sure your guinea pigs’ housing stays comfortable and interesting for them:

    • Clean often – you should clean their accommodation regularly.
    • Protect them from draughts and temperature extremes – guinea pigs are sensitive to temperature changes. Temperatures above 26°C can cause heatstroke; below 15°C can cause them to become chilled.
    • Keep them in quiet, calm and safe areas away from dogs, cats, ferrets and other pets they may see as threats.
    • Give them enough warm bedding – this should be safe to eat, such as dust-free hay. Don’t use softwood products such as pine, as these can cause illness, and don’t give them nesting materials that separate into thin strands, such as cotton wool or similar ‘fluffy’ bedding products. They pose a serious risk to their health and welfare, as they can become tangled in them and they aren¿t safe to eat.
    • Regular exercise – ideally, give your guinea pigs free access to an exercise area with pipes and shelters to encourage exercising. They’re active animals and need opportunities to run, stand fully upright on their back legs and stretch out when lying down.
    • Give them tunnels and untreated wooden toys to chew – such as fruit trees or willow sticks. Avoid plastic toys as they may harm them if chewed/swallowed. Guinea pigs are intelligent and enjoy gnawing, chewing and exploring by moving to different areas through tunnels.

    When you’re away or on the move

    If you go away, here’s what you’ll need to do to avoid stressing your guinea pigs:

    • Get someone to look after them – you’ll ideally need to find a responsible person to care for your guinea pigs in their familiar home when you’re away. If you’re boarding them elsewhere, keep grouped guinea pigs together and take familiar items such as toys. Guinea pigs prefer routine and can become stressed if they’re around lots of noise and activity.
    • Transport them comfortably – keep your guinea pigs safe and comfortable when you’re transporting them. Help them feel at ease by putting familiar-smelling objects in the travel carrier and moving them with their companion(s).

    Read more on creating a good home for your guinea pigs in our guide to housing and caring for your guinea pigs.

    Introduction: How to Build a Guinea Pig Hamster Cage MANSION

    With NO INTENT of creating an Instructable! I… More About 2rainonme »

    Hello! I would do anything for my little precious 9 year old and her Guinea Pig LUCY. YES, Honestly. I made this the day before I found Instructables so i can now build her a Treehouse. Amazingly so, I noticed the PET contest and entered it in immediately! I converted her Barbie 3 story dollhouse into an amazing home for Lucy! Best Part: I found all materials around the house. Didn’t purchase a thing! Santa brought the Dollhouse 2 years ago!

    Step 1: Supplies & Tools Needed

    1. Dollhouse NOT used for “primary purpose” anymore (she is done playing dolls)
    2. Plastic Outdoor/Lawn & Garden Fencing/Netting

    I needed 3′ x 4′ (substitute with anything that works )

  • You must measure your dollhouse for accurate dimensions
  • Hot Glue Gun & 6- 8 long glue sticks
  • Spray Paint (Optional)
  • Paper Clips 12-20
  • Electric Staple Gun
  • Wood 2 inches in height and cut to fit dollhouse dimensions. Razor Knife (easier) or scissors to trim netting
  • Your “already available” basic guinea pig or hampster supplies
  • Guinea Pig Bedding, Cages, and Accessories

    Guinea Pig Bedding, Cage, and Accessories

    Guinea Pig Bedding, Cage, and Accessories

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Fleece Bedding

    Washable, Reusable Guinea Pig Bedding

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Cozy Comforts

    Hides, Pads, Tunnels and More

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Cage Accessories

    Everything you’ll need to complete your cage

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    C&C Cages

    Spacious and Spectacular! Don’t Settle for Less.

    Revolutionizing the way guinea pigs are housed & cared for

    Welcome to Piggy BedSpreads, home of the first and only fitted, washable, fleece bedding for your guinea pig’s cage! Do you have a C&C Cage, Kaytee/Super Pet Cage, or Midwest Guinea Habitat cage? If so, you’ll find our bedding a sheer delight when you switch over from disposable bedding like pine shavings or Carefresh. Or maybe you’re exhausted from flipping your high maintenance fleece panel system around and you’d like a one step solution.

    Only Available in the US, Canada, and EU Countries.

    Spoil your piggy with this Crunchy Condo 3-pack of guinea pig hideys!

    Crunchy Condo Product Dimension:

    Make Them Feel Safe Guinea pigs are very cautious animals and are prone to hiding due to their natural instincts. A guinea pig home is an essential to a guinea pig’s habitat. Our GuineaDad Crunchy Condo hidey offers them the safe comfort they need to live a happy and healthy lifestyle.

    Supports Dental Health GuineaDad Crunchy Condo can also be used as a hideout and toy for your guinea pigs to gnaw on to help promote healthy and normal dental wear. Dental health is an important element to be weary of when caring for guinea pigs. That’s why we designed a reusable, recyclable, and non-toxic cardboard on all our hidey products so they are safe for guinea pigs to ingest. It’s a guinea pig cardboard house that’s edible!

    Fun Design GuineaDad Crunchy Condos also include fun designs featuring our GuineaGang Character, Goong, who is the cliff-climber and herb picker of the group. The clever design of the guinea pig cardboard houses also includes the crowd favorite perforations along Goong so you can create a fun little photo shoot spot for your piggy! In addition, the short tope feature of this top-selling guinea pig hidey allows for yet another cute, adventurous aspect for your fur babies to play with.

    Everything Goes Together! Connect your GuineaDad Crunchy Condo with any of our Crunchy Series, like the Crunchy Tunnel or Crunchy Castle, to create the best compound home and hidey experience for your guinea pig. All of our award-winning hideys and homes for guinea pigs allow you to create a full, luxurious complex for your prince or princess, further sharing your undeniable love for them! Try them all today!

    Guinea pigs are social pets and are therefore best kept in groups of two or more. This enables them to express their natural behaviour, and allows for all of their social needs to be met. However, when mixing unfamiliar individuals it’s important to consider their sex, age, size and personality in order to make it successful. Introducing them is also a gradual process, which should be done in various stages.

    Successful pairings or groups

    The most suitable pairings are two females or a neutered male and a female. If you would like to keep a group of three or more guinea pigs it’s not advisable to have more than one male as any more can cause a conflict over resources.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Neutering the male guinea pig removes the potential for any unwanted litters, and avoids the likely problems that can be caused by hormones. But it’s essential to wait four to six weeks after neutering before introducing a male guinea pig to any females as he might still be able to reproduce during this time.

    Guinea pigs should not be kept with rabbits as they cannot communicate effectively with one another, and the guinea pig is at high risk of getting bullied by the rabbit.

    Steps to take before introducing unfamiliar guinea pigs

    • Make sure you know the sex of your guinea pigs – if you are unsure, contact your vet
    • When you first get your guinea pigs home give them time to settle before starting introductions
    • Ensure the hutch or cage is large enough – the minimum dimensions that Blue Cross recommends for two guinea pigs living together are 120cm x 50cmx 50cm, however you should provide the largest space possible
    • Once settled, start to swap their items, such as bedding so they can become familiar with their new partner’s scent profile before meeting them. This is known as scent swapping and it’s important to watch for any adverse reactions your guinea pigs might have to the new smell being introduced.
    • If the scent swapping goes well you can also try swapping their hutches and/or exercise runs so they can live or spend time in a space occupied by the other guinea pig

    Introducing your guinea pigs

    • If possible try to start by housing your guinea pigs with a mesh separating them so they can begin to communicate. You can place one in a run next to the other’s hutch, or two runs alongside each other.
    • If the scent swapping and communication through the mesh looks positive the next step is to find a neutral space for them to meet in – an outside run is ideal, or a spare room
    • If housing the guinea pigs next to one another hasn’t been possible before this stage we would recommend making a barrier in the neutral space that they can see and smell each other through. Remove it if positive behaviours are shown, such as sudden jumps (known as popcorning) and sniffing and spending time at the shared barrier.

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

  • Provide items in the run such as open-ended boxes, open beds and tubes that the guinea pigs can hide in or behind, as this will ensure they have the space to move away and avoid the other individual should they feel the need to. Items that allow for a guinea pig to be cornered or become territorial, such as a carrier, shouldn’t be used.
  • Scatter food and hay around so the guinea pigs have something to distract them. This also helps them to build a positive association with each other.
  • Make sure you pick a time when you can sit and monitor their behaviour, and continue to look for the same positive behaviours you saw previously – as well as other signs such as grooming each other, lying next to one another and sharing resources; such as food or water
  • Concerning behaviours to look out for are teeth chattering constantly, biting directed towards one another, constant hiding from one another, choosing not to spend any time together and chasing. You should expect to see some of these concerning behaviours to begin with, but if the guinea pigs look stressed or begin displaying aggression then end the session and try again the next day.
  • Some guinea pigs will bond quickly, others may take longer and require further set ups like these to build a relationship
  • Have a solid board handy that you can place in an emergency between the guinea pigs should they begin to display aggression
  • End the session on a positive note if possible, or if you see concerning behaviour leading to stress or aggression from either guinea pig
  • Several introductions set up in this way should build a relationship between the two and help get them ready to move in together

    Editor’s note: The content on this page was written specifically for farmers in Nepal. While much of the information will be applicable elsewhere, please be aware that every country has its own rules and regulations regarding housing animals. You must ensure your practices are in line with official regulations in your own region.

    Elements for good housing

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to keep a healthy pig

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Effects of inappropriate housing

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Selection of housing locations

    • The site should be at an elevated place that cannot be flooded by rain water.
    • The site should be protected from the sun (shade from trees) and have ample fresh air.
    • Away from residences (around 8-10 meter away downwind).
    • In case of a large-scale pig farm, the site selected needs also to be: well connected to roads throughout the year,
    • Suitable for manure disposal, connected to reliable water and electricity sources.

    Construction plan for good pig housing

    The important points about the pig house are as follows:

    • The floor of the house must be 3 x 3 m.
    • The floor of the house must be raised about 60 cm above the ground.
    • The floor boards should have spaces of 2 cm between them.
    • The roof must be rain-proof.
    • The high side of the roof should face in a direction where some sun can shine a little way into the house on this side: but there must always be shade in some part of the house.
    • The house must be strongly built.

    A pigsty can be constructed cheaply by using locally available materials. It needs to be constructed according to climatic conditions and according to the pig production system.

    • The pigsty should be comfortable for the pigs: good ventilation and ample shade, no overheating, no smells, no draft and no dampness.
    • The building should be constructed with its length axis in an East-West direction (protected from sun and rain).
    • The pig building needs to be divided into different pens for each phase of the production cycle. The number and the size of the pens depend on the expected numbers of pigs to be housed in each production phase.
    • The costs of constructing the pigsty should fit the pig production systems. An efficient pig production is required to cover high construction costs.

    Generally, there are three types of pigsty buildings:

    General Care



    General Care



    Small Animals

    General Care



    It’s important to understand guinea pigs through the sounds and noises they make because it helps you determine whether your pet is in distress, hungry, content or just excited to see you and/or your food.
    Wheeking is the sound a guinea pig makes when it is hungry so don’t be surprised if the wheek around the time you usually feed them or if they see you bringing some food. Wheeking is something that’s exclusively directed towards humans. Scientists have concluded that guinea pigs never made these noise in the wild, probably because they never had humans hand feeding them pellets and treats.

    This occurs when the guinea pig is vocalizing a low, constant sound. It is not like a cat as it sounds like a mix between a grumble of a dog and a low purr of a cat. Purring is usually associated with being content or happy. You will most likely hear it when you are gently petting your pig. However, sometimes when they hear a startling noise or suddenly feel threatened, they will vocalize this same noise but in short spurts. Depending on the situation and/or environment of your guinea pig, you can probably figure what kind of purring is happening.

    The rumble is similar to the purr, except with a vibrating effect and lower pitch. The male uses this sound when he is wooing the female to mate. In a way, it’s his mating call. He will start to wiggle his hips and walk around the female in a seemingly arbitrary pattern. This is often called the “rumble strut.” When the male isn’t trying to romance the female, the female may use the rumble to signal to the male that she’s in season and ready to mate.

    The growl sounds like “drrr, drrr.” Like with most animals, growling is the sound of distress, usually from being threatened by something nearby. This can also happen when there is suddenly a drastic change in their environment. If you hear the growl from your guinea pig, just start petting them very gently to calm him or her down. In no time, the growl may turn into a delighted purr.

    This is when your guinea pig releases a rapid streak of squeaks. And, it usually means that they are angry, unhappy or agitated at a certain situation.
    It’s common for chattering to occur when you first introduce a guinea pig to another, especially in a cage. They are simply warning each other not to interfere with each other’s territory or personal space. If chattering happens, separate the two before they start fighting and slowly reintroduce them after they’ve calmed down. Keep doing this until the chattering eventually goes away. But if you plan to raise two males, chattering will without a doubt happen as they try to figure out some sort of cage dominance. Just try your best to keep them from fighting, since they have to eventually learn to co-exist with one another.

    Hearing a loud shriek may be distressing to you, but more importantly to your pet. It usually means your guinea pig is sensing immediate danger or is feeling pain and discomfort. For example, if one of your guinea pigs bites another, you will likely hear a shriek. It’s important to immediately attend to the situation and figure out what caused such a sound.

    A guinea pig’s whining sounds like a high-pitched moan. This noise is vocalized when the piggy is being disturbed or bothered. If you or a fellow cage mate interrupts his or her nap, you may hear this noise. Just step away, and let them be.

    Find out why your Guinea Pigs are aggressive and learn how to keep them and yourself safe from fights and bites

    How to find a new home for your guinea pig

    Is your Guinea pig insured? Get a quote for up to £2,000 of vet fee cover | Insure up to 3 pets per policy | We’ve been insuring exotic pets since 1996 | Check out our customer reviews on Feefo.

    Why are my Guinea Pigs fighting?

    It’s not recommended to house two male pigs and a female together as this can cause the males to become aggressive.

    Make sure your pets are properly sexed before you take them home so that you know you have a group that won’t cause problems and you don’t accidentally end up with a pregnant female.

    Even without a female, two males living together can end up fighting. When they move into a new home they’re likely to try to assert their dominance over each other. This can seem aggressive but might not be a full-blown fight and it can be a necessary process.

    Your Guinea Pigs may circle each other, shake and bare their teeth. If one backs down that should be the end of the process. But it can get more physical if they lunge at each other and carry out non-sexual mounting.

    If this happens, keep a close eye on them. Again, one may give in and the fight for dominance will end but if no one gives in it can escalate to biting and you’ll have a dangerous situation on your hands.

    Bites can draw blood and cause serious injuries. If they’re biting you’ll need to separate them.

    If the Pigs have been living with each other for a while and are unlikely to be fighting for dominance it may because they are unhappy or in pain.

    It can be difficult to identify what is causing the problem but check your pet for any obvious sign of illness or injury, make sure the cage is clean and they have enough food, space and things to play with.

    One Guinea Pig might have just got too grumpy and lashed out. You will need to separate them for a day and reintroduce them to see if it happens again.

    What to do if your Guinea Pigs are fighting

    First, identify if it is a proper fight or if they’re asserting dominance.

    If they are fighting you’ll need to separate them. Read the next section below to learn how to do it safely.

    Once they’re separated it can be a good idea to keep them in separate rooms for a night. Make sure neither is injured from the fight and that they’re generally healthy.

    Check the cage is big enough, clean and has objects they can interact with, and be sure they’re eating and drinking normally.

    After a night apart, you can try to reintroduce them. They might circle each other but if everything has blown over they may be fine to live together again, however, you’ll need to keep an eye on them for a few days after the fight.

    If they do start fighting again you should separate them and it may be worth taking the aggressor to the vet. There is a chance your Pigs might not be able to live in the same cage.

    Find out how much Guinea Pig insurance is with ExoticDirect.

    How to stop a Guinea Pig fight

    When Guinea Pigs are fighting it’s easy for an owner to get caught in the crossfire and end up with a nasty bite. Before you attempt to break up a fight make sure you have thick gloves or a towel to protect your hands.

    If you feel you can grab the aggressor, try to get to it quickly before it harms the other Pig. You may be able to put something between them, such as cardboard, to break up the fight but they can be difficult to separate.

    Once you have hold of one of them, follow the steps above and separate them so they’re different rooms and can’t see or hear each other.

    Can you put male Guinea Pigs in the same cage?

    Yes, as long the cage is big enough for two cavies. Guinea Pigs are social animals and housing them together can prevent loneliness.

    When they first meet or move in together they may need to assert dominance. It’s rare that fights break out and even rarer that two male Pigs aren’t compatible but it does happen.

    How do I stop my Guinea Pig from biting?

    If your Guinea Pig is biting toys or objects in a cage, that’s not a problem. But bites to its cage-mates, you or other handlers are an issue.

    Pigs can bite when they are scared, unhappy or in pain.

    One of the best ways to avoid bites is to acclimatise your pet to its surroundings and being handled when it is young or first moves into your home.

    Try putting your hand in its cage to let your Pig sniff it and climb on it. Once it is comfortable, pick it up and take it out of the cage.

    Don’t hold it too far from the ground otherwise it will get scared.

    Guinea Pigs can have sensitive areas that you’ll want to avoid putting pressure on while they’re being held. They may let you know with a little nibble.

    And don’t hold them or keep them out of the cage for too long. If they need the toilet, which they like to do in private, again they may let you know with a nibble. And the longer you hold while they need to do their business, the more they’re likely to bite you.

    If a Pig is grumpy because they’re ill, injured, hungry or unhappy with the space they have they may be likely to bite.

    If it is a regular occurrence, try to work out what is causing the problem, you may need to take your pet to the vet. You can find a vet here.

    Is your Guinea pig insured? Get a quote for up to £2,000 of vet fee cover | Insure up to 3 pets per policy | We’ve been insuring exotic pets since 1996 | Check out our customer reviews on Feefo.

    What to do if two female pigs are fighting

    Like males, females can fight for dominance. It’s not as common but sometimes one needs to show it is boss. Follow the above steps to separate them and try to work out what’s causing the rumble.

    Do Guinea Pigs attack or eat their babies?

    It’s extremely rare that Guinea Pigs harm their young. Some people suggest mothers attack their babies if they’re in pain, underfed or threatened by other Pigs in the cage. It’s best to speak to a vet if you’re concerned about a pregnant Guinea Pig.

    News articles you might be interested in

    How to set up a Guinea Pig cage

    Your guinea pig hutch set up should include a large enough hutch, the right location, plenty of hay, food and water. Our article looks at exactly what you should be providing for your small furry.

    Can Guinea pigs live outside? Temperature, security and other care advice

    We discuss how to keep your Guinea Pig outside in the winter and the summer, the best temperatures for your Guinea Pig, and what else you should be thinking about.

    Your Guinea Pig’s Diet

    10 tips to keep your pet guinea pigs healthy and happy

  • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Our wall-mounted toilet keeps running. It is easy to “stop” by removing the plate with the push-buttons and pressing down the cylinder (valve?) inside, but I’d like to find an actual solution 🙂

    It’s hard-ish to find out what the issue is for me as I know nothing about these things, and it’s inside the wall: hard to just take apart and look around.

    The toilet is a ‘Duravit’, but I couldn’t find any specs on the flushing mechanism itself, so this can be ‘anything’ I suppose.

    Any idea how to fix it, or what I can check? Or just call a professional?

    Now for some visual clarification:

    First the button. When pressing it halfway it doesn’t keep on running, but it’s not a good flush like that. Pressing it all the way makes it stuck in ‘open’ or so it seems. How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Inside of the button-set (seems like air-pressure makes it work?) How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    So this blue-topped cylinder keeps stuck in the ‘up’ position

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    About to press it down to make it stop flushing. An easy fix, but annoying obviously

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    3 Answers 3

    We had a similar problem with our Duravit toilet. We followed the instructions above, and after pulling out both the intake water controller portion, as well as the flush control, he didn’t find any calcium build-up: just some rust stains. How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing As a final check, my husband reached down into the toilet tank and felt something stuck in the bottom stopper valve. He felt what he thought was a broken piece of rubber, and after tugging on it with some force, he pulled the foreign object out in his hand from the access hole in the wall, and found a perfectly intact, but dead scorpionHow to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing]2 It must have died just that morning when the toilet started running. Luckily he wasn’t stung.

    There were 2 (or maybe 3) things I needed to know:

    (easy) the fact that these things can be disassembled easily

    (harder) how the flushing actually works

    and the third, the cause in this case:

    calcium is evil

    So after a friendly plumber who ‘refused’ to come by for such a trivial matter had proposed I’d take apart the thing, find something that was wrong, fix that, and assemble it first helped me get going, I removed a lot of parts:

    1. front plate (see above)
    2. Screws and the 2 platic rectangles keeping the front in place (see above)
    3. The water ‘hose’ (iron thing, again, see above)
    4. I removed the piece that starts/stops water flow with the floater (was on the left, no picuture) and gently set it down inside.
    5. The plastic base was the trickiest to remove: one side had a mechanism, the other side neede to slide up (but needed some force). See picture below.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Now that we finally have some picture, this is what happens: The blue part on the big cilinder (also featured above) is the one that stops the flow of water, but the smaller (white) one is the one that pushes it up when you press the button (airpressure). That one was the one that didn’t come down again, due to caclium buildup. Cleaning this fixed it! see picture of the problem before cleaning it.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Strange that a relalitvely new toilet (house is from 2008) will have this as a problem, so I suppose this will come back sometimes ;(

    Posted on May 24 2022

    This article focuses on sensor assembly maintenance for top mount flush valves. The sensor assembly is also called the ‘head’ of a sensor flushometer. Top mount sensor flushometers are flushometers in the following series: ECOS, MC (metal cover), G2, and SOLIS.

    For top mounted sensor flushometers, the majority of the maintenance completed is within the sensor assembly. This is why it is critical for the maintenance personnel who service these units to understand what components are in the sensor assembly, and when and how to troubleshoot those components.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    The 4 models of top mounted sensor flushometers: ECOS, MC (metal cover), G2, and SOLIS.

    Top Mounted Sensor Flushometer Parts Breakdown

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    The image above shows all of the major components of a top mount sensor flushometer. Those components are the sensor assembly, valve body, outlet coupling, flush connection (vacuum breaker), spud coupling, spud flange, tailpiece, stop coupling, control stop, and supply flange.

    Sensor Assembly Components

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    As you see in the image above, all of the following components are located within the Sensor Assembly:

    • Button Cover Assembly with Screws (Single and Dual)
    • Lens Window Cover
    • Locking Ring Sensor Module
    • Cover Rest Plate
    • Solenoid
    • Inside Cover

    How Top Mount Sensor Flushometers Function

    How does a Sloan automatic flush valve work? When the sensor is activated on a water closet (meaning the sensor has detected a valid target), it will send a signal to the solenoid telling it to open. The solenoid will then pull in a plunger, and open a relief path for water from the upper chamber to go down through the flex tube of the diaphragm and through the valve to the fixture. This depressurizes the upper chamber and pressurizes the lower chamber, which causes the diaphragm assembly to rise. That allows the flush to occur.

    The sensor then sends another signal to close the solenoid. This seals off the relief path. The upper chamber then slowly refills through the diaphragm bypass, which forces the flex tube diaphragm assembly back down and into the seat, shutting off the flush.

    Troubleshooting Sloan Top Mount Sensor Units

    What causes a Sloan sensor flushometer to not flush? Why does a Sloan sensor flush valve keep running? How do you fix an automatic toilet flush? Learn the answer to all of these questions and more for top mounted sensor flushometers in the various scenarios listed below, along with other troubleshooting tips.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Always troubleshoot from the top of the unit, down. Start with the cover assembly (including buttons) then consider the sensor module, then the solenoid assembly, then the diaphragm.

    Troubleshooting issues are listed from most common to least common. So if the first solution listed doesn’t work, then consider the next cause and try the solution for that item, and so on.

    Run Ons

    Continuous Flush With No Shut-off

    1. Debris is blocking the diaphragm bypass – Clean diaphragm to clear the bypass orifice
    2. Debris is stuck underneath the diaphragm – Remove debris
    3. Low pressure drop – Check facility or municipal line pressure
    4. Diaphragm assembly compromised O-ring, cracked plastic guide (old) – Replace diaphragm assembly with proper GPF kit
    5. Solenoid stuck open – Replace solenoid assembly EBV-136-A

    No Flush

    Unit Is Not Flushing At All

    First situation: No activation when the sensor is activated or the override button is depressed.

    1. Override button damaged – Replace override button (3 different types)
    2. Batteries are depleted – replace batteries
    3. Sensor module is compromised – Replace sensor module
    4. Solenoid is stuck closed – Replace solenoid assembly EBV-136-A

    Second situation: Sensor does not activate, override button does activate

    1. Sensor window is scratched – replace sensor window
    2. Sensing malfunction – replace sensor module

    Sensor Activation Issues Due to Improper Installation

    Sensor Does Not Activate, Override Button Activates

    For sensor activation issues, consider whether this issue has always occurred or not (since installation). If yes, then we need to look at the installation.

    1. Rough-in too low, sensor is detecting front of toilet – Raise the supply or “elbow up” the stop, or reduce sensor range (older units that cannot self-adapt only)
    2. Sensor not centered properly – Re-orient sensor until pointed straight forward
    3. Reflection issue – Reduce sensor range (older units that cannot self-adapt only)
    4. Rubber strip (wiper) missing from inside the cover – Contact Sloan Technical Support

    No Evacuation

    No Evacuation When Flushed (either sensor or override button)

    1. Low pressure – Address plumbing system deficiencies
    2. Low consumption or urinal diaphragm installed in older closet – Install correct gpf diaphragm
    3. Short flushing (perforated diaphragm) – Replace diaphragm
    4. Locking ring not properly tightened (DFB – dual filter bypass diaphragm) – Tighten the locking ring

    Leaking from Top-Mount Unit

    Water or Mineral Deposits Showing Underneath the Head of the Unit

    1. Locking ring not tightened enough – Turn off water supply at stop, loosen and then re-tighten locking ring
    2. Diaphragm Assembly compromised – Replace diaphragm assembly

    Water leaking from threads above or below the locking ring

    1. Solenoid leaking – Turn off water supply at stop, hand tighten solenoid or replace solenoid

    Inconsistent Flush

    Flush Duration is Randomly Normal, Long, or Short

    1. Pressure fluctuation within the facility – Check plumbing system pressure and flow capacity

    Sloan Field & Tech Support Maintenance Recommendations

    From Dominick, Sloan’s Senior Field & Technical Support Technician

    • Do not use pipe dope
    • Do not use Teflon tape
    • Tighten couplings and covers by hand, then “snug” with a wrench
    • Use a fixed smooth-jawed wrench
    • Avoid compression wrenches
    • Carry 100% silicone grease
    • Clean threads with a brass bristle brush
    • Wet the gaskets before installing
    • Clean with soap and water only

    You will find the repair parts needed to service the units in this article on their repair parts pages listed below:


    How to fix water hammer or resonance causing loud noise

    Read below for information on how to fix:

    1. WATER HAMMER: A loud bang in your pipes after a fill valve shuts off. Water hammer can be caused by worn or damaged faucet washers as well as heavy build up of minerals and rust inside shut off valves (located on the walls of your home).

    2. RESONANCE: The rapid banging or “Jack Hammering” sound in a pipe during the fill process, during the flush.

    Follow these steps to try and resolve water hammer:

    1. Shut off water supply to the house at the main.
    2. Open all the cold water faucets, start with the highest faucet (2nd or 3rd floor) and work to your lowest faucet (first or basement floor).
    3. Flush all the toilets in the home.
    4. Let water drain from open faucets. Wait approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
    5. Turn on water supply to the house at the main.
    6. Wait 5 to 10 minutes to let faucets regain a strong stream and flow water.
    7. Close all the cold-water faucets starting with the lowest faucet (first or basement floor) and to the highest faucet (2nd or 3rd floor).
    8. Toilets will automatically refill.
    9. Once all faucets are closed and toilets filled, flush toilets to check for water hammer.

    If this does not resolve your issue, try these tips:

    1. Reduce flow from shut off valves (wall or floor valves).
    2. If you are not using a regulated fill valve (a toilet valve that regulates flow into the toilet tank), try replacing the toilet fill valve with a Fluidmaster PerforMAX® Fill Valve.
    3. If reduction of shut off valve does not resolve issue, Fluidmaster recommends calling a plumbing professional to help resolve the issue.

    If you need to replace any of the toilet parts, why not get Fluidmaster’s Everything Kit includes everything you need to fix your toilet in one purchase?

    If you are in the U.S. and have a 2″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 2″ Everything Kit

    If you are in the U.S. and have a 3″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 3″ Everything Kit

    If you are in Canada and have a 2″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 2″ Everything Kit

    If you are in Canada and have a 3″ flush valve toilet, we recommend both the 540AKR Flush Valve and the 400H Fill Valve


    Follow these steps to try and resolve resonant noise (resonance) or watch this video:

      1. Turn off water supply and flush the tank.
      2. Reach inside the tank with your right hand under the float cup and lift it up. With your right hand hold onto the gray shaft keeping the float cup all the way up. Do not allow the float cup to drop or valve shaft to turn.
      3. Place your left hand on the top of the valve cap and while placing your left hand thumb on the side of the arm coming out of the top. Turn the cap and lever counter clockwise 1/8th of a turn to unlock. You should be able to lift off the cap and lever from the valve body.
      4. Once the cap assembly has been removed inspect for debris on the seal (rubber disc with pin coming through) and also the valve portion still in the tank.
      5. Hold a cup upside down over the exposed opening of the valve and turn on the water supply full force for 10-15 seconds, allowing the pressure to free any debris inside the valve inlet.
      6. Reassemble the top of the valve by placing the cap arm next to the refill tube. To lock, press the cap down while turning it and the arm clockwise.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushingFlushing Debris from Toilet Fill Valve to Fix Water Hamer

    The bottom hand is lifting up on the float cup which raises the black arm under the top cap. The top hand is gripping the cap while the thumb is pressing on the raised lever arm.

    If cleaning out the water system does not resolve issue Fluidmaster recommends calling a plumbing professional to help resolve the issue.

    To download our free guide to fix common toilet problems please click here: Fluidmaster Toilet Repair Guide

    Posted on November 08 2017

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Troubleshooting a flushometer can be difficult. With different issues causing similar problems, it can be hard to identify the problem and best solution. Below are five videos covering the more common issues that occur with the Sloan G2 Flushometer. Each video quickly and thoroughly walks viewers through identifying a problem and the steps that need to be taken to solve it. We also cite specific tools that are needed to perform these repairs, different size options, and other useful tips relevant to the specific troubleshooting task shown within each video. If your problem is not listed below, check out our Sloan G2 Optima Plus Parts Breakdown and Troubleshooting Guide or the G2 Optima Plus Troubleshooting Flow Chart .

    As always, you can give us a call (800-442-6622 M-F 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.) and we can assist you with any questions you may have.

    Sloan G2 Flush Valve Volume Regulator Troubleshooting (2:02)

    Does your Sloan G2 flushometer currently have too much or too little water running through it? If this is happening, you probably have the wrong volume regulator installed. In the video below, we show you the different types of volume regulators, and how to remove and install the correct one for your unit.

    How to Clean Your G2 Diaphragm (2:03)
    Does your Sloan G2 Flushometer run continuously? Does the water not shut off? The issue could be that your diaphragm assembly is clogged with dirt or debris. In the video below, we show you the proper way to clean the diaphragm assembly in order to correct this problem.

    How to Replace a Sloan G2 Flushometer Solenoid (2:13)
    Has your Sloan G2 Flushometer stopped flushing? You might need to replace your solenoid. If you don’t hear a click after the valve has been activated, then it means that your solenoid needs replaced. Watch the video below to see how this simple procedure is done.

    How to Replace the Batteries in a Sloan G2 Flushometer (1:24)
    In this short video we show you how to simply replace the dead batteries in your Sloan G2 Flushometer. The dead batteries in the Electronic Module, could be causing your unit not to flush. Watch the brief video below to learn how!

    How to Adjust the Sensor Range on a Sloan G2 Flushometer (1:20)
    Another possible reason your flushometer is not flushing could be that the sensor range is either too long or too short. The factory setting is sufficient in most situations, but if you think the sensor range is the problem, in the short video below we will show you how to adjust the range properly. Please Note: Not all G2 electronic modules have the range adjustment feature, watch the video to learn how to tell if your unit is adjustable or not.

    Unclog a Toilet

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Turn Off the Water Supply to a Toilet

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Fix a Running Toilet

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Unclog a Toilet Without a Plunger

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Replace a Toilet Flapper

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    Fix a Slow Toilet

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    Fix a Toilet Seal

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    Detect Toilet Leaks

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    Fix a Stuck Toilet Handle

    Articles about Toilet Repairs

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Unclog a Toilet

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Turn Off the Water Supply to a Toilet

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    Fix a Running Toilet

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    Plunge a Toilet

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    Fix a Loose Toilet Seat

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    Unclog a Toilet Without a Plunger

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    How to Fix a Toilet Flushometer That Keeps Flushing

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    Fix a Leaky Toilet Tank

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    Replace a Toilet Flapper

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    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Fix a Slow Toilet

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    Fix Ghost Flushing

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Fix a Toilet Seal

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Replace a Toilet Tank

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    Fix a Stuck Toilet Handle

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Calculate the Cost for a Plumber to Fix a Leaky Toilet

    Suppose you are a tenant and live in a big building. You face clogged toilets many times. But you always maintain your bathroom. That puzzled you how you ended up with this disaster. So for your kind information, you are not the reason for this issue every time. If you know about this situation in detail and want a solution, I think this article will help you out.

    Why does your upstairs toilet get clogged frequently?

    I know you don’t want to see a clogged toilet in the morning. When you accidentally stop the drainage system of your bathroom, it is blocked, and after that, you can’t flush anything into it. When you live in an apartment in any building, you also face this type of issue there. And sometimes you have clogging problems with others’ faults. So if you don’t live on the ground floor but face a clogged toilet, sometimes you are not the reason for this clogging issue. If your upstairs toilet keeps clogging frequently, there are many reasons behind this like:

    Fault in S-blocked:

    An S-shaped pipe is usually attached to the toilet’s bottom. It is mainly used to prevent a bad smell in the restroom. You can face the clogged toilet when somehow this pipe got stuck and didn’t empty appropriately after using it. You make it worse if you throw hair, pad, etc., in the bathroom. But you can unclog the toilet by using a plunger or other tools. If you fail, then call the plumber to fix the issue.

    Poor flushing issue:

    This time, low flush systems are top-rated to save some water from waste and extra utility charges. And that’s why it is famous as a saving type of bathroom in their washroom. But in the meantime, this toilet creates a problem because of low water pressure. The old version low flush toilet needs little power to push the human waste into the drains. But the bathroom doesn’t meet that much pressure in flush, and then it can’t clean the bowl, and the trash gets stuck there. And you end up with a blocked toilet that is not usable.

    Water issue:

    In many places, water is not pure at all. And I think everyone faces this widespread problem. But it’s a matter of assurance that This water is not dangerous for humans to drink or use but is a bother for daily purposes. The impurities create a calcified or white hard mark in the restroom after you use it daily. It’s not easy to clean the toilet, and it also narrows the gap between water and waste pipes daily. So after some years, you face this clogged toilet.

    Water level issue:

    For a successful flush, there’s a need for a quantity of water that creates enough water force to clean the toilet bowl immediately. If the water level of your tank is low, then the flush system didn’t meet the strength, and waste is stacked at the drainage pipe, and it didn’t make it to the sewer system. In the end, you got a clogged toilet.

    Blockage in daring line:

    Sometimes, the old drain is behind the clogged toilet. Because of the age of the drain line used opposite it, it may continuously block when you try to flush regular waste with toilet tissue. So when you throw any hair, paper, or litter into it, you make it worse.

    Throwing hard objects in the toilet:

    Flushing other objects into the bathroom are the most common reason behind clogging toilets. Many times kids love to experiment and throw many hard things into it. And sometimes adults also did that, throwing food, sanitary napkins, cats or dog litter, and any make-up wastage into the toilet. But the drainage system only flushes the human waste into others. And it clogs the toilet very quickly.

    This reason is the basic villain behind any clogged toilet. There are also many other reasons you may find for this issue. And as the solution, you must know how to maintain a bathroom and also, if there is a kid over there, educate them on how to use this properly. It also reduces the rate of clogging the toilet.

    How to fix a clogged upstairs toilet?

    Up there, you know why the toilet keeps clogging. But sometimes, you end up with a clogged toilet without doing anything. It may take you like a mystery if you live upstairs in the building. But this is not a difficult thing, and yes, you are not the culprit behind this occurrence. First, check if the toilet vent is opening on the roof or not. Most of the time, the duct becomes blocked because it’s open at the top of the roof, and sometimes it is also connected with your sewer system inside the home. So when you suspect the vent system is blocked for any reason, check it from the roof and talk to a plumber to fix this. For a DIY fix, you can follow some easy steps to keep your upstairs toilet clog-free.

    • You can use a plunger or toilet snake to unclog the toilet
    • Adjust the water level correctly
    • Never flush any unusual thing like hair, food, metal, etc
    • Keep your drainage pipe clear
    • Replace the flush valve and flapper to get a powerful flush

    Another reason for this problem is if the toilet is an older low flush model. Sometimes all drainage systems are interconnected in the building in a row on every floor. If one toilet clogs by accident, you also face the issue of that by any chance. That’s why try to maintain your toilet and ask everybody to do it properly.

    Final Thought

    Clogging is a very bothersome stage for everyone. So if you and another family who live in the building take care of this and maintain it properly, I think you may not face any issue with that. And if you face any clogging problem, you can solve it on your own with the help of a plunger or baking soda, vinegar solution, etc. Otherwise, you may contact the landlord and call the plumber to help you out of this trouble.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    The Spruce / Michelle Becker

    Your home toilet consists of two major parts: the bowl unit that rests on the floor, and the upper tank that holds the water that is released each time you flush the toilet. The bowl is little more than a solid piece of porcelain drain fixture with no moving parts at all. With only a few exceptions, there aren’t many repairs that involve the bowl. The tank, on the other hand, is where two important valves are located, as well as the handle that initiates the flush action. Here is where most of the toilet repairs occur. You might be surprised to learn that most toilet problems are fairly easy to fix yourself.

    Newer style toilets can differ greatly in terms of the flushing design and parts. It’s always a good idea to know the make and model of your toilet before you start to work on it. The manufacturer’s name is usually stamped into the porcelain, and the model appears on the underside of the tank cover.

    Before you can begin repairs, it’s important to have a basic understanding of how your toilet tank works.

    How the Toilet Tank Works

    The toilet tank’s function is to hold a quantity of water until you flush the toilet, at which time the water in the tank rushes down through an opening in the bottom of the tank and into the bowl, forcing waste out of the bowl and into the home’s drain and sewer lines. There are two major toilet parts in the tank that make this possible: the flush valve and the fill valve.

    The toilet fill valve is the mechanism that fills the tank with water. It is also known as a “ballcock” or a “refill valve.” The fill valve is usually located to the left side of the tank as you look down from above with the tank lid removed. Fill valves comes in four basic variations:

    • Plunger-type ballcock: the oldest type, usually made of brass
    • Diaphragm-type ballcock: older styles may be brass, newer types are plastic
    • Float cup fill valve: a newer design, usually made of plastic
    • Floatless fill valve: another newer design; not allowed by some codes

    Whatever the design, the fill valve works to automatically open the water supply valve when the water level falls in the tank during a flush, then shuts off automatically when the water level rises to a specific level in the tank. Depending type of design, the valve is operated either by a floating ball or a float cup that moves up and down with the water level in the tank. Floatless fill valves operate by sensing water pressure at the bottom of the tank.

    If you remove the tank lid and watch what happens inside the tank during the flush cycle, you will quickly understand the mechanics of how a toilet flushes.

    ATTENTION INSTALLERS: With the exception of the control stop inlet, DO NOT USE pipe sealant or plumbing grease on any valve component or coupling! To protect the chrome or special finish of Sloan flushometers, DO NOT USE toothed tools to install or service these valves. Use the Sloan A-50 Super-Wrench™ or other smooth-jawed wrench to secure couplings. Regulations for low consumption fixtures (1.6 gpf/6.0 Lpf closets and 1.0 gpf/3.8 Lpf urinals) prohibit use of higher flush volumes.

    Urinals (EL-1500 Sensor)

    When the sensor detects a user, a slow flashing red light appears in the sensor window. After eight (8) to ten (10) seconds, the light flashes rapidly to indicate that the sensor is armed. When the sensor no longer detects a user, the sensor immediately activates the solenoid valve after a 0.5 second delay.

    Water Closets (EL-1500-L Sensor)

    Detection and activation are the same as for the urinal EL-1500 sensor (ABOVE) except when the sensor no longer detects an user, the sensor activates the solenoid valve after a three (3) second delay.

    The EL-1500 urinal and EL-1500-L closet self-adaptive sensors are equipped with a “Sentinel Flush” feature. These units automatically activate the solenoid every twenty-four (24) hours after the last user.

    1. Valve does not function (red light does not flash when user steps in front of sensor).
      • A. No power is being supplied to sensor. Ensure that the main power is turned “ON”. Check transformer, leads and connections. Repair or replace as necessary.
      • B. EL-1500/EL-1500-L sensor is not operating. Replace sensor.

    2. Valve does not function (red light flashes when user steps in front of sensor).
      INDICATOR: The red light stops flashing when user steps away and the valve makes a “clicking” sound but does not flush.
      • A. No water is being supplied to the valve. Make certain that water supply is turned “ON” and the control stop is open.
      • B. EL-128-A cartridge is fouled or jammed. Turn electronic power to valve “OFF” (failure to do so could result in damage to the solenoid coil). Remove the solenoid operator from the valve and remove the EL-128-A cartridge. Clean and/or repair as necessary.

    INDICATOR: The red light stops flashing when user steps away but the valve does NOT make a “clicking” sound and does NOT flush.

    • A. EL-163-A solenoid shaft assembly is fouled or jammed. Turn electronic power to valve “OFF” (failure to do so could result in damage to the solenoid coil). Remove EL-101 or EL-166 nut from the solenoid operator. Remove the coil from the solenoid operator. Use a spanner wrench or pliers to remove the EL-163-A solenoid shaft assembly from valve. Clean and/or replace as necessary. Be sure to replace plunger spring when reassembling solenoid shaft assembly.

    INDICATOR: The red light flashes three (3) fast flashes, three (3) slow flashes then three (3) fast flashes (“S-O-S”) and continues to repeat this cycle even when user steps out of the sensor’s detection range.

    Welcome to the We are the best online (strictly) PLUMBING advice, help, dyi, educational, and informational plumbing forum. Questions and discussions about toilets, sinks, faucets, drainage, venting, water heating, showers, pumps, and other exclusively PLUMBING related issues. Please refrain from asking or discussing legal questions, pricing, where to purchase a product, or any business issues, or for contractor referrals, or any other questions or issues not specifically related to plumbing. Keep all posts positive and absolutely no advertising. Our site is completely free, without ads or pop-ups. We do not sell your information. We are made possible by:

    Folks, I am posting here in the hope that someone can help me. I am completely unfamiliar with plumbing, and am groping in the dark here.

    My problem is as follows:

    I have a flushometer toilet. A little while ago, our building shut off the water to do some repairs. When I got back home after the water was turned back on and went to flush the toilet, the water would not stop running. I jiggled the flush lever thinking that it was stuck, but it wasn’t, and the water continued to run. I called in the super, who shut off the water using the control valve, and then replaced a valve that is located in the pipe below the flushing mechanism. This did not do the trick. The super than said that the whole mechanism (basically all the piping from the toilet bowl to the wall) would need to be replaced. I am hoping to avoid that if possible.

    My flushometer is probably an old one. It does not have a very wide top, which makes me think it may be a piston type (although I may be wrong). If I remove the cover at the top, there is a vertical screw, which seems to control the power of the flush. When I fiddle with it, and release the control valve, I can get the toilet to flush, but the water will not stop flowing – it will just flush, re-fill with water, flush again, etc. The vertical screw is mounted in a top piece made of yellow metal (copper?) I tried to remove it to see if the piston or diaphragm is below it, but it will not turn or move in any way.

    Thank you in advance for your replies, hoping I can get this fixed.

    There are basically two brands of “old” flushometers, so we would need a picture of yours. Piston style are notorious for “sticking”, and usually the only good repair is to change the piston, rather than repair it.

    This is a photo from some other website, but the unit looks like mine (the shut off valve is different, but everything else looks identical).

    I managed to get the top (copper colored) cover off. Inside, there was a unit which had SLOAN G-77 written on it. I think that this might be a Sloan Gem or Gem 2 unit per what I saw online.

    see: 4D on last page

    Retired U.A. Local 1 & 638
    “Measure Twice & Cut Once”

    The piston assembly has a white gasket on the bottom, called a Piston Seat. The old one should be removed from the inside body of the valve and the new one must snap in flatly. Using the wrong piston will present other issues. Ge9m 2 uses a G-1007A for the 3.5 gpf or G-1016A for the 1.6 gpf.

    for additional info you can call Sloan Customer Service at 800-982-5839

    Thanks for the info! Is there any way to find out if my toilet is a 1.6 or 3.5 Gpf? Or is it more of a choice – I can pick whichever one I want depending on how much water I want each flush to contain?

    You could use either pistons, but if you have a 3.5 gpf piston and replace it with a 1.6 gpf piston assembly you will be less than 1/2 the full water your toilet requires. This could cause other issues and CLOGS.

    Thank you to everyone for your help! I removed the piston and fiddled around with it, and it looks like it was just stuck. It started working properly, and now the toilet works again. I might still need to buy a new one since if it got stuck once it might again, but at least now I know what to do.

    I have just spent 2 (nearly) full days trying to salvage an old (1950’s) 3.5g Flushometer. Started with a full rebuild kit, no help.Bought and installed a new spud, and reset the damned toilet, bought another ‘cover’ for the diaphragm (plastic, goes inside the bell housing). No help.
    Just got off the phone with Sloan tech support, and with all the q&a that went with it, I decided to order a Complete valve assembly (part #3910107).Seems my problem was a gift of a plumber who reset the toilet to clean out the drain. His reinstall was shabby, cross-threaded fittings, patch with teflon tape, and overstressed install.
    Sloan says the new cover was not adequate to the old diaphragm/bell housing assembly.

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    Last Updated on January 18, 2022 by toilethaven

    How do you tell your toilet flush valve is bad?

    A toilet flush valve is the opening at the bottom of the toilet tank where water leaves the tank and enters the bowl during flushing. A toilet flapper sits on top of the flush valve to prevent the water from continuously running into the bowl when the toilet is not being flushed.

    To replace a toilet flush valve, turn off water to the toilet, drain the tank, disconnect the water supply line then remove the tank. Remove the old flush valve and install the new one then put the tank back on the bowl. Connect the water supply and flush the toilet. Check for leaks between the tank and the bowl.

    To remove a toilet flush valve, remove the toilet tank and place it on its side. Slide out the tank to bowl gasket then loosen the flush valve mounting nut using slip-joint pliers. Disconnect the flapper from the flush valve and lift it out of the tank.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Toilet flush valves are not universal. They vary in size between 2 and 4 inches. Apart from that, there are different types of flush valves like the standard flush valve, canister-style flush valves, dual flush valves and flushometers.

    However, for toilets with the same size and type of flush valve, their flush valves are universal.

    When you have a running toilet, most of the time the flapper or the fill valve are the problem but sometimes the flush valve is the culprit.

    Replacing a toilet flush valve is not hard but it is definitely time consuming. You will first need to remove the toilet tank and then install it back after replacing the flush valve.

    If your toilet is continuously running even after replacing the flapper and fill valve, it is a sign that you have bad/crack flush valve. Water will slowly trickle inside the bowl and after sometime followed by ghost flushing.

    A toilet tank to bowl gasket is installed on the outside of the flush valve where the toilet tank sits on the bowl. This prevents water from leaking between the tank and the bowl.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Most people prefer to change this gasket also as they replace the flush valve. It is inexpensive and also comes with new toilet tank bolts which you should also replace.

    Alternatively, you could buy a complete toilet tank repair kit that contains a flush valve, toilet tank to bowl gasket, toilet tank bolts, flapper, fill valve and toilet float. This should serve you for 5 years or more.

    Toilet Flush Valve Types

    There are 4 main types of flush valves. These are:

    1. Standard flush valves
    2. Canister flush valves
    3. Flushometers
    4. Dual-flush valves

    In these post we will focus on the standard flush valves. If you have a Kohler toilet you most likely have a canister type flush valve. Check out how to fix it in this post

    On the other hand if you have a dual flush toilet, your toilet tank looks different from a single flush toilet tank. See how to fix it in this post.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Most flush valves are universal but they have to be of the same size. Flush valves vary in size from 2 to 4 inches. Most toilets have a 2-inch flush valve but modern low flow toilets have larger flush valves and an even larger trapway to give the toilet a powerful flush while using less water.

    An example of this is the American Standard Champion 4. It has a 4-inch flush with a consumption of 1.6 gallons per flush. It is among the best flushing toilet.

    How do you know the size of your flush valve? Some people use a tennis ball to compare it with a 2-inch flush valve and a soft ball to a 3-inch flush valve.

    The best way to tell your toilet’s flush valve size is to search its name and model number on the manufacturer’s website. You will find a specification sheet with all of your toilet dimensions. The toilet model number is usually stamped on the inside of the toilet tank.

    Once you have purchased the correct size of the flush valve you are ready to replace it. Gather together all the materials needed.

    Materials Needed

    • New Flush valve
    • Long screwdriver
    • Adjustable wrench
    • Channel lock pliers
    • Sponge
    • Rag or towel
    • Hacksaw blade (optional)
    • WD-40 (optional)

    How to Replace a Toilet Flush Valve

    Replacing a toilet flush valve involves the following steps:

    • Empty the toilet tank
    • Remove the toilet tank
    • Remove the old flush valve
    • Install the new flush valve
    • Install the toilet tank
    • Test the new flush valve

    Step 1: Drain the Toilet Tank

    Step 2: Remove the Toilet tank

    Step 2: Remove the Old Flush Valve

    Step 3: Install the New Flush Valve

    Step 4: Install the Toilet Tank

    • Lift off the toilet tank and guide the bolts through the toilet bowl mounting holes.
    • The toilet tank bolts will protrude from underneath the toilet tank. Put in a rubber washer, a steel washer and a nut on each bolt.
    • To keep the toilet level, tighten the bolts alternatingly initially with your hands before using a wrench.
    • Again, care must be taken not to tighten the bolts too much that the tank is cracked.
    • Put the toilet flapper on top of the flash valve opening and hook its ears on the overflow tube’s pegs.
    • Connect the refill tube back to the overflow tube.
    • The top of the overflow tube should be about ½-1 inch below the flush lever. If it’s longer than that cut it off with a hacksaw. This will prevent your toilet tank from overflowing.
    • Reconnect the toilet water supply line back to the tank. Again, this should only be hand tight.

    Step 5: Test the New Flush Valve

    • Open the shut off valve and let the toilet tank fill with water.
    • Check for any leaks between the tank and the bowl. This will tell you if the toilet tank to bowl gasket is sealing properly.
    • Flush the toilet a couple of times. If you had a running toilet, it should now stop. To be sure the toilet is not dripping even the least amount of water, wait a few minutes and hold a toilet paper below the rim of the toilet. The toilet paper should stay dry.
    • If you are pleased with everything, put your toilet tank lid back on and enjoy your throne moving forward.

    And that is how to replace a toilet flush valve. If you would like to replace the toilet flapper and/or the fill valve, check out this very informative posts


    Determining your toilet’s noise and how to fix it

    This article on toilet making noise defines simple solutions for:

    1. GHOST FLUSHING: This can happen intermittently, cycling every few minutes or every few hours

    2. FILL VALVE HISS: A noise that is constant and sounds like forced air moving through the toilet.

    3. WATER RESONANCE: (constant thumping) A noise you hear when the toilet is flushed and the toilet is running water during its flush cycle

    This refill sound is alerting you that your toilet is losing water, either internally (if there’s no water on the floor or exterior of toilet) or externally leaking if you see water outside the toilet.

    Internal Water Loss:

    1. Check refill tube first: If refill tube is inserted or shoved into the overflow pipe, remove it and reattach clipping the tube to the overflow pipe. This will keep the tube from entering the overflow pipe and stop the leak.
    2. Clean bottom of the tank and flapper area and replace flapper. To determine which size flapper you need, please click here: Determine size of toilet flapper.
      If you need a 2″ flapper, we recommend the 502 flapper; if you need a 3 ” flapper, we recommend either the 513A flapper or the 5403 flapper
    3. Replace flush valve drain (last resort if 1 and 2 do not resolve the issue).

    External Water Loss:

    1. Water draining from bottom of tank around fill valve and water supply connection: Leaks coming from the bottom of the fill valve that have been in use for a long period of time (not new installations) should be removed along with the supply line and replaced.
    2. Water draining from the bottom of the tank from the fill valve and water supply connection: Remove fill valve and clean bottom of tank both inside and outside. Make sure the shank washer is placed on fill valve first (it is designed to seal tank from the inside of tank) and install valve. Hand tighten the fill valve lock nut. If using water supply line older than 5 years replace supply line.
    3. Leaks coming from under the tank onto the toilet bowl: These leaks indicate failed bolt seals. The tank to bowl gasket and toilet bolts with washers should be replaced.

    Watch this video to fix ghost flushing of your toilet:

    This noise is alerting you that water is constantly passing through the fill valve and going into the tank.
    Read more below or or watch this video:

    Here are some steps for removing the top cap and flushing out debris from the fill valve:

    1. Turn off water supply and flush the tank.
    2. Reach inside the tank with your right hand under the float cup and lift it up. With your right hand hold onto the gray shaft keeping the float cup all the way up. Do not allow the float cup to drop or valve shaft to turn.
    3. Place your left hand on the top of the valve cap and while placing your left hand thumb on the side of the arm coming out of the top. Turn the cap and arm counter clockwise 1/8th of a turn to unlock. You should be able to lift off the cap and lever from the valve body.
    4. Once the cap assembly has been removed inspect for debris on the seal (rubber disc with pin coming through) and also the valve portion still in the tank.
    5. Hold a cup upside down over the exposed opening of the valve and turn on the water supply full force for 10-15 seconds, allowing the pressure to free any debris inside the valve inlet.
    6. Reassemble the top of the valve by placing the cap arm next to the refill tube. To lock, press the cap down while turning it and the arm clockwise.
      How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    7. The bottom hand is lifting up on the float cup which raises the black arm under the top cap. The top hand is gripping the cap while the thumb is pressing on the raised lever arm.

    Watch this video on how to remove and replace cap assembly of the fill valve:

    This noise is alerting you that your shut off valve at the wall has an obstruction in the flow path of the water. Here are some solutions:

    a). If you are based in the U.S., we recommend using a regulated fill valve to stop noise like our 400AH PerforMAX® Fill Valve or the 400H PerforMAX® Toilet Fill Valve

    If you are based in Canada, we recommend using the 400H PerforMAX Toilet Fill Valve

    PerforMAX® fill valves come with a regulator built into the valve to slow down the incoming water. By reducing the speed by the incoming water we can stop the resonance noise that is occurring.

    b). If a PerforMAX® Fill Valve does not stop the problem then the buildup of debris in your shut off valve is so severe we recommend replacing the shut off valve at the wall.

    c). If you need to replace any of the toilet parts, why not get Fluidmaster’s Everything Kit includes everything you need to fix your toilet in one purchase?

    If you are in the U.S. and have a 2″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 2″ Everything Kit

    If you are in the U.S. and have a 3″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 3″ Everything Kit

    If you are in Canada and have a 2″ flush valve toilet, we recommend the 2″ Everything Kit

    If you are in Canada and have a 3″ flush valve toilet, we recommend both the 540AKR Flush Valve and the 400H Fill Valve

    To download our free guide to fix common toilet problems please click here: Fluidmaster Toilet Repair Guide

    Running Toilet?

    Do you have a constant or intermittently running toilet? Let’s troubleshoot this and get it fixed. If your toilet keeps running, there are a couple of potential issues your toilet may have. The first, and most common, is a leaky flapper. Different parts of the country deal with different types of water. From harsh municipality chemicals to well water, all wreak havoc on the life of a toilet flapper. The most common, and quickest fix is to replace your leaking toilet flapper. The second common cause is due to a malfunctioning fill valve. If your fill valve has an external float, build-up can cause the float to stick and prevent your fill valve from turning off or turning on.

    Choose from the following options:

    1. Learn how to identify your toilet symptoms – Video and step-by-step instructions below.
    2. Click find part to find the correct replacement flapper and fill valve for your toilet.
    3. If this doesn’t quite describe your toilet issue, choose from the other common troubleshooting topics.

    Does this describe your toilet issue?

    Step 1

    Check out the video to learn how to fix your running toilet.

    Step 2

    Video didn’t help? Check out the step-by-step instructions below.

    Step 3

    You can always give our Technical Support team a call too. We are here and happy to help! U.S.A: (262) 763-2434 & outside U.S.A.: (800) 528-3553. Available: Monday through Friday, 7:30 AM to 5:00 PM CST.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    STEP 1: More times than not, your flapper is the cause to your running toilet. As the flapper slowly leaks, it causes the fill valve to do it’s job and that’s why you hear your fill valve running. Test if your flapper is leaking by marking the water level of your tank with a pencil.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    STEP 2: Turn your water supply off. Wait for a minimum of 25 minutes. If your water level drops below the pencil mark, you have a leak in your tank.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    STEP 3: Leave the water off for a couple hours and see where the water level drops to. If the water level drops to the flapper, your flapper is leaking and needs to be replaced. If it drops to a point on your overflow tube or your tank drained completely, your flush valve needs to be replaced.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    STEP 4: If your tank is not leaking, but your toilet is constantly running or water is rising into flush valve overflow tube, your fill valve is malfunctioning and needs to be replaced or serviced. Did you know Korky replace old technology too?

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    STEP 5: If this didn’t solve your running toilet issue, maybe it’s time to service your fill valve. This is a quick disassemble of the fill valve, without removing it from your toilet and cleaning it out to ensure it works properly. Check out how: here.

    Beside this, why does my toilet splash when I flush?

    If the water in the bowl is very low, it will glug and splash, looking like bubbles. Low water in the bowl can be caused by the fill valve hose not correctly positioned into the overflow tube. The flush time may be too short or you may have siphoning occurring, which causes low water in the bowl.

    Beside above, how far does toilet water spray when flushed? While there may be some academic discussion about how far water droplets from your toilet spray when you flush, two feet to twenty feet, there is an average consensus that the outer reaches of your fecal shower are six feet or less.

    Also to know, how do I stop my toilet from splashing?

    The key is laying a piece of toilet paper over the surface of the water. It’ll slow down the falling poop and cause it to pierce the water’s surface at more of an angle — and in doing so, eliminate the problem of poop splash forever.

    Is it bad if toilet water splashes on you?

    This can happen when germs enter the urethra during sex, unwashed hands touching genitals, or even when toilet water back splashes.” Yeah, you can get a UTI from the bacteria in toilet water back splash. Shudders. If you think you have a UTI, but you‘re not sure how you got it, don’t worry.

    One of the most perplexing plumbing issues has to do with the toilet when it’s flushing by itself. If you’re a homeowner or simply someone with a toilet that is flushing by itself, it could be the indication of a much more serious issue. Because of that, it’s very critical that you keep the following information in mind when trying to assess whether or not a toilet is actually properly flushing or not. Too many people assume that the reason a toilet flushes is due to the complications in the plumbing construction. This is actually not true.

    When it comes to automatic flushing there are several possibilities, but without a doubt, it’s something that can easily be addressed without much issue at all. Should you doubt that this is true, you’ll also have to consult some others because overall, there should be no reason that this happens. There are plenty of complications in the code that might prevent people from assuming whatever happens due to the reasons outlined in most plumbing manuals, but it’s usually a simple diagnosis, and similarly speaking, it’s usually a simple fix as well.

    Faulty Flush Switch

    When you press the switch on the toilet to make it flush, this is called the flush switch. This switch is there to engage the toilet into flushing whatever water is in the bowl. When this happens, the septic tanks flushes itself and the water pressure causes massive suction. However, sometimes, this switch can get too sensitive and begin flushing on its own. If your toilet is just blindly flushing without any reason at all, this usually means that the flush switch is faulty and needs to be engaged properly. It’s not uncommon that this happens for a lot of people, so if it’s something that you can think of, then you’re definitely at risk for this getting more serious. However, if you have a plumber or toilet tech take a look at the unit, they can most likely repair it and get it working again.

    Imbalance in Water Pressure

    Water pressure is something that you have to be very aware of when constructing a toilet or flush mechanic. This is something that plenty of people have trouble with, but rather than being at fault or uncomfortable, you can rest assured that this is a simple fix if you decide to make the effort necessary to repair everything that is broken.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Find all of the Sloan tools needed to service your flushometers, perform ongoing maintenance, and replace broken parts quickly and easily with help from this flushometer tool diagram. This diagram shows you which tools are used in various areas of flush valves and the descriptions below describe how to the tools are used, and on which parts they are needed, and what models they can be used on.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    This tool is simple – it removes spuds. This heavy-duty spud wrench is rugged and adjustable, and works for most any spud with a capacity of 1”-4”. View the Spud Wrench in our online store.
    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    This tool is designed to remove top mount Sensor Activated Flushometer Head Assemblies. Using this tool to remove the head assembly instead of using another wrench will prevent marking or damaging the unit. View the Heavy Duty Strap Wrench in our online store.

    At Sloan Repair, we carry all of the tools needed to service flush valves, faucets, and other fixtures. View our plumbing tools page to see which tools are listed online and place your order, or give us a call to inquire about any tools that you need but do not see listed on our site by calling our toll-free phone number at 800-442-6622 Mon-Fri 7:30am-5pm EST

    Are you excited to read the topic Does Roto-Rooter Fix Toilets?

    Tired of having a clogged toilet? Does your toilet keep lacking the flushing power, or does it leak way too much that your water bill is digging a hole in your wallet? With broken toilets inviting unhealthy lifestyles and health hazards, not to mention, the inevitable rise in the water supply bills and the underlying result of such wastage results in the depletion of a natural resource that we need to save. Or are you just looking for some new styles of toilets to fit your personal space in the bathroom?

    You don’t have to worry about that anymore! Yes, Roto-Rooter can fix toilets and have the perfect solution for every one of your toilet and plumbing problems, available 24/7 at your service just at the click of a button or a call.

    History of Roto-Rooter

    • Roto-Rooter Plumbing & Water Cleanup (formerly known as Roto-Rooter Plumbing &Drain Service) is a plumbing business based in Cincinnati.
    • They provide numerous services including toilet repair, sewer & drain service, water cleanup to their customers residentially or commercially.
    • They are based in the United States, founded in 1935 by Samuel Blanc after getting inspired by a clogged sewer at his son’s apartment.
    • He made a sewer the cleaning machine out of a washing machine motor, wheels from a little wagon, and a cable, and the invention was hence named, “Roto-Rooter”.
    • And as they say, the rest is history, and now Roto-Rooter is one of the biggest providers of plumbing services in both the United States as well as Canada.

    Roto-Rooters Services & Charges:

    Well-known for their plumbing services, what exactly does Roto-Rooter have to offer? The cost of Roto-Rooter services is determined by the amount of work that has to be done. Where you reside may also have an influence on pricing. Here is the complete list to help you out :

    Toilet Clog Repair, Leaking Toilet Repair, Running Toilet Repair

    How annoying is it to wake up to a clogged toilet when you’re in dire need of using it? Not to mention, it’s one of the most, if not the most common problems. A running toilet is also a lot more annoying than a leaking toilet daily. It does not just make your bathroom tiles slippery and gross, but also potentially waste gallons of water every passing day. Roto-Rooter costs between $160 and 450 for basic plumbing issues including leaky faucets, line repairs, and clogged drains.

    Toilet Repair, Flushing System Repair

    If you have a problem with your toilet or any of the flushing system elements, Roto-Rooter plumbers will normally charge between $50 and $300, depending on how long it takes to fix it.

    However, identical services can set you back a bit more than $170.

    Toilet Installation and Replacement, Commercial Toilet Installation Service

    This is one of the most bothersome things, just as renovating a home is, installing a whole new toilet isn’t the easiest home improvement task out there. Roto-Rooter consists of professional plumbers who recommend you the best commercial toilet, urinal, or bidet that goes well together with your bathroom setting, helping you achieve long-term, durable, dependable, and valuable goals.

    Commercial Toilet Repair and Plumbing Services

    • In today’s world, commercial toilets and urinals are one the most important features of a business or a workplace. Immediate repairing is important also for the safety of your patrons and employees as wastewater is associated with potential health risks and unsanitary conditions.
    • Roto-Rooter plumbers can solve any type of commercial toilet problems, including leaking toilets, clogged toilets, running toilets, cracked tanks and bowls, toilets with non-functional flushes, or water pressure issues.
    • They also go as far as repairing, replacing, and relocating pipes that are associated with commercial toilets.
    • The ultimate price can range from $500 to $20,000, if not more, depending on the complexity of the project, the length and depth of the pipes, and the cost of replacement pipe parts.
    • Roto-Rooter will charge you a lot more if you require help replacing broken pipes. The exact cost will be determined by the job’s intricacy, the length and depth of the pipes, and the cost of replacement pipe components, but it is likely to be in the thousands of dollars.


    Although the cost may appear to be greater than what a typical plumber would charge, it will be well worth the investment since you will receive expert services that will last a long time. Roto-Rooter has licensed professionals who provide 24-hour emergency toilet repairing services to get your toilets running as soon as possible. There may be many problems that cause a running toilet issue in your home, and it’s important to address them as fast as possible to avoid unwanted trouble. Roto-Rooters don’t charge you any extra fee for nights, weekends, or holidays, so you can rest assured that your toilets are in the right hands!

    Last updated: Feb 24th, 2022 by Tyler White

    A clogged toilet is among the most frustrating things in any household. However, a weak flushing toilet can lead to a slow, stinky disaster that is a lot worse.

    Sometimes low water in the tank can cause a weak flushing toilet. Other times clogged holes around the rim can lead to a weak flush performance. Either way, here are some quick tips to help get rid of the problem and boost the flushing power of your toilet.

    Table of Contents

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Why is a Powerful Flush Important?

    Since a powerful flush forces waste down the drain in one go and stop it from coming back up, it is essential to keep your toilet clean and hygienic. A strong flush also saves you from having to flush the toilet multiple times. Toilets that require multiple flushes are considered a weak and less desirable choice.

    Tips to Make a Toilet Flush Stronger

    Here are 5 ideas to make a toilet flush stronger.

    1. Test for Clogs

    Testing for toilet clogs is the first step toward making your toilet flush stronger. Even if your toilet is not completely clogged, waste build-up over the years can cause the toilet to clog partially, which can affect the flushing performance.

    Pour a gallon of water inside the bowl, and if the water struggles to flush, it means that the toilet is partially clogged. Use a plunger or snake to clear the pipes.

    2. Vinegar

    You can also use vinegar to improve the flushing efficiency of a toilet. A vinegar soak is a lot more proactive and effective than simply checking for clogs. First, open the tank lid and remove the fill hose that varies by toilet model. Now, put a funnel inside the overflow tube carefully, and fill it with vinegar.

    Leave it for a couple of hours then, put everything back the way it was. Flush the toilet and you should notice a significant difference in flushing power. The vinegar should quickly and gently remove the build-up in your toilet and pipes.

    3. Reset Your Water Level

    Toilets flush by releasing water from their tanks into the toilet bowls, then refilling the tank for the next flush. The tank knows that as soon as the floating rubber device drops below a fill line, it is going to need a refill so, it keeps filling the tank until the floating rubber reaches the fill line again.

    Open the tank and locate the float and the fill line. Activate the flush while keeping the lid open and watch the water release into the toilet bowl and then fill back up. Check to see if the tube stops refilling before the float reaches the fill line. If it does, the toilet won’t perform a fully efficient flush. Adjusting the float is pretty easy—you have to position it to connect it to the refill tube. Now, flush again and see if it is working correctly.

    4. Clean the Rim

    Water enters the toilet bowl through several jet holes that are located around the upper rim. These jets control the pressure and the flow of water as it flows into the bowl. The flow of the water creates the centrifugal force required to boost the efficiency of the flush.

    Over time, these jets tend to accumulate dirt and waste build-up, which leads to a partial clogging of these jets and making it harder for water to flow effectively. The water struggles to clear up the blockage inside the jets, which is why you get a weaker flush.

    Locate the jets under the rim. You will quickly notice build-up and clogging around the nozzles. To clear this up, use a heavily watered-down bleach or a vinegar solution and an old toothbrush or wire brush to scrub away the blockage and obstruction on the nozzles. When you are finished, clean the toilet thoroughly with bleach or a standard toilet bowl cleaner.

    5. Switch Toilet Models

    If nothing seems to increase the flushing power of the toilet, you can also consider buying a new toilet that is designed in a modern way. Pressure assist toilets consist of bladders that hold water under pressure. These toilets are more expensive than most traditional toilets but have a strong flushing performance.

    Vacuum-assisted toilets contain plastic tanks that generate suction action in the tank as the water releases while sucking the waste out of the bowl, generating a lot more flushing power than conventional toilets.

    You can also replace the pipes that connect to the toilet. When pipes get old and you haven’t replaced them in a long time, it can lead to a slower flushing performance. Changing the pipes is a small change that can make a huge difference.


    In conclusion, these few tips and tricks can help you increase your toilet’s flushing power and you won’t need a professional! A few adjustments here will prolong the life of your toilet and help maintain its top-notch performance.

    General Tips, How-To and DIY Guides

    Below is the parts breakdown for the Sloan G2 Flushometer. Scroll down and click on the part number(s) you need to repair your G2 Flushometer. Note that the Sloan G2 flushometer is the exact same item as the Sloan G2 Optima Plus flushometer, the naming convention has simply been shortened in recent years to just ‘G2’ instead of ‘G2 Optima Plus’. (If an item below does not have a link, we still carry it, but the item is not currently on our website. If you would like to order this item, give us a call.) View our G2 Troubleshooting Flow Charts for additional help troubleshooting your G2 flushometers.

    Quick Links

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    Troubleshooting Q&A

    Sensor flashes continuously only when user steps within range

    A) Unit in start-up mode

    A) No problem. This feature is active for the first ten minutes of operation.

    Valve doesn’t flush; sensor not picking up user

    A) Range too short.

    A) Increase the range.

    Learn how to complete sensor range adjustments on your G2 flushometer by watching our YouTube video: Sloan G2 Flushometer Sensor Range Adjustment.

    Valve doesn’t flush; sensor picking up opposite wall or surface, or only flushes when someone walks by. Red light flashes continuously for first ten minutes even with no one in front of the sensor.

    A) Range too long.

    A) Shorten range.

    Learn how to complete sensor range adjustments on your G2 flushometer by watching our YouTube video: Sloan G2 Flushometer Sensor Range Adjustment.

    Valve DOES NOT flush even after adjustment

    A) Range adjustment potentiometer set at full “max” or full “min” setting.

    B) Batteries completely used up.

    C) Problem with electronic sensor module.

    A) Readjust potentiometer away from full “max” or “min” setting.

    C) Call Equiparts at 800-442-6622 to replace Electronic Sensor Module or Click here for #08697 (G2 Closet Module) or #08698 (G2 Urinal Module).

    Unit flashes four quick times when user steps within range

    A) Batteries low.

    A) Replace batteries.

    Valve DOES NOT shut off

    A) By-pass orifice in diaphragm is clogged with dirt or debris, or by-pass is clogged by an invisible gelatinous film due to “overtreated” water.

    B) Dirt or debris fouling stem or flex tube diaphragm.

    C) O-ring on stem or flex tube diaphragm is damaged or worn.

    D) Problem with electronic sensor module.

    A) Remove flex tube diaphragm and wash under running water. NOTE: Size of orifice in by-pass is of utmost importance for the proper metering of water by the valve. Equiparts recommends that you do not enlarge or damage this orifice. Replace inside parts assembly if cleaning does not correct the problem.

    B) Remove inside parts assembly and wash under running water.

    C) Replace quad seal if necessary.

    D) Turn solenoid counter-clockwise very slightly.

    Not enough water to fixture

    A) Wrong flush volume regulator installed in flex tube diaphragm kit.

    B) Wrong Optima Plus model installed; i.e. 1.0 GPF urinal installed on 3.5 gallon closet fixture.

    C) Enlarged bypass in diaphragm.

    D) Control stop not adjusted properly.

    E) Inadequate volume or pressure at supply.

    B) Replace with proper Optima Plus model.

    D) Readjust control stop.

    E) Increase water pressure or supply (flow) to valve.

    View our Sloan G2 Flush Valve Volume Regulator Troubleshooting Video for more volume troubleshooting information.

    Too much water to fixture

    A) Wrong flush volume regulator installed in flex tube diaphragm kit.

    B) Control stop not adjusted properly.

    C) Wrong Optima Plus model installed; i.e. 3.0 GPF model installed on 1.0 or 1.5 gallon urinal fixture.

    D) Dirt in diaphragm bypass.

    B) Readjust control stop.

    C) Replace with proper Optima Plus model.

    D) Clean under running water or replace flex tube diaphragm.

    View our Sloan G2 Diaphragm Cleaning Video to see how to clean the diaphragm with step by step instructions.

    Unit works with Cover Off, but not On.

    A) Broken override button or missing rubber divider.

    A) Replace override button or cover.

    When required, replace batteries with four (4) alkaline type AA batteries. Note: water does not have to be turned off to replace batteries. Loosen the two (2) screws on top of unit. Remove the complete cover assembly. Lift the sensor module from its plate. Unplug the electrical connector from the battery compartment cover. Loosen the retaining screw on the battery compartment cover. Install four (4) alkaline type AA batteries.

    Install the battery compartment cover and secure with retaining screw. Make certain that the battery compartment cover is fully compressed against the gasket to provide a seal. Do not overtighten. Plug the electrical connector into the battery compartment cover. Reinstall the sensor module onto the plate. Reinstall the complete cover assembly onto the plate. Tighten the two (2) screws on top of the unit.

    DO NOT use abrasive or chemical cleaners to clean flushometers, they may dull the luster and attack the chrome or special decorative finishes. Use ONLY soap and water, then wipe dry with clean cloth or towel. While cleaning the bathroom tile, the flushometer should be protected from any splattering of cleaner. Acids and cleaning fluids can discolor or remove chrome plating.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    What’s that noise from the toilet? Does it mean you have a problem with phantom flushing? We’re not talking about the latest “Ghostbusters” film, but the uncanny experience of hearing your toilet flushing on its own.

    There’s no shame in admitting that you may be a little spooked. Phantom flushing (also known as “ghost flushing”) is indeed worrisome. It’s a sign of water leaks somewhere in the toilet – bad news because leakage wastes water (which costs you money on your Ottawa-area water bill and is environmentally-unfriendly as well).

    Not sure whether your toilet is leaking? Try this easy test. Add several drops of food colouring to the toilet tank and wait half an hour. If you end up with coloured water in the toilet bowl, you’re definitely looking at a leak. (Friendly plumber tip: Be sure to flush after finishing this test so the colouring won’t leave a stain.)

    Now let’s plunge deep into this plumbing problem to explore 4 possible causes.

    1. Flapper

    The most likely culprit is your toilet flapper, that circular rubber thingamajig at the bottom of the tank that acts as a cover for the flush valve drain hole. This component normally opens when you flush the toilet and closes when the toilet tank refill is complete.

    However, toilet flappers tend to last only about 5 years. A flapper which has warped or otherwise deteriorated over time will not close properly, leading to the eerie sound of the toilet flushing on its own. Fortunately, there is a fix: remove the old flapper and install a new one.

    Another flapper-related issue occurs when the chain that holds the flapper in place is too long. As a result, the flapper may not be correctly seating atop the drain. When this happens, it could help to cut out a section of chain and then replace the flapper.

    2. Flush Valve Gasket

    Next on the list of toilet troubleshoots is your flush valve gasket. This is a simple circular piece, which serves as a mechanical seal for the flush valve. When the gasket stops working as it should, it will allow water to leak down the drain… and once again, you’ll be faced with phantom flushing phenomenon. Sometimes both the flush valve gasket and the tank-to-bowl gasket both fail, resulting in a water leak from the tank onto your floor.

    3. Float

    The float has the important function of controlling the water level in your toilet tank. If the water supply is too low, you won’t get a powerful enough flush. But if the level is too high – guess what? Your toilet will keep up that irritating flushing on its own. If this is the case, adjusting the float is key to a successful resolution.

    4. Refill Tube

    A fourth toilet part that may need attention is the refill tube. This narrow flexible tube, usually white or black, sits at the top of your toilet tank, connected to the fill valve. The refill tube may become detached or conversely, extend too deep into the overflow tube. Either situation could cause your toilet to flush on its own until the refill tube is repositioned.

    End Phantom Flushing Fast

    Count on the skilled, experienced OOTW team to solve your most perplexing plumbing problems. We know emergencies happen any time, so we make it easy for you to reach us, by phone or book online for toilet repair .

    Whether your problem occurs when Flushing, Refilling or Not in Use, choose a tab below to help find the solution:

    • NOT IN USE

    Hearing hissing, rumbling or thumping when flushing? Need more than one flush to clear the bowl? Your fill valve , flapper or flush valve could be the source. Take a look below for some common FLUSHING problems or view all problems:


    • Toilet Tank Won’t Fill Up Or Is Slow To Fill
    • Toilet is making abnormal noise
    • Toilet running constantly

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    • Fill Valve
    • Flapper
    • Flush Valve

    After you flush, if the tank takes too long to fill or gets close to overflow, check for fill valve or flapper issues. Banging noises from the pipes could also mean water supply trouble.

    Take a look below for some common REFILLING problems or view all problems:


    • Toilet Tank Won’t Fill Up Or Is Slow To Fill
    • Toilet running constantly
    • Toilet flushes on its own (Ghost Flushing)

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    • Fill Valve
    • Flapper
    • Connector

    When it’s not flushing or refilling, flush/refill sounds or short bursts of air every so often may come from the fill valve . Constant leaks could need a new toilet seal or other repair parts .

    Take a look below for some common NOT IN USE problems or view all problems.


    • Toilet flushes on its own (Ghost Flushing)
    • Toilet running constantly
    • How to check if the bowl is overfilling

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    • Fill Valve
    • Toilet Seals
    • Repair Parts

    Fluidmaster Products

    Easy to install and built to last, both consumers and plumbers trust our products the most to fix all toilet problems.

    Fill Valves

    The fill valve controls the refill of your tank after your flush.


    The flapper is the main seal that holds water in your tank.

    Flush Valves

    Flush valves ensure a steady exit of water from your toilet tank.

    Repair Kits

    Need to replace more than one part? Choose from a variety of all-in-one repair kits.

    Tank Levers

    Our toilet tank levers have a universal fit and come in many styles.

    Water Supply Connectors

    Get higher flow capacity from your water supply line to a variety of household appliances.

    Wax & Wax-free Toilet Seals

    Our 3” and 4” floor outlet toilet bowl seals are easy to install.

    Repair Parts

    From supply nuts to toilet bowl caps, we’ve got you covered.

    Automatic Toilet Cleaners

    Choose from environmentally friendly cleaners that won’t harm your toilet’s parts.

    Access Panels

    ClickFit® Access Panels provide easy access to in-wall plumbing and electrical.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

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    Also, how does a toilet flush valve work?

    Once you push the handle, the chain that is connected to the flapper and flush valve is pulled up by the handle arm. By lifting the flapper up, the water inside the tank is allowed to flow down into the toilet bowl. The overflow tube empties directly into the toilet bowl below, refilling the bowl after a flush.

    Likewise, how do you adjust a commercial toilet flush valve? How to Increase the Flushing Pressure on a Commercial Toilet

    1. Unscrew the access cap located at the elbow where the water supply line enters the flush valve.
    2. Rotate the control stop screw counter-clockwise with a screwdriver until it is fully open.
    3. Rotate the control stop screw counter-clockwise, one-quarter turn at a time.

    Also, how does a commercial toilet work?

    Commercial toilets work starting with the handle. Once the handle has been pressed down, a chain attached to the handle is pulled up. This activates a powerful release of water by the flush valve.

    What does a vacuum breaker do on a toilet?

    A vacuum breaker is an attachment commonly placed on a bibcock valve or toilet or urinal flush valve, that prevents water from being siphoned backward into the public drinking water system. This prevents contamination should the public drinking water system’s pressure drop.

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    We’ve all been here before, haven’t we? You flush the toilet expecting the bowl to empty as it has countless times before. This time, the water doesn’t empty all of the way. It keeps rising and rising. Suddenly, your toilet is overflowing and now you have a catastrophe all over your bathroom floor.

    Plumbing issues can be a real inconvenience for any homeowner. But when you’re having to deal with a toilet overflowing, it can be a nightmare. Our toilets are the most commonly used appliances we have in our homes. They don’t tend to act up often, but when they do, it’s important to act quickly to prevent serious water damage to your home and drain pipe damage.

    What Causes a Toilet to Overflow?

    If your toilet is overflowing, odds are pretty high that you have a drain clog. A blockage typically will cause a sudden overflow when the toilet is flushed. You can sometimes identify a blockage before flowing by paying attention to have fast the water reenters your toilet bowl after flushing. If your toilet is prone to clogging, it is best to keep an eye on it after each flush and listen for any gurgling sounds.

    Typical causes for a toilet clog include:

    Flushing too much waste and/or toilet paper at one time.

    Using the toilet to dispose of non-flushable bathroom trash, such as pads, tampons, cotton balls, paper, dental floss, or diapers.

    Flushing kitchen waste, including cooking grease, fruit and vegetable peels, meat trimmings, etc.

    Disposing of pet waste, including clumps of kitty litter and dog waste bags. Even products advertised as flushable may cause problems under the right conditions.

    Weak or partial flushing that, over time, allows a clog to form and grow. Older low-flow toilets and toilets with tank float or flapper problems may be the culprit in this case.

    Leaving small children unattended in the bathroom. There’s no telling what they’ll find fun to flush!

    Keep in mind that the clog may not be in just your toilet’s line; it could be in the main sewer line for your home or apartment building. Check the other toilets on the line to see if that’s a possibility.

    How Do I Quickly Stop an Overflowing Toilet?

    No matter what led to this situation, there are some fast-acting steps you should take in order to take control of the situation.

    Toilet Shutoff Valve

    First, shut off the water supply to the toilet. Look for a silver football-shaped knob coming out of the wall at the back of the toilet and turn it counterclockwise. This will stop any additional water from flowing into the toilet and making the situation any worse. Homeowners tend to freeze up when they see water running out of their toilet and onto their floor. All you need to remember is by shutting off the water supply, water will stop flowing into the toilet and all over your bathroom rug.

    Toilet Tank Flapper

    Sometimes, the shutoff valves get stuck since they are left open for years and infrequently touched. If your valve is stuck, or for whatever you cannot reach it, the next solution lies within the tank of the toilet. Lift the lid off the top of your toilet and look for your flapper. It’s a rubber disc that covers the hole at the bottom of the tank. If the flapper is open, even just a little bit, this can cause water to keep running into the bowl. Simply push the flapper down with your fingers until the water stops running. It’s likely you’ll need to replace the flapper, but more importantly, this isn’t a permanent fix. You will still need to unclog the toilet.

    Toilet Tank Float Ball

    If you still have water overflowing at this point, you’ll need to find the float ball inside the take. The float ball looks like a big balloon attached to a rod inside the toilet tank. This ball, when raised by the water level in the take, tells the toilet to stop filling with water after you flush. To trick your toilet into thinking the tank has filled with water, simply lift the float ball as high as it will go. Find something to prop the rod and float ball up with while you clean up your bathroom floor and work on unclogging your drain.

    Do I Need to Call a Plumber When My Toilet Overflows?

    If you can self-diagnose an issue with your tank flapper or float ball, these typically can be fixed yourself by going to your local hardware store and buying replacement parts. If you believe there is a blockage in your drain pipe, try using a plunger or drain snake to clear the drain yourself.

    There may be other reasons causing your toilet to overflow that can be much more serious. These are situations better trusted to a professional plumber that can remove the worst clogs and also check for less common clog causes, like tree roots growing into your sewer line, or a broken or collapsed pipe. If clogging is a frequent problem in your home, we may be able to recommend a solution—from new toilet installation to video sewer inspection and pipe repair.

    If you believe your toilet or drains needs immediate repair, find your nearest ARS/Rescue Rooter location to book your appointment online right away!

    Do you hear water leaking noisew at night? Are you worried that a constant sound of running water (the same sound you hear after flushing) means high water bill? What about when your Champion 4 Toilet flushes all by itself in the middle of the night?

    At this point, you are mind is probably going crazy with the thoughts of:

    • Toilet water is somehow leaking below the bathroom, possibly causing thousands of dollars in damage
    • All those ghost flushes will jack up your water bill
    • You will have to replace the innards of a toilet or replace the entire toilet which will cost time and money

    Well, all those could be true but I think a simple fix with a $5-10 dollar replacement part may solve your problems related to:

    • Intermittently / randomly running toilet
    • Ghost flushing
    • Failed flush valve seal
    • Long tank refill time

    In this article, I will show you exactly what you need to buy and perform simple steps to make this flushing problem go away.


    • Purchase either American Standard Toilet Flush Valve Seal Kit ($10) or Fluidmaster Toilet Flush Valve Seal for American Standard Champion 4 toilet ($5).
    • $10 part comes with extra parts (O-ring for the shaft which will be handy to have in the future); $5 part just comes with a valve seal
    • OPTIONAL but recommended: American Standard Champion Toilet Chain Assembly
    • OPTIONAL but recommended: American Standard Champion Toilet Clevis Pin Assembly (note: It is NOT called a “Levis Pin Assembly”!)
    • Rubber gloves
    • Rag / hand soap


    • STEP #1 – Turn off the water supply (shutoff valve from wall is usually located on the lower left side of the toilet)
    • STEP #2– How down the flush lever to drain as much as possible from the tank
    • STEP #3 – Remove the tank lid (brown stain indicates mineral build up from water)
    • STEP #4 – un-clip the cotter pin (in my case a wire tie) then remove the chain “bucket” holder and clevis pin from the flush lever; store these tiny parts in a zip lock bag or small tray away from the work area;
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • STEP #5 – Gently lift up the chain so that you can place your hand below the piston assembly
    • STEP #6– Remove the thumbscrew cap by turning it counter-clockwise
    • STEP #7 – Remove the thumbscrew cap and piston top cover
    • STEP #8 – Gently lower the bottom piston cover by removing your hand
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • STEP #9 – Because my water contains lots of minerals (a.k.a. “hard” water), submerged rubber components tend to degrade fast. The OEM gasket seems like it is made from open cell foam core whereas the one from Fluidmaster is more “rubberized”. Note the original color of the gasket from underside where it was not submerged in water
    • STEP #10 – Fluidmaster part had grooves on the inner ring side so you can install it without worrying about the correct side being up. Grab some paper towel and wipe the inside of the piston seat to remove any build up
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • STEP #11– Once you install the new replacement gasket, you can reinstall the piston top cover. You will need to align four “tabs” to ensure that both top and bottom piston covers are mated properly.
    • STEP #12 – Reinstall the thumbscrew cap by turning the cap clockwise. Turn until you hear a click noise, then turn again until you hear the second click noise. TIP: If you stop at the first click, the seal will NOT BE TIGHT and will cause your toilet to ghost flush again!

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    • STEP #13 – Reinstall the chain and clevis pin assembly. TIP: in order to maintain tension in the chain, you need to ensure that the open slit on the chain bucket faces to the right side of the tank. If the opening slit face the left side of tank, the chain will frequently pop off
    • STEP #14 – turn the water back on and observe; you should not hear any slow dripping sounds

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing


    This work only took about 30 minutes to complete. I am happy to report to you that ghost flushing is no more!

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    Reader Interactions


    Paul Kozoro says

    Thank you very much for the concise and detailed step instructions and Visuals. .

    Water Splashes When Toilet is Flushed

    How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing
    • How to fix a toilet on a flushometer that keeps flushing

    LESLIE: Now we’ve got Matt in Wisconsin who’s dealing with a splashy toilet. That is the worst: constantly cleaning a toilet seat. Tell us what’s going on.

    MATT: Well, when we flush the toilet, a good portion of air comes up through the trap, forcefully enough to cause the water to splash up onto the seat or the inside of the lid if it’s closed.

    TOM: Well, what really causes that, Matt, is a venting problem. Is this a new problem or has it always been this way?

    MATT: No, it’s just within the last couple of months.

    TOM: OK. So then what I suspect is that you’ve got a blockage somewhere. If your vent for that toilet is partially blocked, then the drain line is being starved with air. And if it’s starved with air, it’s going to try to gulp that air from somewhere else and that’s what’s causing the bubbles.

    TOM: So, what you need to do is try to figure out where that obstruction is. And it’s going to be somewhere in the vent that is connected to the waste line under the toilet, if that helps you narrow it down a bit.

    MATT: Yes, it does. Thanks.

    TOM: You’re very welcome. Thanks so much for calling us at 888-MONEY-PIT.

    It’s more likely than not that you’ve experienced a slow flushing toilet either once or multiple times. This is an abnormal situation that needs to be investigated and fixed especially when running an independent system like a septic tank.

    The ‘why’ and how to solve the problem is what we seek to discuss here.

    You’re likely reading this article because you’re faced with the same problem. If you are, you only need to be patient and read through this short article to find answers. The good news is; a slow flushing toilet situation can be resolved.

    Without an iota of doubt, toilets play a crucial role in homes.

    As a matter of fact, your toilet is one of the most important parts of your home’s plumbing system. Quite a lot of homeowners may be oblivious to this fact until such toilets malfunction.

    Two Possible Causes For A Slow Draining Toilet

    Whenever you notice your toilet flushing slowly, there could be two possible causes. A malfunctioning fixture may be the first possible cause. The other may be due to issues with your septic tank.

    The smooth functioning of your toilet is closely tied to your septic tank condition. This is why we’re considering the relationship between the two. Slow draining toilets due to faulty fixtures are quite minor and can be fixed easily.

    However, septic tank-related problems are quite significant and will have to be urgently investigated. Your slow flushing toilet serves as a symptom that points to a developing problem.

    Among the many possible causes for this problem is the likelihood of a filled septic tank.

    There’s only one major action to take when dealing with a filled septic tank. It involves pumping the tank. This should resolve the problem of slow flushing.

    Pumping Your Septic Tank

    When a septic tank reaches capacity, one of the first signs it shows is a slow flushing toilet. When this is noticed, the first thing you need to find out is when last you pumped your septic tank.

    Septic tanks must be pumped once every three to 5 years depending on size and number of users.

    Sometimes, there’s no way of knowing whether the tank is full unless you investigate. We recommend that you leave such a task to the experts. Opening a septic tank is a high-risk situation due to the release of dangerous gases.

    Apart from the foul odor, excessive exposure could knock you out. In severe cases of exposure, death may result.

    So, it’s best to call a licensed septic technician or service to take a look. Their findings provide answers on whether to pump your tank or look elsewhere for your slow draining toilet problem.

    Experiencing Slow Toilet Flushing Even When Septic Tank Was Pumped Recently?

    As stated earlier, a recently pumped septic tank is no guarantee that you won’t experience a slow flushing toilet.

    In this situation, you’ll need to look elsewhere. You’ll need all the help you can get in spotting the issue and finding a lasting solution to it.

    A licensed plumber will be of great help to your quest of solving the problem. There are several possible reasons why you’re having a slow flushing toilet.

    These include mild clogs, water tank settings, improper ventilation, sediment in the waterline, issues with the flapper valve, and hard water.

    Mild Clogs

    One of the possible reasons why you’re experiencing a slow-flushing toilet could be due to mild clogs.

    Mild clogs allow for the partial or sluggish passage of water. Objects may be accidentally dropped down the toilet, thus preventing the free flow of water.

    A plumber will need to be called immediately to get rid of such clogs. Possible tools to be used include plumbing snakes as well as plungers among others.

    Water Tank Settings

    The water tank position is always above the toilet seat.

    This water reservoir setting could be tampered with. When this happens, less water gets supplied to the bowl when flushed. You’ll have to make the right adjustments to allow for increased water flow and flushing efficiency.

    Consider raising the float arm as an intervention to increase water volume in the tank. More water volume is likely to increase toilet flushing efficiency.

    Improper Ventilation

    Poor ventilation is a possibility why you’re experiencing a slow flushing toilet. It has to do with inadequate pressure. Gurgling sounds are among the primary symptoms you’re likely to notice.

    When this is noticed, it’s simply a pointer to the possible absence of air in your plumbing waste line.

    This can be resolved with the help of an expert. When an expert arrives, he proves for all sorts of issues. Improper ventilation is determined after conducting several assessments all showing clear symptoms.

    Sediment in the Water Line

    When it comes to sedimentation in the waterline, it goes beyond the toilet.

    This is also noticed in other water outlets. The main cause for this is a buildup of sediments which eventually gets in the way of free water movement. Less water is allowed into your plumbing fixtures which contribute to slow flushing.

    You’ll need to call a licensed plumber to check what the exact problem is. Sediment accumulation in the water line isn’t a complex issue at all and can be resolved within a short period of time.

    Issues with Flapper Valve

    Your toilet’s flapper valve can also cause slow flushing. You may be wondering which part of the toilet your flapper valve is located. This component is the rubber stopper you find at the bottom of the toilet bowl.

    As time goes on, the optimal performance of the flapper valve decreases. It is only a matter of time before this reduction in flapper valve performance affects flow.

    When determined that the flapper valve is failing, a replacement will be necessary.

    Hard Water

    Hard water issues extend to toilets too.

    Hard water is known to contain quite a lot of minerals including calcium and magnesium carbonates. As you continually use such water, there’s a steady and slow deposit of hard water minerals in pipes as well as the toilet.

    Removal of these minerals is necessary for optimal functionality.

    The relationship between slow toilet flushing and septic tanks has been highlighted. We’ve also seen that sometimes, septic tanks might not be filled, yet slow flushing may be observed.

    For such development, we’ve provided possible reasons why this could be so.

    In most commercial restrooms, urinals are the chief plumbing fixtures than toilets because they are easier to maintain and they help maximize space in small men’s rooms. Urinals, however, aren’t immune to common plumbing problems.

    If your urinal keeps on running, you may need to replace some parts, and having Delany plumbing repair kits will help a lot.

    If you have repair kits handy, you can deal with the problem immediately. Delay usually results in higher repair expenses when the problem gets out of hand. The good news is that repairing a running urinal is relatively simple.

    What Causes Urinals to Keep Running?
    What causes this to happen? Toilets are normally reliable, but every now and again, they malfunction. It’s not uncommon to find a toilet that is either broken or always running in public restrooms and commercial buildings.

    When this happens, the diaphragm is usually the source of the problem. The diaphragm in the flushometer flushes by moving up and down. A little quantity of dirt can get lodged behind the diaphragm, causing it to stay open after a flush or causing it to wear out.

    Given how frequently commercial and public restrooms are used, it’s reasonable for urinal components to sometimes require repair and replacement.

    Types of Urinal Flushometers
    All types of urinal flushometers use the same basic design components and mechanical concepts to function. However, there are various varieties that are distinguished by their characteristics. The repair you’ll need to do depends on the types of urinal flushometers you have. Following are the three types of flush valves and flushometers.

    Manual flushometers are flushometers with a classic design that includes a lever to activate a flush.

    Push-button flushometers replace the typical lever with a push button that can be mounted on the instrument or connected to it through tubes and placed nearby. They work the same way as manual flushometers.

    Touchless or automatic flushometers employ an infrared sensor or another device to electronically activate a flush without forcing the user to touch any component of the machine.

    How to Fix a Urinal That Keeps Flushing?
    Check the kind of flushometers you have and follow the repair guide below.

    Manual Flushometer
    1. First, you’ll need to turn the water supply off. There is a slot for the screwdriver on either side of the flushometer, whether it’s pointing left or right. Turn the screwdriver slot with a flat screwdriver to turn the water off.

    2. Remove the top lid of a flushometer with a wrench. You can remove the lid immediately after loosening the top with the wrench.
    3. Remove the flange cover from the flange.

    4. Look for a sediment-covered gasket. The weep hole in it is what causes a flushometer to keep on flushing.

    5. Remove and clean the gasket, paying special attention to the weep hole and making sure not to widen it.

    6. After cleaning the gasket, put it back and carefully replace the flange cover.

    7. Put the flushometer’s top lid back and turn the screwdriver slot to turn the water back on.

    Automatic Flushometer
    Consult your manual for the exact steps for repairing the model you have. The steps below, however, should still guide you through repairing automatic flushometers regardless of the exact model.

    1. You should be able to see a screwdriver slot whether your flushometer is on the right or left. Use a flat screwdriver to turn it.

    2. Hold the chrome button down for a few seconds. Listen for two clicks separated by two seconds. If you hear this, the diaphragm has to be cleaned or replaced. By removing the flushometer’s cover, you may further examine it.

    3. Finish by tightening the solenoid. On the solenoid, look for any double stacked or rings. If you’ve already serviced it, you should have a professional take a look at it.

    4. Remove the flush head’s screw. Turn it slightly to loosen it and remove the flush head cap.

    5. Locate the diaphragm and replace it with a new one. Having Delany plumbing repair kits at hand will be helpful in this case.

    6. Put the flush head back and tighten the flushometer in place. This will restore the urinal’s water supply.

    After the water has been turned back on, flush the toilet to check if the issue has been resolved. Wipe down the joints with a cloth before flushing, and check for leaks during and after the flush. If you see a leak, tighten the joints and flush the system again.

    Your urinal flushometers should be working smoothly again.

    Where to Find Delany Plumbing Repair Kits
    Get your Delany flushometers and repair parts here at Quality Plumbing Supply. We are an official distributor of Delany flushometer products and we stock a huge inventory of urinal parts that you can order with convenience and ease at our online store.

    We accept bulk orders and we ship for orders $99 and above. Talk to us if you need assistance choosing the right parts or if you need more information about Delany flushometers.

    How to help flood victims

    At least three people have died and two remain missing as severe flooding caused by substantial rainfall and snowmelt inundates several Midwestern states.

    Across the region, hundreds of homes are flooded and families are displaced. Waters have reached historic levels, spurred by a late-winter storm last week. Flooding caused water to rise hitting 41 feet in Plattsmouth, Nebraska, and more than 30 feet in Iowa’s Fremont County. Freeport City, Illinois, anticipated its worst flooding in 50 years — and that’s the best case scenario, according to the Associated Press.

    As river levels begin to top off and slowly recede in Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri and Kansas, states like Illinois and North Dakota are readying for similar disasters.

    Here are some ways you can help these families and communities.

    Donate funds

    The Salvation Army will be distributing bottled water and clean up kits to those in areas affected by floods reports the Omaha World Herald. The nonprofit is raising money for these efforts through its website.

    More than 500 people slept in 20 American Red Cross locations and community shelters on Sunday night. In addition to operating shelters, the organization is providing food and relief supplies, as well as health services in neighborhoods where it is safe to do so, according to a statement Monday. Support its disaster relief operations online, call 1-800-RED-CROSS or text the word REDCROSS to 90999 to make a $10 donation

    United Way of the Midlands is collecting donations to help people in Iowa and Nebraska affected by flooding. Donors can direct their donations to other communities affected by the flooding online, or text FLOODRELIEF to 41444 to donate.

    The Nebraska Farm Bureau Disaster Relief Fund, is accepting donations to a fund that will go towards providing emergency aid to farmers, ranchers and rural communities in Nebraska affected by the storms and flooding. You can also write a check and send it to:

    Nebraska Farm Bureau Foundation
    Attn: Disaster Relief Fund
    P.O. Box 80299
    Lincoln, NE 68501-0299

    Convoy of Hope, a faith-based nonprofit that brings food, water, emergency and other relief supplies to natural disasters has set up a dedicated webpage for donations to its flood response in the Midwest.

    Community foundations in Nebraska have set up a variety of disaster relief funds to support locals affected. The Grand Island Community Foundations is accepting donations for the greater Hall, Howard, and Sherman Counties. The Kearney Area Community Foundation is collecting contributions for the Kearney area. The Custer County Foundation and the Merrick Foundation cover Custer and Merrick Counties respectively.

    The Food Bank of Siouxland has been making food deliveries to flood victims in places like Hornick, Iowa. You can donate to their cause on their website *with a note* saying you would like your donation to target flood relief.

    You can find verified GoFundMe fundraisers here to support individuals, animals and homes affected by the flooding.


    The Salvation Army is also seeking volunteers from across the U.S. to fundraise for flood relief. You can register online or by calling 402-898-6050.

    Though the United Way of Central Iowa is not currently seeking volunteers, the organization encourages those interested in assisting flood victims to register online in case more help becomes necessary.

    Other ways to help

    The Nebraska Department of Agriculture is accepting volunteer help and agricultural donations like hay, feed stuffs and fencing for farmers and ranchers in the state. The department will take your details and the resources you are willing to donate over the phone at 1-800-831-0550.

    The Nebraska Humane Society is helping animals, including pets and livestock, impacted by the flooding. You can donate to their cause online or ship animal supplies to:

    8929 Fort St.
    Omaha, NE 68134

    The Foodbank for the Heartland is currently working on a disaster relief plan with other organizations across Nebraska and Central Iowa. More information about how to donate funds and food for those affected will be available on their website once the plan is finalized, according to Stephanie Bayle, Foodbank for the Heartland’s brand manager.

    Facebook has set-up a crisis response page where you can donate money to flood victims or offer help in the way of shelter, food, clothes or other miscellaneous supplies.

    We verified organizations to the best of our ability. If you aren’t sure about the legitimacy of a charitable organization, visit Charity Navigator.

    Left: Flooded Camp Ashland, Army National Guard facility, is seen in this aerial photo taken in Ashland, Nebraska, U.S., March 17, 2019. Picture taken March 17, 2019. Courtesy Herschel Talley/Nebraska National Guard/Handout via REUTERS

    Go Deeper

    • flooding
    • how to help
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    • weather and natural disasters

    How to help flood victims

    Maea Lenei Buhre is a general assignment producer for the PBS NewsHour.

    How to help flood victims

    • Organizations mobilize to help people affected by recent floods
    • Clothes, household goods and clean-up supplies are needed
    • If you want to help, donations can be as simple as sending a text

    (CNN) — This year’s historic flooding of the Mississippi, Missouri and now the Souris rivers has forced thousands across the Midwest to evacuate — leaving some with a fear of losing everything.

    Organizations like the American Red Cross and The Salvation Army have stepped in to help flood victims in hard-hit areas, and there are ways you can help those in need.

    When the Souris River reached record highs this month, the Red Cross opened two shelters in Minot, North Dakota, where around 200 people have spent each night since June 22.

    Along with providing a place to sleep and food to eat, mental health workers are also on hand to provide emotional support to those who need it.

    Natural disasters like floods can take weeks to unfold and add stress to displaced residents.

    “We’re trying to do as much as we can to make people feel safe and comfortable,” said Matt McDade, a mental health worker volunteering in a Minot shelter.

    The reality sinks in at different times that their homes are underwater, he said.

    “We provide 24-hour care. I slept here last night. If someone wakes up at three in the morning and needs to talk, someone’s here to lend an ear,” McDade said. “By being compassionate and providing support, they know that they’re not alone.”

    The Red Cross also has four shelters open in Nebraska and Iowa and is providing water and snacks to people sandbagging along the Missouri River.

    To support the American Red Cross Disaster Relief fund, visit the website, call 1-800-RED-CROSS or text “REDCROSS” to 90999 to make a $10 donation.

    The Salvation Army is helping flood victims in North and South Dakota, Iowa and Nebraska.

    In Minot and neighboring communities, Salvation Army teams are providing food and drinks, emergency supplies and emotional support to those who need it.

    Call The Salvation Army in Minot at 701-838-8925 for ways to volunteer.

    Clothes and gently-used household goods can be donated to the Salvation Army thrift store in Minot or at your local store. Items that are not sent to Minot will be used for future disaster relief efforts.

    To make a $10 donation to flood victims there, text “MINOT” to 80888 and reply “yes” to the confirmation text.

    To donate to The Salvation Army’s flood response in South Dakota, Iowa or Nebraska go online or call 1-800-SAL-ARMY.

    Clean-up kits are also needed in Omaha, and The Salvation Army is helping to provide supplies to flood victims.

    Supplies needed include buckets, rubber gloves, disinfectant, brushes, brooms, mops, bottled water and safety goggles.

    Donations may be dropped off at The Salvation Army, any Omaha Fire Station, Action News 3 or Journal Broadcast Radio.

    Volunteers are also needed to help mobile feeding units provide food and drinks to emergency workers along the Missouri River. More than 21,000 people have been served since the end of May.

    10 Things You CAN DO for Flood Victims

    “Actions speak louder than words” is a saying that most everyone has heard throughout their life. Most of us understand the concept behind it, but for the Louisiana flood victims this saying is taking on a whole new meaning in their life that was turned upside down.

    How to help flood victims

    How to help flood victims

    I previously wrote a blog stating the 10 things you should not say to flood victims. Comforting words may seem appropriate, but sometimes words are not enough. In times like these, a listening ear, comforting arms, helping hands, and a shoulder to cry on is what they need most. They physically need you. In addition to telling your friend whose house flooded how sorry you are and they are in your prayers, would it be possible to do something else? Yes.There.Is.

    Here are 10 things that you CAN DO for flood victims now…


    Louisiana’s people are strong and proud. We here in the South despise asking for help. We do. So let’s not make them ask. Show up at their house and work beside them. Cleaning, gutting, and physically helping them rearrange their life is truly what is needed first and foremost as they begin the road of recovery. Four hands are better than two. Six hands are better than four. Take it upon yourself to offer your help and follow through until you are no longer needed.


    Have you ever cleaned your house with your young kids in it? It’s extremely difficult and almost pointless. There are thousands of moms and dads entering their houses ready to get to work, but they have one problem. The daycare down the street and the school on the corner are also flooded. One of the best ways to help fellow parents is offering FREE childcare. Watch those babies so that the home that they know and love can be made new again.

    Although your cousin’s house may have electricity their refrigerator, stove, and microwave were ruined in the flood. Providing a hot meal in a to-go box, bringing them snacks and drinks (water is good but give sports drinks too), or even picking them up for dinner at your house is an excellent way to say you care. A hot meal after a long day is good for the soul. (You know us Louisiana peeps love to eat!)


    Imagine for a moment upon entering your flooded home after being gone for a few days and seeing your clothes washed throughout the house with the smell of mildew everywhere. Your bedspread still dry on the top, but soaking wet on the bottom. How awesome would it be for your friend to come by your house, load up all that laundry to bring it home and get busy washing? This easy way to help means saving the clothes that they love and could save tons of money. (FYI: hose off the clothes first, then wash and wash again!)


    One of the most comforting things we as humans have is knowing that we have a safe place to lay our head at night. If you were fortunate enough to be spared during the flood, this is the very least you can do for victims. Offer your home, a bed or couch, a hot shower, your phone, and your computer and internet for insurance or FEMA claims. Offer the safety of your home. Please open your heart and your home for those who need comforting in this tragic time. (If you cannot do this, another great way to help is volunteering at shelters!)

    How to help flood victims

    Along with the thousands of houses that flooded, there were an equal amount of vehicles that did also. We take for granted the ability to hop into our car and head to Target. Flood victims are not only dealing with repairing their home, but they are likely dealing with not having a vehicle. Reach out to your family or friends and offer to help them run errands, let them borrow your car if possible, or even taxi them from one place to another. They’d