 # How to solve related rates in calculus

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## Related Rates

### Calculus Related Rates Disadvantage: How fast is the ladder’s prime sliding?

A 10-ft ladder is leaning in direction of a house on flat ground. The house is to the left of the ladder. The underside of the ladder begins to slide away from the house. When the underside has slid to Eight ft from the house, it is transferring horizontally on the charge of two ft/sec. How fast is the ladder’s prime sliding down the wall when the underside is Eight ft from the house?

### Calculus Decision

1. Draw a picture of the bodily state of affairs.
See the decide.

Let x be the horizontal distance, in toes, from the wall to the underside of the ladder.

Let y be the hole, in toes, from the underside to the best of the ladder.

The problem tells us that in the imply time of curiosity, when x = Eight ft, \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/sec. We’ll use these values solely on the end of our decision.

2. Write an equation that relates the parts of curiosity.

A. Be certain that to label as a variable any price that changes as a result of the state of affairs progresses; don’t substitute a amount for it however.
On this state of affairs, every x and y change as a result of the ladder slides, so we’ll go away every parts as variables.

B. To develop your equation, you will almost certainly use . . . the Pythagorean theorem.
That’s the hardest part of Related Rates draw back for a lot of school college students initially: you possibly can have to perceive how to develop the equation you need, how to pull that “out of thin air.” By working by the use of these points you’ll develop this potential. The key’s to acknowledge which of the few sub-types of draw back it is; we’ve listed each on our Related Rates net web page. On this draw back, the diagram above immediately signifies that we’re dealing with a correct triangle. Furthermore, we might like to related the velocity at which y is altering, \$dfrac

\$, to the velocity at which x is altering, \$dfrac

\$, and so we first need to write down an equation that come what may relates x and y.

Whereas x and y change as a result of the ladder slides, the hypotenuse of the suitable triangle confirmed is on a regular basis equal to the ladder’s dimension, 10 ft. Subsequently the Pythagorean theorem applies:
\$\$x^2 + y^2 = (10)^2 = 100\$\$
That’s it. That’s the essential factor relation we might like to have the choice to proceed with the rest of the reply.

3. Take the by-product with respect to time of both facet of your equation. Bear in thoughts the chain rule.
begin
frac

left( x^2 + y^2 correct) &= frac

left(100 correct)
2x frac

+ 2y frac

& = Zero textual content material< >
end

Please soar ahead in the video to 5:40 for the related dialogue:

Whereas the by-product of \$x^2\$ with respect to x is \$dfracx^2 = 2x\$, the by-product of \$x^2\$ with respect to time t is \$dfrac

x^2 = 2xdfrac

\$. Equally, the by-product with respect to time t of \$y^2\$ is \$dfrac

y^2 = 2ydfrac

\$.

Maintain in thoughts that x and y are every options of time t: every positions change as time passes and the ladder slides down the wall. We’d have captured this time-dependence explicitly by writing our relation as
\$\$[x(t)]^2 + [y(t)]^2 = 100\$\$
to remind ourselves that every x and y are options of time t. Then after we take the by-product,
begin
frac

left([x(t)]^2 + [y(t)]^2 correct) &= frac

(100)
2x(t) dfrac

+ 2y(t) dfrac

&= 0
end

[Recall \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/s in the imply time of curiosity, and we’re looking for \$dfrac

\$.]

Most people uncover that writing the specific time-dependence x(t) and y(t) annoying, and so merely write x and y instead. Regardless, you ought to preserve in thoughts that every x and y depend on t, and so everytime you take the by-product with respect to time the Chain Rule applies and you have the \$dfrac

\$ and \$dfrac

\$ phrases.

4. Solve for the quantity you’re after.
The question is asking us to uncover \$dfrac

\$ on the on the spot when x = Eight ft and \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/sec. So let’s solve the earlier equation for \$dfrac

\$:
begin
2x frac

+ 2y frac

& = 0
2y frac

&= -2x frac

frac

&= – frac frac

textual content material < >[*] end
To complete the calculation, we might like to know the price of y on the on the spot when x = 8.

Begin subproblem to uncover the price of y on the on the spot when x = Eight ft.

We’ll uncover this price by using the Pythagorean theorem:
begin
(8)^2 + y^2 &= 100
y^2 &= 100 – 64 = 36
y &= 6
end
End subproblem.

Substituting all the recognized values into the equation marked [*] above, we have:
begin
frac

&= – frac frac

&= -frac<8> <6>(2) = -frac<8> <3>textual content material < ft/s>quad cmark
end
That’s the reply. The damaging price signifies that the best of the ladder is sliding down the wall, in the negative-y route. Warning: IF you are using a web-based homework system and the question asks,

At what charge does the ladder slide down the wall?

then the system has already accounted for the damaging sign and so to be proper you’ve gotten to enter a POSITIVE VALUE: \$boxed<3>> , dfrac>> quad checkmark\$

Want entry to all of our Calculus points and choices? Buy full entry now — it’s quick and easy! ## Steps we use to solve a related rates draw back

Related Rates are an software program of implicit differentiation, and are sometimes simple to spot.

They ask you to uncover how quickly one variable is altering whenever you understand how quickly one different variable is altering. To solve a related rates draw back, full the following steps:

Assemble an equation containing the entire related variables.

Differentiate your full equation with respect to (time), sooner than plugging in any of the values you perceive.

Plug in the entire values you perceive, leaving solely the one you’re fixing for.

## Inflating and deflating balloon related rates points  ## Discovering charge of change of the radius, given charge of change of amount

Occasion

How fast is the radius of a spherical balloon rising when the radius is . 100. cm, if air is being pumped into it at . 400. cm. ^3. /s?

On this occasion, we’re requested to uncover the velocity of change of the radius, given the velocity of change of the amount.

The system that relates the amount and radius of a sphere to one another is simply the system for the amount of a sphere.

Sooner than doing something, we use implicit differentiation to differentiate both facet with respect to time . t. They ask you to uncover how quickly one variable is altering whenever you understand how quickly one different variable is altering.

Now we plug in the whole thing that everyone knows. Keep in ideas that . dV/dt. is the velocity at which the amount is altering, . dr/dt. is the velocity at which the radius is altering, and . r. is the dimensions of the radius at a particular second.

Our draw back tells us that the velocity of change of the amount is . 400. and that the dimensions of the radius on the actual second we’re in is . 100.

Fixing for . dr/dt. offers

Subsequently, everyone knows that the radius of the balloon is rising at a charge of . 1/100pi. cm per second.

Related rates points require us to uncover the velocity of change of 1 price, given the velocity of change of a related price. We should always uncover an equation that associates the two values and apply the chain rule to differentiate both facet of the equation with respect to time.. Suppose we have a variable v. The by-product, dv/dt might be the velocity of change of v.

When fixing related rates points, we should all the time observe the steps listed below.

1) Draw a diagram. That’s basically probably the most helpful step in related rates points. It permits us to visualize the problem.

2) Assign variables to each quantitiy in the problem that could be a function of time. Each of these values can have some charge of change over time.

3) File all information that is given in the problem and the velocity of change that we strive to uncover.

4) Write an equation that associates the variables with one another. If there are variables for which we’re not given the rates of change (aside from the velocity of change that we strive to determine), we must always uncover some relation from the character of the question that allows us to write these variables in phrases of variables for which the rates of change are given. We should always then substitute these relations into the precept equation.

Phrase: For an occasion of this instance, see occasion #Three below.

5) Using the chain rule, differentiate both facet of the equation with respect to time.

6) Substitute all given information into the equation and solve for the required charge of change.

Phrase: It is essential to wait until the equation has been differentiated to substitute information into the equation. If values are substituted too early, it could lead on to an incorrect reply.

A function f has an absolute most at c if f(c) ³ f(x), for all x in the world of f. At x=c, the graph reaches its highest stage. The amount f(c) often called the most price of f.

A function f has an absolute minimal at c if f(c) £ f(x), for all x in the world of f. At x=c, the graph reaches its lowest stage. The amount f(c) often called the minimal price of f.

Collectively, the utmost and minimal values are often called the extreme values of the function f.

A function f(x), outlined on the open interval (a, b) has a native most at some extent c in (a, b), if f(c) ³ f(x) for all x shut to c. Which suggests there could also be an interval spherical c (most likely very small), such that f(c) ³ f(x) for all x in the interval.

A function f(x), outlined on the open interval (a, b) has a native minimal at some extent c in (a, b), if f(c) £ f(x) for all x shut to c. Which suggests there could also be an interval spherical c (most likely very small), such that f(c) £ f(x) for all x in the interval.

Suppose we have a function outlined on a closed interval [c, d]. An space most or minimal can’t occur on the endpoints of this interval because of the definition requires that the aim is contained in some open interval (a, b). As a result of the function simply is not outlined for some open interval spherical each c or d, a neighborhood most or native minimal cannot occur at this stage. An absolute most or minimal can occur, however, because of the definition requires that the aim merely be in the world of the function.

If f has a neighborhood most or minimal at c and f'(c) exists, then f'(c) = 0.

The converse of this theorem simply is not true. If f'(c) = 0, then c simply is not basically a maxiumum or minimal price. There can be a most or minimal price when f'(c) would not exist.

A essential amount of a function f is a amount c in the world of f, such that f'(c)=Zero or f'(c) would not exist.

Using the definition of an important amount, we are going to rephrase Fermat’s Theorem as : If f has a neighborhood most or minimal at c, then c is an important number of f.

To go looking out completely probably the most or minumum values of a gentle function f on a closed interval [a, b], we first uncover the essential numbers of the function in (a, b) and calculate the price of the function at each essential amount. Subsequent we uncover the values of the function on the endpoints of the interval. We then look at all of these values. The largest price is totally the many of the function on the interval [a, b], whereas the smallest price is totally the minimal.

The concept of most and minimal values permits us to solve optimization points. These points are most likely probably the most wise functions of differential calculus. They allow us to uncover the optimum technique to perform some course of.

To solve optimization points, we observe the steps listed below

1) Draw a diagram, if necessary, to help visualize the problem.

2) Assign variables to the quantity to be optimized and all totally different unknown parts given in the question.

3) Write an equation that associates the optimum quantity to the alternative variables. If the optimum quantity is expressed in phrases of a few variable, we must always take away the extra variables. We use the character of the question to uncover some relation between the variables and substitute these relations into the equation for the optimum quantity. The optimum quantity equation ought to be in phrases of only one variable in order that it has the form f(x).

4) Uncover completely probably the most or minimal of f(x), counting on the question. If the world of f is closed, use the closed interval methodology.

For additional apply with the concepts coated in this tutorial, go to the Related Rates and Optimization Points net web page on the hyperlink below. The choices to the problems shall be posted after these chapters are coated in your calculus course.

To test your info of these software program points, try taking the ultimate related rates and optimization test on the iLrn website online or the superior related rates and optimization test on the hyperlink below.

Please forward any questions, suggestions, or points you possibly can have expert with this website online to Alex Karassev.

### Bounce to solved points

Get notified when there could also be new free supplies

## Related Rates

### Calculus Related Rates Disadvantage: How fast is the ladder’s prime sliding?

A 10-ft ladder is leaning in direction of a house on flat ground. The house is to the left of the ladder. The underside of the ladder begins to slide away from the house. When the underside has slid to Eight ft from the house, it is transferring horizontally on the charge of two ft/sec. How fast is the ladder’s prime sliding down the wall when the underside is Eight ft from the house?

### Calculus Decision

1. Draw a picture of the bodily state of affairs.
See the decide.

Let x be the horizontal distance, in toes, from the wall to the underside of the ladder.

Let y be the hole, in toes, from the underside to the best of the ladder.

The problem tells us that in the imply time of curiosity, when x = Eight ft, \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/sec. We’ll use these values solely on the end of our decision.

2. Write an equation that relates the parts of curiosity.

A. Be certain that to label as a variable any price that changes as a result of the state of affairs progresses; don’t substitute a amount for it however.
On this state of affairs, every x and y change as a result of the ladder slides, so we’ll go away every parts as variables.

B. To develop your equation, you will almost certainly use . . . the Pythagorean theorem.
That’s the hardest part of Related Rates draw back for a lot of school college students initially: you possibly can have to perceive how to develop the equation you need, how to pull that “out of thin air.” By working by the use of these points you’ll develop this potential. The key’s to acknowledge which of the few sub-types of draw back it is; we’ve listed each on our Related Rates net web page. On this draw back, the diagram above immediately signifies that we’re dealing with a correct triangle. Furthermore, we might like to related the velocity at which y is altering, \$dfrac

\$, to the velocity at which x is altering, \$dfrac

\$, and so we first need to write down an equation that come what may relates x and y.

Whereas x and y change as a result of the ladder slides, the hypotenuse of the suitable triangle confirmed is on a regular basis equal to the ladder’s dimension, 10 ft. Subsequently the Pythagorean theorem applies:
\$\$x^2 + y^2 = (10)^2 = 100\$\$
That’s it. That’s the essential factor relation we might like to have the choice to proceed with the rest of the reply.

3. Take the by-product with respect to time of both facet of your equation. Bear in thoughts the chain rule.
begin
frac

left( x^2 + y^2 correct) &= frac

left(100 correct)
2x frac

+ 2y frac

& = Zero textual content material< >
end

Please soar ahead in the video to 5:40 for the related dialogue:

Whereas the by-product of \$x^2\$ with respect to x is \$dfracx^2 = 2x\$, the by-product of \$x^2\$ with respect to time t is \$dfrac

x^2 = 2xdfrac

\$. Equally, the by-product with respect to time t of \$y^2\$ is \$dfrac

y^2 = 2ydfrac

\$.

Maintain in thoughts that x and y are every options of time t: every positions change as time passes and the ladder slides down the wall. We’d have captured this time-dependence explicitly by writing our relation as
\$\$[x(t)]^2 + [y(t)]^2 = 100\$\$
to remind ourselves that every x and y are options of time t. Then after we take the by-product,
begin
frac

left([x(t)]^2 + [y(t)]^2 correct) &= frac

(100)
2x(t) dfrac

+ 2y(t) dfrac

&= 0
end

[Recall \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/s in the imply time of curiosity, and we’re looking for \$dfrac

\$.]

Most people uncover that writing the specific time-dependence x(t) and y(t) annoying, and so merely write x and y instead. Regardless, you ought to preserve in thoughts that every x and y depend on t, and so everytime you take the by-product with respect to time the Chain Rule applies and you have the \$dfrac

\$ and \$dfrac

\$ phrases.

4. Solve for the quantity you’re after.
The question is asking us to uncover \$dfrac

\$ on the on the spot when x = Eight ft and \$dfrac

= 2\$ ft/sec. So let’s solve the earlier equation for \$dfrac

\$:
begin
2x frac

+ 2y frac

& = 0
2y frac

&= -2x frac

frac

&= – frac frac

textual content material < >[*] end
To complete the calculation, we might like to know the price of y on the on the spot when x = 8.

Begin subproblem to uncover the price of y on the on the spot when x = Eight ft.

We’ll uncover this price by using the Pythagorean theorem:
begin
(8)^2 + y^2 &= 100
y^2 &= 100 – 64 = 36
y &= 6
end
End subproblem.

Substituting all the recognized values into the equation marked [*] above, we have:
begin
frac

&= – frac frac

&= -frac<8> <6>(2) = -frac<8> <3>textual content material < ft/s>quad cmark
end
That’s the reply. The damaging price signifies that the best of the ladder is sliding down the wall, in the negative-y route. Warning: IF you are using a web-based homework system and the question asks,

At what charge does the ladder slide down the wall?

then the system has already accounted for the damaging sign and so to be proper you’ve gotten to enter a POSITIVE VALUE: \$boxed<3>> , dfrac>> quad checkmark\$

Want entry to all of our Calculus points and choices? Buy full entry now — it’s quick and easy!

11. The angle of elevation is the angle formed by a horizontal line and a line turning into a member of the observer’s eye to an object above the horizontal line. A person is 500 toes technique from the launch stage of a scorching air balloon. The brand new air balloon is starting to come once more down at a charge of 15 ft/sec. At what charge is the angle of elevation, (theta ), altering when the brand new air balloon is 200 toes above the underside. Current All Steps Disguise All Steps

Inserting variables and recognized parts on the sketch from the problem assertion offers, We want to determine (theta ‘) when (y = 200) and everyone knows that (y’ = – 15).

There are a choice of equations that we’d use proper right here nevertheless almost certainly the right one which entails all the recognized and wished parts is,

[tan left( theta correct) = frac<<500>>] Current Step 3

Differentiating with respect to (t) offers,

[left( theta correct),,theta ‘ = frac<><<500>>hspace <0.5in>Rightarrow hspace<0.5in>theta ‘ = frac<><<500>>left( theta correct)] Current Step 4

To finish off this draw back all we might like to do is determine the price of (theta ) for the time in question. We’ll each use the distinctive equation to do this or we’d acknowledge that every one we really need is (cos left( theta correct)) and we’d do some correct triangle trig to determine that.

For this draw back we’ll merely use the distinctive equation to uncover the price of (theta ).

The velocity of change of the angle of elevation is then,

Related rates points require us to uncover the velocity of change of 1 price, given the velocity of change of a related price. We should always uncover an equation that associates the two values and apply the chain rule to differentiate both facet of the equation with respect to time.. Suppose we have a variable v. The by-product, dv/dt might be the velocity of change of v.

When fixing related rates points, we should all the time observe the steps listed below.

1) Draw a diagram. That’s basically probably the most helpful step in related rates points. It permits us to visualize the problem.

2) Assign variables to each quantitiy in the problem that could be a function of time. Each of these values can have some charge of change over time.

3) File all information that is given in the problem and the velocity of change that we strive to uncover.

4) Write an equation that associates the variables with one another. If there are variables for which we’re not given the rates of change (aside from the velocity of change that we strive to determine), we must always uncover some relation from the character of the question that allows us to write these variables in phrases of variables for which the rates of change are given. We should always then substitute these relations into the precept equation.

Phrase: For an occasion of this instance, see occasion #Three below.

5) Using the chain rule, differentiate both facet of the equation with respect to time.

6) Substitute all given information into the equation and solve for the required charge of change.

Phrase: It is essential to wait until the equation has been differentiated to substitute information into the equation. If values are substituted too early, it could lead on to an incorrect reply.

A function f has an absolute most at c if f(c) ³ f(x), for all x in the world of f. At x=c, the graph reaches its highest stage. The amount f(c) often called the most price of f.

A function f has an absolute minimal at c if f(c) £ f(x), for all x in the world of f. At x=c, the graph reaches its lowest stage. The amount f(c) often called the minimal price of f.

Collectively, the utmost and minimal values are often called the extreme values of the function f.

A function f(x), outlined on the open interval (a, b) has a native most at some extent c in (a, b), if f(c) ³ f(x) for all x shut to c. Which suggests there could also be an interval spherical c (most likely very small), such that f(c) ³ f(x) for all x in the interval.

A function f(x), outlined on the open interval (a, b) has a native minimal at some extent c in (a, b), if f(c) £ f(x) for all x shut to c. Which suggests there could also be an interval spherical c (most likely very small), such that f(c) £ f(x) for all x in the interval.

Suppose we have a function outlined on a closed interval [c, d]. An space most or minimal can’t occur on the endpoints of this interval because of the definition requires that the aim is contained in some open interval (a, b). As a result of the function simply is not outlined for some open interval spherical each c or d, a neighborhood most or native minimal cannot occur at this stage. An absolute most or minimal can occur, however, because of the definition requires that the aim merely be in the world of the function.

If f has a neighborhood most or minimal at c and f'(c) exists, then f'(c) = 0.

The converse of this theorem simply is not true. If f'(c) = 0, then c simply is not basically a maxiumum or minimal price. There can be a most or minimal price when f'(c) would not exist.

A essential amount of a function f is a amount c in the world of f, such that f'(c)=Zero or f'(c) would not exist.

Using the definition of an important amount, we are going to rephrase Fermat’s Theorem as : If f has a neighborhood most or minimal at c, then c is an important number of f.

To go looking out completely probably the most or minumum values of a gentle function f on a closed interval [a, b], we first uncover the essential numbers of the function in (a, b) and calculate the price of the function at each essential amount. Subsequent we uncover the values of the function on the endpoints of the interval. We then look at all of these values. The largest price is totally the many of the function on the interval [a, b], whereas the smallest price is totally the minimal.

The concept of most and minimal values permits us to solve optimization points. These points are most likely probably the most wise functions of differential calculus. They allow us to uncover the optimum technique to perform some course of.

To solve optimization points, we observe the steps listed below

1) Draw a diagram, if necessary, to help visualize the problem.

2) Assign variables to the quantity to be optimized and all totally different unknown parts given in the question.

3) Write an equation that associates the optimum quantity to the alternative variables. If the optimum quantity is expressed in phrases of a few variable, we must always take away the extra variables. We use the character of the question to uncover some relation between the variables and substitute these relations into the equation for the optimum quantity. The optimum quantity equation ought to be in phrases of only one variable in order that it has the form f(x).

4) Uncover completely probably the most or minimal of f(x), counting on the question. If the world of f is closed, use the closed interval methodology.

For additional apply with the concepts coated in this tutorial, go to the Related Rates and Optimization Points net web page on the hyperlink below. The choices to the problems shall be posted after these chapters are coated in your calculus course.

To test your info of these software program points, try taking the ultimate related rates and optimization test on the iLrn website online or the superior related rates and optimization test on the hyperlink below.

Please forward any questions, suggestions, or points you possibly can have expert with this website online to Alex Karassev.

1. Inside the following assume that (x) and (y) are every options of (t). Given (x = – 2), (y = 1) and (x’ = – 4) determine (y’) for the following equation. [6 + = 2 – <>^<4 - 4y>>] Decision
2. Inside the following assume that (x), (y) and (z) are all options of (t). Given (x = 4), (y = – 2), (z = 1), (x’ = 9) and (y’ = – 3) determine (z’) for the following equation. [xleft( <1 - y>correct) + 5 = + – 3] Decision
3. For a certain rectangle the dimensions of 1 aspect is on a regular basis Three occasions the dimensions of the alternative aspect.

1. If the shorter aspect is decreasing at a charge of two inches/minute at what charge is the longer aspect decreasing?
2. At what charge is the enclosed house decreasing when the shorter aspect is 6 inches prolonged and is decreasing at a charge of two inches/minute?

Decision

• A thin sheet of ice is in the kind of a circle. If the ice is melting in such a technique that the realm of the sheet is decreasing at a charge of 0.5 m 2 /sec at what charge is the radius decreasing when the realm of the sheet is 12 m 2 ? Decision
• A person is standing 350 toes away from a model rocket that is fired straight up into the air at a charge of 15 ft/sec. At what charge is the hole between the person and the rocket rising (a) 20 seconds after liftoff? (b) 1 minute after liftoff? Decision
• A airplane is 750 meters in the air flying parallel to the underside at a velocity of 100 m/s and is initially 2.5 kilometers away from a radar station. At what charge is the hole between the airplane and the radar station altering (a) initially and (b) 30 seconds after it passes over the radar station?

6. A airplane is 750 meters in the air flying parallel to the underside at a velocity of 100 m/s and is initially 2.5 kilometers away from a radar station. At what charge is the hole between the airplane and the radar station altering (a) initially and (b) 30 seconds after it passes over the radar station? Current All Choices Disguise All Choices

a At what charge is the hole between the airplane and the radar station altering initially? Current All Steps Disguise All Steps
Start Decision

For this half everyone knows that (x’ = – 100) when (x = 2500). On this case discover that (x’) have to be damaging because of (x) shall be decreasing in this half. Moreover discover that we remodeled (x) to meters since all the alternative parts are in meters.

Here is a sketch for this half. We want to determine (z’) in this half so using the Pythagorean Theorem we get the following equation to relate (x) and (z).

Lastly, let’s differentiate this with respect to (t) and we are going to even solve it for (z’) so the exact decision shall be quick and straightforward to uncover.

[2z,z’ = 2x,x’hspace <0.5in>Rightarrow hspace<0.5in>z’ = frac<>] Current Step 3

To finish off this draw back all we might like to do is determine (z) (reusing the Pythagorean Theorem) after which plug into the equation from Step Three above.

The velocity of change of the hole between the two for this half is,

b At what charge is the hole between the airplane and the radar station altering 30 seconds after it passes over the radar station? Current All Steps Disguise All Steps
Start Decision

For this half everyone knows that (x’ = 100) and it’s going to be optimistic in this case because of (x) will now be rising as we are going to see in the sketch below. As with the sooner half we want to determine (z’) and equation we’ll need is a similar to the sooner half so we’ll merely rewrite every it and its by-product proper right here.

To finish off this draw back all we might like to do is determine every (x) and (z). For (x) everyone knows the speed of the airplane and the reality that it has flown for 30 seconds after passing over the radar station. So (x) is,

[x = left( <100>correct)left( <30>correct) = 3000]

For (z) we merely need to reuse the Pythagorean Theorem.

The velocity of change of the hole between the two for this half is then,