Women are eight times more likely than men to get urinary tract infections, mainly because female anatomy makes it easier for fecal bacteria to reach the urinary tract. Lower UTIs, the most common type, develop in the bladder and cause abdominal pain, pelvic pressure, or burning urination. Upper UTIs, in which the infection has spread to the kidneys, are more serious and harder to treat; symptoms include back pain, fever, and nausea. Menopausal and postmenopausal women are at higher risk because they have lower levels of estrogen–the hormone triggers production of protective antimicrobial proteins in the bladder.
(Transform your health with 365 days of slimming secrets, wellness tips, and motivation—get your 2018 Prevention calendar and health planner today!)
Staying hydrated keeps fluid moving through your system, which flushes bacteria out of the urinary tract and body. Any liquid is better than none, but it’s best to avoid sugary or caffeinated drinks, which may promote UTIs. Start with an extra glass of water with each meal and drink more if urine looks darker than pale yellow.
Wipe from front to back (or wipe front and back separately) after using the bathroom. This prevents UTI-causing microbes from being moved into the urethra. Also, urinate soon after intercourse to help wash away any bacteria that may have been transported into the urinary tract during sex. (Behold: 7 weird things you didn’t know about your vagina—but definitely should!)
3. Cranberry juice or supplements
Research on cranberry’s effectiveness is mixed, but it’s worth a try if you’re prone to UTIs. Cranberry contains proanthocyanidins, compounds thought to prevent bacteria from adhering to urinary tract walls. Drink 8 oz of pure, unsweetened juice a day; if it’s too sour for you, try a supplement.
For women who have had UTIs in the past, one study found that taking probiotics can help prevent repeat infections. Look for a product that contains lactobacillus bacteria, a strain that’s been shown to support a healthy genitourinary tract. Or try naturally probiotic foods like yogurt and kefir (look for “live and active cultures” on the label).
Another preventive measure for recurrent infections is supplements of D-mannose, a simple sugar found naturally in the body. Studies have shown that the supplements can keep UTIs from coming back, likely by preventing bacteria from sticking to urinary tract walls. Consider taking D-mannose daily for 6 months for prolonged protection.
3. Pain relievers
OTC phenazopyridine (such as Azo and Uristat) can relieve pain, burning, and the frequent urge to urinate. Don’t be alarmed if your urine turns red-orange or brown; it’s a harmless side effect. OTC pain relievers can help with flank or back pain, but that kind of pain may be a sign the UTI has spread to the kidneys and you should see a doctor.
Follow these dos and don’ts for a happy, healthy vagina:
Most UTIs can be treated with a 3-day course of antibiotics. Be sure to take the full course of medicine, even if symptoms go away: Quitting too soon raises the risk that a UTI will rebound. Call your doctor as soon as you start feeling symptoms—going untreated too long can allow the infection to spread to the kidneys. (Do you really need to finish all of your antibiotics? Find out here.)
2. Vaginal estrogen
For postmenopausal women, applying estrogen to the vagina via a topical cream or suppository has been shown to reduce recurrent UTIs by strengthening vaginal tissues, fostering growth of healthy lactobacillus bacteria, and reducing pH so the genitourinary environment is less friendly to invading bacteria.
3. Suppressive therapy
If you suffer from recurrent UTIs, your doctor may prescribe a 6-month regimen of low-dose antibiotics; this may be extended for up to 5 years for severe UTIs. If your infections seem tied to sexual activity, your doctor may recommend taking an antibiotic only after sex, which is often as effective as daily drug therapy.
If you think you might have a urinary tract infection, you’ll tell your doctor about your symptoms and start with a urine test. You might need some other tests, too.
- A urinalysis checks your urine sample for white blood cells, blood, and bacteria.
- A urine culture is another test that can find the type of bacteria that caused the infection, which will help your doctor choose an antibiotic to give you.
There are two types of UTIs: simple and complicated.
Simple UTIs happen in healthy people with normal urinary tracts.
Complicated UTIs happen in people with abnormal urinary tracts or when antibiotics cannot treat the bacteria causing the infection. People who get UTIs often usually have complicated ones.
If you have complicated UTIs, your doctor may refer you to a urologist for further testing to find out why you are getting UTIs. In this case, you may get tests such as:
- Urine culture and urinalysis
- Blood tests
- X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, or ultrasound to show your urinary tract , in which your doctor inserts a long, thin instrument into your urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your body) to look inside your bladder , an X-ray test that uses dye so your doctor can better see your urinary system. This is rarely done now.
You wouldn’t get those tests if you have a simple UTI and don’t tend to get them a lot.
If you’re pregnant and you have a UTI, be sure to see your doctor promptly before it causes problems with your pregnancy.
Bacteria cause most UTIs. If that’s the case for you, then you’ll need to take antibiotics.
Young woman with a simple bladder infection might get an antibiotic prescription that lasts for just a few days. If your symptoms come back, you might get more tests to rule out other problems.
You might take antibiotics for a longer time, depending on what caused the infection and how long you’ve had your UTI, or if you have an infection that won’t go away. Men usually have to take antibiotics for weeks if the infection is in their prostate. That’s important to do to make sure the infection doesn’t cause serious problems.
You’ll need to take all the pills in your prescription and follow the instructions to take them on time — even after you start to feel better. If you have questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. You should also drink lots of water to help wash out the bacteria from your urinary system.
If you have pain from your UTI, you might want to take medicine for that — and try a heating pad, too. If your symptoms do not go away after you take your antibiotics, you may need more testing.
If you have bladder pain and pain when you urinate, you may get a bladder anesthetic to curb irritation of the bladder and urethra. Depending on which bladder pain medication you take, it may change the color of your urine to reddish-orange or even blue.
It’s not likely that you’ll need an operation. But you might if your UTI is due to an anatomical problem. Or you could need an operation if a blockage, such as a kidney stone or enlarged prostate, is the cause.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.”
You’ve heard of E. Coli before, but did you know it causes 90% of urinary tract infections?
The bacteria could get picked up in several ways, but the result is the same — pain! Are you experiencing painful urination, bloody urination, and abdominal pain? If so, then it’s likely you’ve got a urinary tract infection.
The discomfort is unbearable. So, you’re likely wondering how to get rid of a UTI in 24 hours. Read on to learn the top seven ways to treat your condition at home.
1. Water is Your Best Friend
When you first notice burning when you use the restroom, it’s tempting to reduce your water intake. After all, that will prevent the pain, right?
It seems counter-intuitive, but you need to flush out your system. You should drink plenty of water to help your body remove the E. Coli. Don’t overdo it, but drink as much water as possible in those crucial first 24 hours.
Cranberries can help when you have a UTI. Here’s how:
- UTIs happen when E. Coli attaches to your bladder
- Cranberries contain A-type proanthocyanids (PACs)
- PACs stop the bacteria from sticking to your bladder
Keep in mind that cranberries won’t cure an infection. They can help your body flush bacteria out. But, you’d have to ingest a strong concentration to eradicate them all.
3. Take a Sick Day
If you’re putting your focus on drinking more, then you’ll be urinating — A LOT.
It’s advised that you take a sick day for the first 24-hours. That way, you can stay close to the restroom and relieve yourself when you need to.
4. Consider Probiotics
Once E. Coli gets into your bladder, it’ll begin reproducing. It will start to invade and replace the ‘good’ bacteria that live in your gut and urinary tract.
Probiotics can help your body restore itself. It will increase the ‘good’ bacteria and prevent the ‘bad’ ones from taking over.
5. Eat Vitamin C
Vitamin C can help destroy bad bacteria due to its acidity. It will also help protect you from future infections, so start increasing your intake now.
6. Consume Garlic
Garlic doesn’t only ward off vampires. It also fights off bacteria like E. Coli. Increasing your garlic consumption can help you combat bladder infections.
It’s also effective with antibiotic-resistant UTIs.
7. Practice Good Hygiene
More than half of all women will experience at least one UTI. Many are unaware of their poor hygiene habits until they’ve experienced one.
Always wipe from front to back to prevent E. Coli from nearing your private space. Also, empty your bladder after having sex. If you’re prone to UTIs, then you should also avoid bubble baths and spermicide.
How to Get Rid of a UTI in 24 Hours
Are you experiencing painful urination and a constant need to run to the bathroom? If so, then you’re already wondering how to get rid of a UTI in 24 hours. The seven home remedies in this article can help.
If you’re still experiencing symptoms after 24 hours, then you need antibiotics. To get your hands on them, you’ll need to visit the doctor.
The doctors at Oxford Urgent Care will provide you with prompt treatment and relief. Check out our contact information and visit our office as soon as possible to remedy your UTI.
Do you have pain or burning when you urinate? You might have a urinary tract infection (UTI).
Antibiotics treat UTIs. Your healthcare professional can determine if you have a UTI and what antibiotic you need.
What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
UTIs are common infections that happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, enter the urethra, and infect the urinary tract. The infections can affect several parts of the urinary tract, but the most common type is a bladder infection (cystitis).
Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is another type of UTI. They’re less common, but more serious than bladder infections.
Some people are at higher risk of getting a UTI. UTIs are more common in females because their urethras are shorter and closer to the rectum. This makes it easier for bacteria to enter the urinary tract.
Other factors that can increase the risk of UTIs:
- A previous UTI
- Sexual activity
- Changes in the bacteria that live inside the vagina, or vaginal flora. For example, menopause or the use of spermicides can cause these bacterial changes.
- Age (older adults and young children are more likely to get UTIs)
- Structural problems in the urinary tract, such as enlarged prostate
- Poor hygiene, for example, in children who are potty-training
Symptoms of a bladder infection can include:
- Pain or burning while urinating
- Frequent urination
- Feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder
- Bloody urine
- Pressure or cramping in the groin or lower abdomen
Symptoms of a kidney infection can include:
- Lower back pain or pain in the side of your back
- Nausea or vomiting
Younger children may not be able to tell you about UTI symptoms they are having. While fever is the most common sign of UTI in infants and toddlers, most children with fever do not have a UTI. If you have concerns that your child may have a UTI, talk to a healthcare professional.
A female urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. This image shows how bacteria from the skin or rectum can travel up the urethra and cause a bladder infection.
A female urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. This image shows how bacteria from the skin or rectum can travel up the urethra and cause a bladder infection.
baby icon Talk to a healthcare professional right away if your child is younger than 3 months old and has a fever of 100.4 °F (38 °C) or higher.
When to Seek Medical Care
Talk to your healthcare professional if you have symptoms of a UTI or for any symptom that is severe or concerning.
Taking antibiotics, prescribed by a healthcare professional, at home can treat most UTIs. However, some cases may require treatment in a hospital.
Your healthcare professional will determine if you have a UTI by:
- Asking about symptoms
- Doing a physical exam
- Ordering urine tests, if needed
Bacteria cause UTIs and antibiotics treat them. However, any time you take antibiotics, they can cause side effects. Side effects can include rash, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, and yeast infections. More serious side effects can include antibiotic-resistant infections or C. diff infection, which causes diarrhea that can lead to severe colon damage and death. Call your healthcare professional if you develop any side effects while taking your antibiotic.
Sometimes other illnesses, such as sexually transmitted diseases, have symptoms similar to UTIs. Your healthcare professional can determine if a UTI or different illness is causing your symptoms and determine the best treatment.
How to Feel Better
If your healthcare professional prescribes you antibiotics:
- Take antibiotics exactly as your healthcare professional tells you.
- Do not share your antibiotics with others.
- Do not save antibiotics for later. Talk to your healthcare professional about safely discarding leftover antibiotics.
Drink plenty of water or other fluids. Your healthcare professional might also recommend medicine to help lessen the pain or discomfort. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have any questions about your antibiotics.
Urinary tract infections involve the parts of the body — the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — that produce urine and carry it out of the body. Urinary tract infections often are classified into two types based on their location in the urinary tract:
- Lower tract infections — These include cystitis (bladder infection) and urethritis (infection of the urethra). Lower urinary tract infections commonly are caused by intestinal bacteria, which enter and contaminate the urinary tract from below, usually by spreading from the skin to the urethra and then to the bladder. Urethritis also may be caused by microorganisms that are transmitted through sexual contact, including gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Another form of male urinary infection is prostatitis which is an inflammation of the prostate.
- Upper tract infections — These involve the ureters and kidneys and include pyelonephritis (kidney infection). Upper tract infections often occur because bacteria have traveled upward in the urinary tract from the bladder to the kidney or because bacteria carried in the bloodstream have collected in the kidney.
Most cases of urinary tract infections occur in women. Of those that occur in men, relatively few affect younger men. In men older than 50, the prostate gland (a gland near the bottom of the bladder, close to the urethra) can enlarge and block the flow of urine from the bladder. This condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH. This condition can prevent the bladder from emptying completely, which increases the likelihood that bacteria will grow and trigger an infection. Cystitis is more common in men who practice anal intercourse and in those who are not circumcised. Other factors that increase the risk of urinary infections include an obstruction, such as that caused by a partial blockage of the urethra known as a stricture, and non-natural substances, such as rubber catheter tubes (as may be inserted to relieve a blockage in the urethra).
To continue reading this article, you must log in.
Subscribe to Harvard Health Online for immediate access to health news and information from Harvard Medical School.
- Research health conditions
- Check your symptoms
- Prepare for a doctor’s visit or test
- Find the best treatments and procedures for you
- Explore options for better nutrition and exercise
I’d like to receive access to Harvard Health Online for only $4.99 a month.
Don’t be surprised if your doctor doesn’t rush you into treatment.
Image: © iStock
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be tricky in older age. They’re not always as easy to spot or treat as in youth. And the decades-long approach to treatment is changing. “We’ve been hasty in using antibiotics, and we’re learning there are significant consequences that can range from side effects of medication to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” says Dr. Helen Chen, a geriatrician at Harvard-affiliated Hebrew Rehabilitation Center.
UTIs can occur anywhere in the urinary tract. The most common places are the bladder (where urine is stored) and the urethra (the tube through which you urinate). Less common, but more serious, is infection of the kidneys, which filter waste and extra water from the blood and make urine. Infections may be triggered by sexual activity, catheters, kidney stones, decreased estrogen in the lining of the vagina, or urine that’s pooled in the bladder.
Classic symptoms include a burning feeling with urination, a sense of urgency to urinate, increased frequency of urination, blood in the urine, and fever. Some older adults with a UTI also develop confusion.
The tricky part
Some of these UTI symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other conditions common in older people. “That makes it hard to decide if you have a new infection, or if an existing problem is worse, or if you have something else,” says Dr. Chen. For example:
Many older adults already have issues with frequency or urgency from bladder problems or (for men) an enlarged prostate.
Confusion can be a medication side effect or a sign of another problem, such as dehydration or a disturbed metabolism (which might occur with abnormal blood levels of calcium or sugar).
Also complicating diagnosis is UTI testing. A urine sample checks for the presence of bacteria and white blood cells (which would suggest an infection). If this initial test is positive, it’s usually necessary to grow the bacteria in a lab to identify the specific type of bacteria. But older women can carry bacteria in their bladders without any symptoms. Doctors call this asymptomatic bacteruria rather than a bladder infection.
Rushing to judgment
Treating a UTI without classic symptoms, based instead on the presence of some bacteria and white blood cells in urine, may have several consequences. It may mean that an underlying condition (or a worsening condition) is not being addressed. And since treatment involves a course of antibiotics, unnecessary treatment may lead to antibiotic resistance.
While the risk of not giving an antibiotic to rid the bladder of bacteria is small, it can sometimes allow bacteria to spread to the kidney and then to the bloodstream. This can lead to sepsis, the body’s toxic and sometimes deadly response to infection.
“Anyone with new classic symptoms should probably be treated for a UTI. However, if the only symptom is confusion, considering other causes or waiting a day or two to see if it resolves may be appropriate, if the family can observe the person and is okay with this,” says Dr. Chen.
If your doctor does prescribe an antibiotic, talk about potential side effects. Certain commonly used antibiotics called fluoroquinolones — such as levofloxacin (Levaquin) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) — can be associated with damage to tendons, joints, nerves, and the central nervous system. The FDA advises that these medications should not be used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated UTIs. Dr. Chen says other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin), cotrimoxazole (Bactrim), or nitrofurantoin (Macrobid), may be better options.
Ways to avoid urinary tract infections
Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water, which increases urination, thereby flushing out bladder bacteria. How much should you drink? Enough to keep your urine looking clear.
Wipe properly. Women should wipe from front to back after using the toilet. Wiping from back to front may increase the risk of getting UTIs.
Use topical estrogen creams. These creams may help postmenopausal women who have vaginal dryness and struggle with recurrent urinary tract infections.
Don’t rely on cranberry juice. The evidence about whether it helps prevent UTIs is mixed. And the juice has lots of sugar and calories.
As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
Urinary tract infections or UTIs are infections in any part of the urinary tract. They are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to UTIs.
A UTI may affect any part of the urinary tract causing:
- Urethritis. This is an infection of the urethra, the hollow tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
- Cystitis. This is an infection in the bladder from germs that have moved up from the urethra.
- Pyelonephritis. This infection of the kidneys is most often a result of an infection that has spread up the urinary tract, or from a blockage in the urinary tract. A blockage causes urine to back up into the ureters and kidneys.
- Abscess. A collection of pus along the course of the urinary tract is called an abscess.
What causes urinary tract infections?
Normal urine is sterile and contains fluids, salts, and waste products. It does not contain bacteria, viruses, or fungi. A UTI occurs when germs, most often bacteria from the digestive tract, get into the opening of the urethra and start to multiply.
Most UTIs are caused by E. coli bacteria, which normally live in the colon.
What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection?
These are the most common symptoms of a UTI:
- Frequent urination
- Pain or burning when passing urine
- Urine looks dark, cloudy, or reddish in color (blood may be present in the urine)
- Urine smells bad
- Feeling pain even when not urinating
- Pain in the back or side, below the ribs
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Despite an strong urge to urinate, only a small amount of urine is passed
- Women may feel an uncomfortable pressure above the pubic bone
The symptoms of UTI may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see a health care provider for a diagnosis.
How are urinary tract infections diagnosed?
Your doctor will review your medical history and do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
- Urinalysis. Lab testing of urine is done to check for various cells and chemicals, such as red and white blood cells, germs (like bacteria), or a lot of protein.
If UTIs become a repeated problem, other tests may be used to see if the urinary tract is normal. These tests may include:
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP). This is a series of X-rays of the kidney, ureters (the two tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder), and bladder. It uses a contrast dye injected into a vein. This can be used to find tumors, structural abnormalities, kidney stones, or blockages. It also checks blood flow in the kidneys.
- Cystoscopy. In this test, a thin, flexible tube and viewing device is put in through the urethra to examine the bladder and other parts of the urinary tract. Structural changes or blockages, such as tumors or stones can be found.
- Kidney and bladder ultrasound. This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of the bladder and the kidneys on a computer screen. The test is used to determine the size and shape of the bladder and the kidneys, and check for a mass, kidney stone(s), cysts, or other blockages or abnormalities.
How are urinary tract infections treated?
Your health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
- How old you are
- Your overall health and medical history
- How sick you are
- How well you can handle specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- How long the condition is expected to last
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment for UTIs may include:
- Other medications to ease pain
- Heat (such as heating pad) to ease pain
You may also need to make lifestyle changes such as:
- Drinking plenty of water to help wash bacteria out of the urinary tract
- Avoiding coffee, alcohol, and spicy foods
- Quitting smoking
Can urinary tract infections be prevented?
These steps may help reduce the chance of getting UTIs:
- Drink plenty of water every day.
- Drink cranberry juice. Large amounts of vitamin C limit the growth of some bacteria by acidifying the urine. Vitamin C supplements have the same effect.
- Urinate when you feel the need. Do not wait.
- Females, wipe from front to back to keep bacteria around the anus from going in the vagina or urethra.
- Take showers instead of tub baths.
- Clean the genital area before and after sex, and urinate shortly after sex.
- Women should not use feminine hygiene sprays or scented douches.
- Cotton underwear and loose fitting clothes help keep the area around the urethra dry. Tight clothes and nylon underwear trap moisture. This can help bacteria grow.
- Repeated bouts of urinary tract infections can be treated with small doses of regular antibiotics.
Please consult your health care provider with any questions or concerns you may have about UTIs.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) starts when bacteria get into your bladder, kidneys, or another part of your urinary tract. The best way to treat a UTI — and to relieve symptoms like pain, burning, and an urgent need to pee — is with antibiotics.
These medications kill bacteria that cause the infection. It’s important to take them just as your doctor prescribed. A minor UTI can turn into a serious kidney or blood infection if you don’t.
Which antibiotic you get and how long you take it depend on your urine culture results.
Which Antibiotic Will Work Best?
Your doctor will take a urine sample to confirm that you have a UTI. Then the lab will grow the germs in a dish for a couple of days to find out which type of bacteria you have. This is called a culture. It’ll tell your doctor what type of germs caused your infection. They’ll likely prescribe one of the following antibiotics to treat it before the culture comes back:
Which medication and dose you get depends on whether your infection is complicated or uncomplicated.
“Uncomplicated” means your urinary tract is normal. “Complicated” means you have a disease or problem with your urinary tract. You could have a narrowing of your ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder, a narrowing in the urethra which transports urine from the bladder out of the body, or, you might have a blockage like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate (in men).
To treat a complicated infection, your doctor might prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If your UTI is severe or the infection is in your kidneys, you might need to be treated in a hospital or doctor’s office with high-dose antibiotics you get through an IV.
Your doctor will also consider these factors when choosing an antibiotic:
- Are you pregnant?
- Are you over age 65?
- Are you allergic to any antibiotics?
- Have you had any side effects from antibiotics in the past?
How Long Should I Take Antibiotics?
Your doctor will let you know. Typically, for an uncomplicated infection, you’ll take antibiotics for 2 to 3 days. Some people will need to take these medicines for up to 7 to 10 days.
For a complicated infection, you might need to take antibiotics for 14 days or more.
A follow-up urine test can show whether the germs are gone. If you still have an infection, you’ll need to take antibiotics for a longer period of time.
If you get UTIs often, you may need to a prolonged course of antibiotics. And if sex causes your UTIs, you’ll take a dose of the medicine right before you have sex. You can also take antibiotics whenever you get a new UTI f you’re having symptoms and a postive urine culture.
Side Effects of Antibiotics
There are some, as is the case with any medicines you take. Some of these include:
Why Should I Take the Full Dose?
Antibiotics work well against UTIs. You might start to feel better after being on the medicine for just a few days.
But even so, keep taking your medicine. If you stop your antibiotics too soon, you won’t kill all the bacteria in your urinary tract.
These germs can become resistant to antibiotics. That means the meds will no longer kill these bugs in the future. So if you get another UTI, the medication you take might not treat it. Take the full course of your medicine to make sure all the bacteria are dead.
When to Call Your Doctor
Your UTI symptoms should improve in a few days. Call your doctor if:
- Your symptoms don’t go away
- Your symptoms get worse
- Your symptoms come back after you’ve been treated
- You have bothersome side effects from your antibiotics
American Urological Association: “Adult UTI.”
Choosing Wisely: “Antibiotics for Urinary Tract Infections in Older People.”
Mayo Clinic: “Urinary tract infection (UTI): Symptoms.” “Urinary tract infection (UTI): Tests and diagnosis.” “Urinary tract infection (UTI): Treatments and Drugs.”
Medscape: “Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy Treatment & Management.”
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs).”