How to soothe tired feet

Shopped And Dropped This Holiday? Help For Achy Feet

Holiday shopping and standing all night at festive cocktail parties can leave you with sore, achy feet. But you don’t have to let the agony of “da-feet” sideline you from enjoying this holiday season.

Pain and inflammation along the balls of your feet or along the metatarsals (the bones on the bottom of your feet that connect with your toes) can be caused by metatarsalgia. This painful condition affects not only holiday shoppers; it also affects athletes who land hard on their feet, such as dancers, runners and basketball and volleyball players. In addition, metatarsalgia can occur in athletes who diet to make certain weight divisions and experience bone loss from nutritional deficiencies.

When Metatarsals Are A Pain

As you walk, run or jump, your body weight shifts onto these metatarsal bones as the toes “push-off” to propel you forward. Problems occur when the weight does not get distributed evenly throughout the foot and these bones take the brunt of the force. Too much “rolling in” of the foot (pronation) can contribute to this condition. Tight or weak toe muscles along with muscle imbalances in the leg can cause disproportionate forces throughout the foot, causing additional stress to the metatarsal bones. Significant weight gain and poorly fitted shoes can also trigger this condition.

Structural issues that predispose you to metatarsalgia include:

  • Bunions
  • A high arch that strains the front portion of your foot
  • Hammertoes that cause downward pressure on the metatarsal
  • A second toe that’s longer than the big toe, which can alter weight distribution of your foot

Why You’re Sidelined

An abnormal distribution of pressure can occur if there is weakness in the foot muscles, as well as other muscle weakness and tightness in your leg. As a result, these bones can’t absorb shock efficiently and become inflamed and painful when you try to jump or run. You may even experience difficulty pushing off from your toes trying to sprint across the street or on the track. Going up and down steps and walking barefoot on a hard floor can hurt. Athletes with metatarsalgia often complain of feeling like a pebble is in their shoe.

Comedian Billy Crystal used to say “it’s better to look good than to feel good.” Luckily, he’s not a shoes salesman. Shoes may look good, but if they don’t provide good shock absorption or the toe box is too narrow, the metatarsals get “squished” and take a beating as you pound the pavement. Recent reports state that 68 percent of men and 87 percent of women wear the wrong shoe size. It didn’t work out well when Cinderella’s stepsisters tried to fit into a too-small shoe, and it likely won’t work for you, either.


How To Stay In The Game

Properly fitting shoes and sneakers can help prevent metatarsalgia from sidelining you. If you do a lot of jumping or running, you need good shock absorption and a sneaker that won’t allow excessive rubbing along the sole of your foot. Some sneakers may look cool, but the only cool thing will be the ice you have on your feet after wearing them.

Orthotics and cushioned gel metatarsal pads may also help support your foot and alleviate pain. Discuss these with your physician to see if they are appropriate for you.

Also, try the following exercises:

Arch Lifts

  • Place bare feet on the floor.
  • Keep toes straight and heels on floor and press toes down as you lift the arch of your foot. Hold 10 seconds. Do 10 times.

Toe Scrunch

  • Scrunch a washcloth with your toes. Hold the toes in scrunching position for 5 seconds. Do 10 times.

Plantar Fascia Stretch

  • Place balls of your feet on step. Drop your heels down. Hold 30 seconds. Repeat.

Toe extensor stretch

  • Hold ball of foot with one hand as you pull toes downward with the other. Hold 30 seconds. Repeat.

Always check with a physician prior to any exercise routine. And remember: You may be sidelined. but not for long!

November 17, 2017 by Diana

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How to soothe tired feet

Our feet work hard all day long. They carry us everywhere we go, whether it’s a leisurely walk outdoors, laps around the track or walking around the house as we do our everyday chores. The result – tired, aching feet at the end of the day.

Feet that feel heavy and sore can have several consequences. It makes it difficult to fall asleep. Staying asleep can also be a struggle. All this tossing and turning around at night means waking up feeling tired and irritable. Not a good start to the day.

Fortunately, there are a few things you can do to ease the heavy, achy feeling and get a good night’s sleep so you wake up feeling refreshed, energized, and ready to go all over again the next day.

These natural remedies for aching feet will have you feeling great again. As you will see, all of these are incredibly simple and easy. And they don’t take a whole lot of time either. Just choose any one that suits you, keep whatever you need handy and you’re ready to give your tired, aching feet some much needed TLC.

Elevate Your Feet

When you’re standing, your feet bear all your weight. Keep your feet up for just 15 to 20 minutes takes the weight off your feet, giving you instant relief. It also increases the circulation in your legs and feet, reducing the pain and swelling.

This is so simple, there really is no excuse not to keep your feet up for at least a few minutes every day.

Alternate Between a Hot and Cold Foot Bath

When you put your foot in a hot bath, it dilates the blood vessels in your feet. Then when you put them in a cold bath, the cold water constricts the blood vessels. This alternate dilating and constricting boosts circulation and reduces the swelling and achiness in your feet.

Here’s how to do a hot and cold foot bath.

Fill one basin with cold water and another with warm water.

Sit comfortably and place your feet in the cold water for five minutes.

Remove your feet from the cold water and place them in the basin with hot water.

Alternate between hot and cold every five minutes for a total of thirty minutes for maximum effectiveness.

This is a nice sized basin for a foot bath. With this sized basin, you won’t have to worry about the water spilling over.

Use Himalayan Salt Detox Foot Tiles

How to soothe tired feetNatural mineral salts have been shown to replenish the calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the body. Himalayan Salt Detox Foot Tiles are slipper-shaped slabs of pure natural mineral salt excavated from the Himalayas.

Placing your feet directly on the salt tiles for just 10 – 15 minutes daily offers tremendous benefits by facilitating the absorption of ions into the body. This helps soothe tired feet, while also lowering stress levels.

The detoxifying salts that make up these foot tiles also flush out impurities, which boosts respiratory health and reduces symptoms of asthma and allergies.

You can use the Himalayan Salt Detox Foot Tiles as is at room temperature, or you can use them for warm or cold therapy.

Warm therapy is especially useful for drawing away aches and pains after a long day on your feet. To get the benefits of warm therapy, heat the tiles in the oven for about 10 minutes at 175 degrees Fahrenheit. Check to make sure they are not too hot, then place feet on the tiles for 10-15 minutes.

Cold therapy is useful for easing swollen feet and ankles. To cool the tiles, place them in the refrigerator or the freezer. Remove and place your feet on them for 10-15 minutes.

Soak Your Feet in an Epsom Salt Bath

Magnesium is known to help reduce swelling and ease the pain. Epsom salts are made of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, which makes them very effective for this purpose.

There are two ways you can use Epsom salt to reduce the swelling in your feet.

One way is to fill a basin with hot water, add Epsom salt, and soak just your feet for at least 20 minutes.

Alternately, if you are looking to relax your entire body, fill your bathtub with hot water, add Epsom salt, and soak your whole body for 45 minutes to an hour.

Soak Your Feet in An Essential Oil Bath

Add a few drops of essential oils to your Epsom salt bath will boost the power of the Epsom salts, helping to increase blood circulation and reduce swelling.

Peppermint, clove, eucalyptus, and rosemary are the best essential oils to soothe tired, aching feet. All of these essential oils increase blood flow in the feet and legs, which reduces the swelling and eases the fatigue.

This Epsom Salt Foot Soak recipe is easy to follow and is super effective for soothing aching feet.

Vinegar Soak is a Great Alternative

If you don’t have Epsom salts or essential oils in the house, a great alternative for a foot soak is vinegar. Vinegar helps to reduce inflammation and can be used in two ways.

One way is to fill a basin with hot water and add two tablespoons of vinegar and one tablespoon salt. Soak your feet for about twenty minutes.

The second way is to get two basins of water- one with hot water and the second with cold water. Add vinegar and salt to both basins. Soak a big enough towel in the hot mixture and squeeze out the excess liquid. Wrap the hot compress around your feet for five minutes. Repeat the same process using the cold mixture.

This process is effective because you are getting the benefits from the vinegar as well as from alternating hot and cold on your feet to maximize blood flow and reduce swelling and achiness.

Taking preventative measures, such as investing in a good pair of shoes can help minimize pain and swelling. If you do find your feet achy and swollen after a day out, these natural remedies are very effective at easing the pain and reducing the swelling.

To get deeper relief, give yourself a foot massage at home. A foot massage provides several benefits and its easy to give yourself one at home. It won’t take more than ten minutes and as an added bonus, the massage oil will keep your feet feeling and looking great!

How to soothe tired feet

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By EveryNurse Staff on June 12, 2018

How to soothe tired feet

It’s no secret that nurses spend all day on their feet. With extended shifts and running back and forth between patients, doctors, the lab, and the restroom (just kidding, there’s no time for bathroom breaks), nurses go home with sore, aching feet. Some shifts extend well beyond the typical 8 hours, and the physical requirements of nurses are often on par with a traditional labor-intensive job. There’s no doubt that a nurse’s feet are getting the short end of the stick.

Since sitting is a nurse’s fairytale, it’s important for nurses to make time to keep their feet healthy, even when time is at a premium. Don’t know where to start? These simple, affordable suggestions will help keep the feeling in your feet and keep you going when patients need you the most.

Stretching and Exercise

Yes, the dreaded E-word. What nurse has time for voluntary exercise? And isn’t running from patient room to patient room exercise enough? Before you scoff at the idea of moving your body when you don’t have to, remember that exercise doesn’t need to be heart-hammering cardio to be effective. What often happens when nurses finally get the chance to sit down after a long shift is their muscles lock up and become stiff, making getting going again extra-tough.

Take Action

Stretch your feet, legs, and ankles after every shift and if needed, whenever you can during the workday. Do some ankle rolls while you’re checking a patient’s vitals or charting, and if you have a minute, stretch out your hamstrings. It only takes a few minutes but staying flexible can keep you from hitting the end-of-the-day wall so hard. Exercise also keeps you in shape, making it easier for you to stay on track at work.

Rough Shift? Soak Your Feet

After spending hours on your feet, it’s normal for them to be tired, sore, and stiff. Even the best-laid plans to prevent pain won’t stand up to a particularly difficult shift and there’s going to be some (or many) days that you go home feeling like you can barely walk. When you’re crawling through your front door in your scrubs, you need an emergency solution that provides relief fast.

Take Action

Soaking your feet in Epsom salt is more than an old folk remedy. It works to relieve swelling and inflammation, both of which are present in abundance after spending 12 hours on your feet in a hospital or doctor’s office. Fill a basin with warm to hot water (just be wary of burns, even if it feels amazing) and sprinkle a generous amount of Epsom salt in the water, stirring until dissolved. You can add essential oils that can also help reduce pain and inflammation or rejuvenate the feet, such as lavender or peppermint oil. Now you finally have a good excuse to put a massaging foot bath on your Christmas list!

Wear Compression Socks

No, compression socks are not just for elderly or diabetic patients. When you spend all day upright, compression socks can really help to prevent stiff, sore legs and feet. When you’re working in a fast-paced environment with no time to sit down and relax, blood can pool in your legs and feet, leading to pain and swelling. Your feet and legs are over-worked, and they just can’t keep up with the rest of you, so instead of the blood being returned back to your heart, it just hangs out in your lower extremities. If you’ve ever noticed that your shoes are particularly tight at the end of a shift or you have difficulty switching from your work shoes to regular shoes because they seem too small, you’ve likely experienced this medical phenomenon.

Take Action

Bite the bullet and head down to your hospital’s pharmacy or home health center and grab some compression socks in your size. You can also find them at nearly any supermarket. Wear them during your shift to promote blood circulation from your legs and feet back to your upper body, making it less likely that you’ll go home with sore, swollen toes.

Take a Load Off After Your Shift

Once your shift is over, you hopefully will have some time to sit down and let your body relax before you have to put it to work again. Like compression socks, putting your feet up at the end of your shift (or whenever you can) helps to return blood that has pooled in your lower legs to your heart and back through the rest of your body.

Take Action

Don’t just put your feet up on a stool or another chair. This can be somewhat effective, but what will really get your blood flowing is if you put your legs up against a wall. Lie on your bed with your bottom to the wall and put your legs up against the wall so your feet are over your head. If your bed doesn’t touch the wall or you need to do this on the fly, just use the floor. You may look silly, but keep your feet elevated for 10 minutes or so, or until you feel like the swelling has reduced.

It’s All About the Shoes (Really!)

Of all the things nurses can do to care for their feet, wearing high-quality, comfortable shoes is the most important. Grueling 12-hour shifts seem to go by in a snap when you’re wearing the right shoes. You may be surprised to learn that supportive footwear does more than just help keep your feet from getting tired and sore — they’re also easier on the rest of your body, especially your lower back, knees, and ankles.

Take Action

Nurses should be fitted for new shoes or orthopedic insoles every year and two pairs are a must, so they can be rotated between shifts. Because a nurse’s shoes get so much wear and tear, they’ll need replacing every 3-6 months.

Nurses should worry most about comfort versus style when it comes to shoes. Purchase a style of shoe in the correct size for you and make sure there’s room to accommodate for swelling. Don’t forget about easy cleanability — after all, nursing is a messy job!

When you take care of your feet, your feet will take care of you. Use these tips to keep your feet from getting tired too quickly and to rejuvenate them after a tough day on the floor. Combining these suggestions can give you an arsenal of foot pain-fighting tools that make it easier to get through those tough days on the job. When your feet feel good, it’s easier to keep up with call-lights, doctor’s orders, tests, and emergency situations.

How to soothe tired feet

So you’ve had a long day. But you’re home and it’s finally over. Consider adding a caffeine scrub or moisturizer to your end-of-the day routine. This will soothe exhausted muscles.

There are many different reasons your feet might hurt at the end of the day. Often, this can feel like pampering, and can lift your spirits and reduce your physical discomfort.

Use a Caffeinated Body Scrub: Body scrubs are a great way to encourage blood flow and reduce tension. A caffeinated body scrub exfoliates the skin, and the motion of applying the scrub helps muscles to relax. The hands and feet are some of the most used muscles in the body, and relaxation of those muscles is often a good thing.

Massage with Moisturizers: Massage is a great way to soothe tired hands and feet after a long day. Moisturizers with caffeine are a great way to add moisture and re-energize with increased blood flow to the extremities. Also, you can use a caffeine-infused moisturizer to improve the moisture levels in your hands and feet and reduce tension in your muscles.

Enhance a Hot Soak: If your solution to a long day is a hot bath or to soak your feet, there are products that you can use to enhance the effects of the hot water. You can add Epsom salts and a few drops of lavender essential oil, for example, to make the experience more soothing, calm cramps, and to relax you further.

Drink Tea: Some say that aching feet can be caused by a fluid imbalance; adding herbal tea to your menu may help to alleviate this issue and hydrate your whole body.

Reduce Inflammation: Inflammation can cause pain and discomfort, and caffeine helps reduce inflammation throughout the body. You may also want to reconsider some of the foods in your diet. Gluten and dairy are notorious for causing inflammation. Quit those for a few weeks and see how you feel. Meanwhile, potent anti-inflammatory foods to add to your diet include leafy greens, turmeric, ginger, pineapple, and blueberries.

Callyssee is a freshly brewed line of caffeine-based bath, body & facial care that will pamper you from head to toe. Our fun line of coffee-inspired products includes anything from Coffee Crush Exfoliating Peeling Gel, Whipped Moisturizing Cream, and even Fizzy Macaron Bath Bombs, to name a few.

How to soothe tired feet

At some point in life, people experience aching feet where they feel like they can’t take another step due to the intensity of the pain. Medi-dyne’s relief for aching feet works to relieve pain on heavy and swollen feet. This often happens when people have a strain, put on tight shoes, socks, stockings, or wear poorly padded shoes.

But what other factors can contribute to achy feet? There are three other factors that greatly contribute to achy feet. These are:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Level of dehydration

What causes achy feet?

After a long day of running errands, it’s normal for the strenuous walking to affect a person’s legs. When there’s reduced blood circulation to the ankles, a person gets the feeling of tired and aching feet. What poor circulation does is cause swelling which then results in pain. Additionally, the level of a person’s dehydration contributes to how achy the feet are after a long day.

Tired and aching feet are not fun to deal with. One needs to understand what causes aching feet so that he can know the best way to treat the situation. This way, he won’t have to suffer from sore feet for long. Here are other causes of tired and aching feet:

  • Heel spurs
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Sever’s disease
  • Chaffing
  • Blisters
  • Improper footwear

What symptoms does Medi-dyne’s relief for aching feet treat?

People use their feet every day to move from one place to another. When aching starts, people report various symptoms that may be a sign of a developing stress injury. These symptoms develop when the feet are overworked either by walking long distances or participating in high-intensity exercise. Some specific symptoms of tired and aching feet include:

  1. Sharp pain in the toes or ankles
  2. Steady pain along the sides of the feet
  3. Throbbing or popping of the ankle
  4. Swelling, soreness, or tenderness on the heel or ball of the foot

How to relieve tired feet using Medi-dyne’s relief for aching feet

There are several ways in which people with aching can relieve pain. These include:

  1. Elevating the feet for about 15-20 minutes
  2. Soaking the feet in warm water or wrapping them a warm wet towel around them
  3. Asking someone to massage the feet if it’s impossible or difficult to do it alone
  4. Exercising the feet to tone the muscles. This keeps the feet healthy by stimulating blood circulation. It’s also helpful in strengthening the arches
  5. Wearing orthotic insoles in shoes


While the feet and ankles are designed to bear weight, physical activities tend to put them under a lot of pressure. Apart from physical activities, the pain may also be brought about by genetics. The aching feet may be as a result of conditions such as arthritis.

Many foot ailments can be treated at home. If the aching in the feet persists, one is advised to visit a doctor for examination. He will evaluate the cause of the foot pain to figure out if it’s something serious. If he identifies a serious problem, he’ll work with you to determine a treatment plan that puts an end to the tired and achy feet.

How to soothe tired feet

We are on our feet almost the entire day. Our busy, stressy lifestyle and uncomfortable shoes are not helping us to treat them with the best care. Sore, aching, and tired feet are a common problem during the winter months.

So what a better way than to settle down after a hard day at work and rejuvenate and soothe those feet. A simple foot soak and moisturizing foot lotion can do wonders to pamper your feet.

How To Make Your Own Foot Soak, Scrub, And Lotion

Pampering your feet starts with a healing foot soak and/or scrub. Fill up a tub with warm water, as hot as you can stand. Dissolve the salt/sugar and soak for at least 15 minutes. After the soaking remove the dead skin cells with a refreshing foot scrub, rinse with water and apply a moisturizing lotion

Here are my favorite foot scrubs/soaks and lotion to soothe and rejuvenate tired or sore feet.

#1 Epsom-Lime-Mint Foot Soak

  • 2 cups Epsom Salt
  • ½ cup baking soda
  • Zest of 1 lime (optional)
  • 5-10 drops peppermint essential oil
  • 5-10 drops lime essential oil
  • Glass jar (for better preservation, boil the jar for about 5 minutes, cool before use)
How to…
  • Combine the Epsom Salt, baking soda, and lime zest in a large bowl.
  • Add the essential oils and mix with a wooden spoon
  • Store in the fridge if using the lime zest.

#2 Herbal Foot Soak For Tired Feet

  • 1 cup of baking soda or 1 cup Epsom Salt
  • ½ cup lavender flowers, or rose petals
  • ½ cup finely chopped fresh sage
How to…
  • Add all ingredients to a hot foot bath and soak for at least 15 minutes
  • Or steep your herbs first in boiling water and cool down to a tolerable temperature.

Note: for swollen, achy feet, use chamomile flowers and catnip, use peppermint to stimulate tired feet or refresh hot ones.

#3 Refreshing Tea Tree And Peppermint Foot Scrub

  • Carrier oil (apricot, jojoba, sweet almond, coconut oil, grapeseed, etc.)
  • Sea salt or granulated sugar
  • Tea tree essential oil
  • Peppermint essential oil
  • Glass jar (for better preservation, boil the jar for about 5 minutes, cool before use)
How to…
  • Fill about ¾ of the jar with sea salt
  • Add carrier oil until the salt is completely covered
  • Add 6 drops of each essential oil (if you have a sensitive skin, start with a few drops first and see what happens) and mix with a wooden spoon.
  • Use prior to showering or in a foot bath

You could use other essential oils to your liking, lavender, rose, sage, bergamot are all other option for you to try.

Scroll down for more amazing DIY foot care products.

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How to soothe tired feet

#4 Sugar Scrub Cubes

  • ¼ cup carrier oil (apricot, jojoba, sweet almond, coconut oil, grapeseed, etc.)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar (brown or white)
  • ½ cup shredded bar of soap
  • 5 – 10 drops essential oil of your liking
  • Ice cube mold
How to…
  • Melt the oil and shredded soap in a double boiler over medium to low heat under constant stirring. (you could use the microwave, heat in intervals of 10 seconds and stir in between)
  • Add your favorite fragrance, peppermint, lavender, lime, rose, or sage work well for tired feet.
  • Add the sugar, stir quickly and place the mixture into to molds with your fingers. When you add the sugar the mixture will harden quite fast, so be sure your mold is ready on the counter and act fast after adding the sugar.
  • Freeze for at least 30 minutes. Pop cubes out of the mold, if you used a big size mold, cut cubes in half or fourths and store in an airtight container.

Note: You could add a few drops of food coloring to the scrubs or soaks to give them a nice look. Especially when you’re planning to make them as a gift for family and friends.

#5 Nourishing, Moisturizing Lavender, And Peppermint Foot Cream

Soothes tired feet and tackles your dry cracked or callused feet at the same time. Works wonders for tired or aching legs as well. The peppermint stimulates circulation, while the lavender reduces the pain and aches. Tea tree is added as disinfectants and will leave your feet fresh and vibrant.

  • 2-ounce shea butter
  • ½ ounce cocoa butter (or more shea butter)
  • ¼ ouncebeeswax
  • 1-ounce coconut oil
  • ¼ ounce avocado, jojoba or sweet almond oil
  • 1 teaspoon vitamin E oil (for better preservation)
  • ¼ teaspoon Tea tree essential oil
  • ¼ teaspoon peppermint essential oil
  • 10 drops lavender essential oil
  • Glass jar, sterilized (boil the jar for about 5 minutes, cool before use)
How to…
  • Melt the butter, oils, and beeswax in a double boiler under constant stirring.
  • Remove from the heat and allow to cool a bit.
  • Add the essential oils and mix well. You could use a hand mixer or stick blender to make it extra creamy.
  • Pour the mixture into the glass, sterilized jar.
  • Cool down until hardened. This can take up to 24 hours or you could place the cream in the fridge to speed up the process.
  • Give your feet a good massage with the cream and feel its soothing effect.

Enjoy this full spa treatment for your tired feet.

How to soothe tired feet

How to soothe tired feet

Sometimes it feels like we’re on our feet the entire day – and even if we’re not, it’s common for legs to feel tired, achy, uncomfortable or restless. We’ve spoken to a whole host of experts to find out the best ways to remedy this – and ensure your legs are feeling energised once again.

From bath hacks to yoga poses, here’s what you should be doing if you’ve noticed your legs are lagging behind and need a boost (and if your symptoms start bothering you on a regular basis, always speak to your GP to rule out anything more serious).

1. Run a bath, pronto

“Epsom salt is the household name for magnesium sulphate, which releases magnesium and sulphate ions when added to water,” explains Sarah Mayo, a qualified personal trainer and the co-founder of wellbeing company Point3Wellbeing. “Some studies have suggested that soaking in Epsom salts helps to replenish the body of magnesium.”

2. Give yourself permission to chill

Most of us know the benefits of cold therapy – think about that relieving cold pack to soothe muscle pain – but doing it on the go can prove tricky. Deep Freeze Pain Relief Glide-On Gel works like ice – delivering a fast, cooling action and soothing relief from any sharp, shooting pain in swollen or inflamed feet and legs. Even better, this scientifically-proven cold therapy in a handbag size can be used as often as required wherever you are. No cumbersome cool-box required.

3. Stretch it out

According to physiotherapist Aaron Armoogum, stretching is key to keeping our legs feeling happy and pain-free. “Tight hip flexors will alter the tilt of your pelvis which is a nightmare when it comes to lower limb and lumbar issues – it can cause a lot of aching and discomfort,” he says. “Equally important are our glutes and piriformis (muscles in the buttocks).

“To get started, a really simple hip flexor stretch is to bend your right knee while standing, and hold your ankle from behind. Bring your heel towards your backside as far as you can, and feel the stretch across the front of your thigh. Just make sure you don’t bend at the hips and make it too easy!”

4. Take it down a notch

We’re all busy and sometimes, the idea of ‘resting’ seems laughable. But it’s just as important as anything else on your to-do list, says Aaron. “When it comes to exercise, a lot of people I see tend to ‘over-train’ or repetitively do the same workout or exercise over and over. Without allowing the body to rest and actually repair itself can potentially lead to long term chronic pain. I always recommend resting as much as you need to – it’s when our body grows, recovers and recuperates. Lack of rest can contribute not just to aching legs, but a feeling of general fatigue or exhaustion too. Nobody wants that!”

5. Pose like a pro

How to soothe tired feet

According to yoga teacher Hannah Lovegrove there’s a simple fix for tiredness from physical exertion. She explains, “I’d recommend yoga pose, Virasana – also known as ‘Hero Pose’. The compression effect is deeply refreshing for the leg muscles, knee and ankle joints and it leaves the legs feeling light and fully stretched.

“Try it yourself: Kneel down with your knees together and feet apart with a big cushion or some blocks behind you, between your feet. Sit down on the support and if it’s painful for your knees, add more height. Sit tall, hands resting on your thighs, for 2-4 minutes. When you come out of the pose, stretch your legs forward for a few seconds, to straighten the knee ligaments.”

6. Put your feet up

Yes, really – we insist. Hannah has another smart move that can reduce swelling or restlessness in the lower legs, when needed. “Inverted Lake Pose (known as viparita karani in yoga) is great if you’ve been on your feet or in a stationary position for a long time, since our blood and lymph flow can become sluggish. Sit close to and facing a wall then swivel sideways and take your legs straight up the wall as you lie down, back flat against the floor. Wriggle in, so your bottom is touching the wall and give it ten minutes before standing up.” Legs feeling refreshed?

7. Keep sipping

How much water do you drink? Dawn Morse Msc, a sports science lecturer and founder of Core Elements says we should all be reaching for the H20 on a more regular basis. “Staying hydrated, especially during warmer summer months, can help to reduce muscle cramping,” she explains. “The main reason for this is that it helps to regulate our mineral levels, which can lead to muscle cramping when out of sync. If you’ve been doing a lot of exercise in the heat, or sweating more than normal, you could consider adding an electrolytes supplement too.”

8. Ditch the extra salt

Did you know in some instances, modifying your diet can help with leg pain? According to Dawn, “research has shown that diets low in potassium, calcium or magnesium can lead to muscle cramps, so we should aim to include foods like sweet potatoes, squash and broccoli (which are full of potassium) yogurt, sardines, lentils and cheese (for calcium) and spinach, quinoa and tofu (for magnesium). If your salt intake is high thanks to processed foods and added salt, aim to lower it – along with muscle and leg pain, it can lead to dehydration and raised blood pressure,” Dawn explains.

9. Walk it out

Exercise and stretching has been shown to help with leg pain – especially aches and discomfort that gets worse as the day continues or is chronic in nature – meaning moving around a bit can really help.

“Aim to walk briskly for 20-30 minutes a day,” says Dawn. “It’s not only good for the heart, but it helps to strengthen and stretch leg muscles as well as improve the quality of the muscles – all smart moves for anybody experiencing discomfort, cramps or a tired sensation in the legs.” And since Deep Freeze Glide-on Gel promises no mess and an easy glide-on application, it’s worth throwing in your bag for cooling, targeted relief on-the-go, too. Happy strolling!

Experts quoted in this article do not endorse any brands.

For a cool, soothing way to relieve tired or sore legs Deep Freeze Pain Relief Glide-On Gel is your friend.

How to soothe tired feet

Let’s face it – our feet take a lot of abuse! The stress put on our feet from just everyday activities can be intense. Add to this any exercise that you may be doing, and it can be a recipe for disaster. Luckily there are stretches and exercises you can do to soothe your soles and help keep you on your feet. We have shared some helpful exercises below.

CLICK HERE to watch the YouTube video.

#1 – Calf Stretch

For this exercise, use the wall for support if needed.

Begin in an upright standing position with your feet shoulder-width apart, maintaining good alignment with your head, shoulders, hips, and legs. Take a big step back with one foot, keeping your toes pointing straight ahead and your heels flat on the floor. Looking for a light stretch in your calf, bend your front knee while keeping your back leg straight. To make this exercise easier, bend your back knee as well. Hold this position for 30 seconds. Return to the starting position and repeat the movement on the opposite side.

How to soothe tired feetCalf Stretch

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds on each side.

#2 – Foam Roll Calf

Sit upright on the floor with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. Place your hands at your sides for support. Straighten both legs in front of your body and place the foam roller under your calf area. Roll the foam roller from above your ankles to just below your knees and back. Repeat the movement.

How to soothe tired feetFoam Roll Calf

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds.

#3 – Towel Stretch

Begin in an upright standing position with your feet hip-width apart, maintaining good alignment with your head, shoulders, hips, and legs. Loop a towel under your toes and hold the ends of the towel in each hand. Looking for a light stretch in your calf and the bottom of your foot, pull your toes upward. Hold this position for 30 seconds. Return to the starting position and repeat the movement on the opposite leg.

How to soothe tired feetTowel Stretch

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds on each side.

#4 – Big Toe Stretch

Begin in an upright sitting position on the floor with your legs extended in front of your body. Maintain good alignment with your head, shoulders, and hips. Bend one knee and cross your ankle over your opposite knee. Use your hand to pull your big toe back and hold this position for 30 seconds. Return to the starting position and repeat the movement on the opposite side.

How to soothe tired feetBig Toe Stretch

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds on each side.

#5 – Knee to Wall Stretch

Begin in an upright standing position with your toes against the wall. Take a big step back with one foot, keeping your toes pointing straight ahead and your heels flat on the floor. Bend your front knee, press it against the wall and straighten your back leg. Maintain good alignment with your head, shoulders, and hips. Hold this position for 30 seconds. Return to the starting position and repeat the movement on the opposite side.

How to soothe tired feetKnee to Wall Stretch

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds on each side.

#6 – Roll Out Foot

For this exercise, it is best to be barefoot. You can use a wood roller, tennis ball, or lacrosse ball.

Begin in an upright standing position with the wood roller under one foot. Slowly press your body weight into the wood roller, then run the roller from underneath your toes, to the heel of your foot and back. Repeat the movement.

How to soothe tired feetRoll Out Foot

Start off with 1 set of 30 seconds on each side.

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How to take notes for your research paper

If you take notes efficiently, you can read with more understanding and also save time and frustration when you come to write your paper. These are three main principles

1. Know what kind of ideas you need to record

Focus your approach to the topic before you start detailed research. Then you will read with a purpose in mind, and you will be able to sort out relevant ideas.

  • First, review the commonly known facts about your topic, and also become aware of the range of thinking and opinions on it. Review your class notes and textbook and browse in an encyclopaedia or other reference work.
  • Try making a preliminary list of the subtopics you would expect to find in your reading. These will guide your attention and may come in handy as labels for notes.
  • Choose a component or angle that interests you, perhaps one on which there is already some controversy. Now formulate your research question. It should allow for reasoning as well as gathering of information—not just what the proto-Iroquoians ate, for instance, but how valid the evidence is for early introduction of corn. You may even want to jot down a tentative thesis statement as a preliminary answer to your question. (See Using Thesis Statements.)
  • Then you will know what to look for in your research reading: facts and theories that help answer your question, and other people’s opinions about whether specific answers are good ones.

2. Don’t write down too much

Your essay must be an expression of your own thinking, not a patchwork of borrowed ideas. Plan therefore to invest your research time in understanding your sources and integrating them into your own thinking. Your note cards or note sheets will record only ideas that are relevant to your focus on the topic; and they will mostly summarize rather than quote.

  • Copy out exact words only when the ideas are memorably phrased or surprisingly expressed—when you might use them as actual quotations in your essay.
  • Otherwise, compress ideas in your own words. Paraphrasing word by word is a waste of time. Choose the most important ideas and write them down as labels or headings. Then fill in with a few subpoints that explain or exemplify.
  • Don’t depend on underlining and highlighting. Find your own words for notes in the margin (or on “sticky” notes).

3. Label your notes intelligently

Whether you use cards or pages for note-taking, take notes in a way that allows for later use.

  • Save bother later by developing the habit of recording bibliographic information in a master list when you begin looking at each source (don’t forget to note book and journal information on photocopies). Then you can quickly identify each note by the author’s name and page number; when you refer to sources in the essay you can fill in details of publication easily from your master list. Keep a format guide handy (see Documentation Formats).
  • Try as far as possible to put notes on separate cards or sheets. This will let you label the topic of each note. Not only will that keep your notetaking focussed, but it will also allow for grouping and synthesizing of ideas later. It is especially satisfying to shuffle notes and see how the conjunctions create new ideas—yours.
  • Leave lots of space in your notes for comments of your own—questions and reactions as you read, second thoughts and cross-references when you look back at what you’ve written. These comments can become a virtual first draft of your paper.

How to Take Notes

First of all, make sure that you record all necessary and appropriate information: author, title, publisher, place of publication, volume, span of pages, date. It’s probably easiest to keep this basic information about each sources on individual 3×5 or 4×6 notecards. This way when you come to creating the “Works Cited” or “References” at the end of your paper, you can easily alphabetize your cards to create the list. Also keep a running list of page numbers as you take notes, so you can identify the exact location of each piece of noted information. Remember, you will have to refer to these sources accurately, sometimes using page numbers within your paper and, depending on the type of source, using page numbers as part of your list of sources at the end of the paper.

Many people recommend taking all your notes on notecards. The advantage of notecards is that if you write very specific notes, or only one idea on one side of the card, you can then spread them out on a table and rearrange them as you are structuring your paper. They’re also small and neat and can help you stay organized.

Some people find notecards too small and frustrating to work with when taking notes and use a notebook instead. They leave plenty of space between notes and only write on one side of the page. Later, they either cut up their notes and arrange them as they would the cards, or they color code their notes to help them arrange information for sections or paragraphs of their paper. Find your own style, but above all–write down all of the citation information as soon as you find a source. Little is more frustrating than wanting to use a source in your paper and then discovering that you did not write down the appropriate citation information.

What to Put into Notes

When you take notes, your job is not to write everything down, nor is it a good idea to give into the temptation of photocopying pages or articles.

Note-taking is the process of extracting only the information that answers your research question or supports your working thesis directly. Notes can be in one of three forms: summary, paraphrase, or direct quotation. (It’s a good idea to come up with a system– you might simply label each card or note “s” “p” or “q”–as a way of keeping track of the kind of notes you took from a source.) Also, a direct quotation reproduces the source’s words and punctuation exactly, so you add quotation marks around the sentence(s) to show this. Remember it is essential to record the exact page numbers of the specific notes since you will need them later for your documentation.

Work carefully to make sure you have recorded the source of your notes, and the basic information you will need when citing your source, to save yourself a great deal of time and frustration–otherwise you will have to make extra trips to the library when writing your final draft.

How to Use Idea Cards

While doing your research you will be making connections and synthesizing what you are learning. Some people find it useful to make “idea cards” or notes in which they write out the ideas and perceptions they are developing about their topic.

How to Work with Notes

  1. After you take notes, re-read them.
  2. Then re-organize them by putting similar information together. Working with your notes involves re-grouping them by topic instead of by source. Re-group your notes by re-shuffling your index cards or by color-coding or using symbols to code notes in a notebook.
  3. Review the topics of your newly-grouped notes. If the topics do not answer your research question or support your working thesis directly, you may need to do additional research or re-think your original research.
  4. During this process you may find that you have taken notes that do not answer your research question or support your working thesis directly. Don’t be afraid to throw them away.

It may have struck you that you just read a lot of “re” words: re-read, re-organize, re-group, re-shuffle, re-think. That’s right; working with your notes essentially means going back and reviewing how this “new” information fits with your own thoughts about the topic or issue of the research.

Grouping your notes should enable you to outline the major sections and then the paragraphs of your research paper.

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Annotating and note taking

Annotating and note taking

For this assignment, you need to select pages from a textbook, read and annotate the pages, and then create a set of notes based on the material you read and annotated.

Step 1: Review the marking (annotating) strategies from Chapter 6 (pp. 134-136).

Step 2: Select at least four consecutive pages from one of your college textbooks. You may select the textbook for this course (except pp. 129-133) or another textbook; however, no math textbooks are allowed for this assignment.

Step 3: Read and mark your annotations directly on the selected textbook pages. Your annotations may be handwritten (see example (Links to an external site.)) or electronically produced (see directions below). Your annotations should demonstrate your active involvement with the reading.

Annotations should be varied and should appear throughout your selected pages. Use each of the following annotation types at least once or more:

  • summarizing or paraphrasing in the margins
  • identifying key terms
  • defining unknown terms
  • jotting down questions that occur to you as you read
  • jotting down your reactions to the material
  • adding explanations or elaboration
  • providing additional examples
  • underlining and highlighting (no more than 10-15% of your pages)
  • color coding portions

*Add your name, the semester and year in which you are enrolled, and the professor’s name at the top of the first page of annotated text.

Step 4: Next, create a separate, detailed set of notes over the same material you read and annotated. The set of notes should be thorough, covering all major information in the selected pages. Your notes may be handwritten or typed. Use one of the following note-taking methods (read Chapter 5):

  • Cornell Format
  • Outline Format
  • List Format

*Add your name, the semester and year in which you are enrolled, and the professor’s name at the top of the first page of your set of notes.

Step 5: Submit BOTH your annotated textbook pages and your set of notes in the assignment link. If you are taking this course online, you may need to scan or take a photo of any handwritten annotations or notes before uploading. If you are taking this course in a face-to-face setting, your professor may require you to submit your work in class.

How to Annotate the eBook Electronically in Word

  • Click any LaunchPad links in Eagle Online Canvas.
  • After being directed to LaunchPad, click the “Home” button at the top left-hand corner.
  • Click the “eBook” button under the menu column to the left.
  • Select at least 4 consecutive pages from the eBook (that cover important information / major concepts). Then, copy and paste the content of those pages to a Word document.
  • Place your cursor at the location where you want to place the comment.
  • Click the “Review” tab in the Ribbon and then click the “New Comment” button to type in your annotations (See Step 3 above).
  • You can also highlight, underline, and color code in Word. Plus, you can use “Insert” to add arrows or other marks to emphasize terms or concepts. Using a variety of features in Word will help ensure your electronic annotations are varied (See Step 3 above).

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How to take notes for your research paper

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Taking organized notes on your sources as you do research will be helpful when you begin writing.

Learning Objectives

Describe useful note-taking strategies

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Notes should not only include bibliographic information, but also relevant arguments, quotes, and page numbers.
  • Systematizing your note-taking while doing research will reduce the need to aimlessly search through all your sources when you transition into writing. Taking notes now, even though it may feel frustrating, is in your best interest in the long run.
  • Use the full citation as your heading for each segment of notes you take. That way, you can be sure to have the citation ready when you start writing your paper.

Key Terms

  • citation: A paraphrase of a passage from a book, or from another person, for the purposes of a scholarly paper.

Why Take Notes While Researching?

While most of your research will take place before you begin writing, you will still refer to your resources throughout the writing process. This will be much easier if you take thorough notes while reading through your sources during the initial research phase.

The goal of note-taking is to keep a record of whatever information you might want to use later. Your notes should be as thorough as they need to be, but not too long that they are no longer useful to you. If you summarize information, make sure you include whatever you might want to incorporate in your paper. If you think a quote will be useful, write it down in full. Avoid copying whole paragraphs or pages, though; instead, decide exactly what is useful to you on that page and write only that down. You want to be able to look through your notes later on and easily see what information you found useful.

Organizing Your Notes

Organizing your notes is just as important as taking quality notes. You will need to track exactly which source each note came from so that you can properly cite your sources throughout your writing. Thus, the first thing you should do when taking notes is to write down the full citation for the source on which you are taking notes. This will help you find the source later on if you need to, and will ensure that you still have the complete citation even if you lose the source or have to return it to the library. Organizing notes by source also ensures that you will never lose track of how you need to cite them in your paper, so beginning with citation information provides a useful heading.

In addition to labeling each source, always be sure to write down the page numbers where you found whatever information you’ve written down. You will need to know the page number when you cite that information in your paper.

There are several methods for organizing your notes while researching, such as the following:

  • Index cards: You may want to create an index card or set of cards for each source you use. You can then store the cards in order and can easily sort through them to find the notes you need.
  • Online sources such as Microsoft OneNote: OneNote is a digital notebook that allows you to create new pages, tabs, and notebooks for your notes. You can quickly navigate between pages, and you will have the advantage of already having important quotations and citation information in typed form. This makes it easy to incorporate notes into your paper during the writing process.
  • Organize by subtopic: Some sources may provide information on several subtopics that relate to your argument. You can choose to organize your notes for each source by subtopic so that when you get to that topic in your essay, you can easily find the notes on it. You can do this by creating headings or subheadings within your notes.

How to take notes for your research paper

Taking notes: Some people use index cards to organize their notes while researching.

Maintaining an Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of all your sources, including full citation information and notes on how you will use the sources.

Your grades depend on taking in what’s taught — so depend on these tips for writing down the important stuff, organizing it, and remembering it for the test.

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How to take notes for your research paper

Taking notes should be more than writing down information as a teacher is lecturing. A student needs to pay attention and try to understand what the teacher is teaching. He should be able to distinguish the big picture from insignificant details. A student should admit it when the lecture material is going over his head and ask for clarification. Here are my ADHD-friendly tips for taking notes in class:

Date every page of your notes. It will help you determine which information will be on specific tests and quizzes. It keeps your notes in order, in the event that your binder pops open.

Fold the left one-third of your notebook paper. Write notes on the right two-thirds of the page and create summary questions on the left side. Don’t write more than five questions per page.

Why do this? Turning your notes into questions helps you take in information at a higher level and remember it. The questions on the left fold become a study guide.

Write down notes whenever your teacher says, “this will be on the test” (put an asterisk next to it), “This is an important point,” or “This is not in your textbook, but it is important”; repeats information twice; slows down as she speaks to give you time to write; uses exaggerated hand gestures; or explains the same concept in several different ways.

Keep the back pages of the notebook paper open for adding additional information, or drawing charts, pictures, or symbols. When possible, it’s a good idea to draw as you take notes.

If you miss something, leave a blank space as a place holder and clarify later.

Keep it short. Write down as little as possible, paraphrasing the teacher’s words when you can. Use the same abbreviations you would use for texting, and create a few more of your own. Remember, your notes have to make sense only to you.

Use as much space as you need to create clear notes. Notes are easier to read and study when information is not crammed on each page. Allot some space to add additional information or to amend notes. Don’t be stingy with the paper when you are taking notes — there are better ways to save trees.

Mining Your Notes for Gold

Taking good notes is not enough. You also need to know how to use your notes to excel on tests and quizzes:

Review all new notes within 24 hours of class. Then go back and briefly review all notes taken since the last test for each class.

Record any information or visuals you remember from class, but did not have time to write down. Highlight items that you do not understand. Ask your teacher about these items in class the next day.

Review your notes by reading them out loud. When you read silently, your brain only processes information through your eyes. When you read notes out loud, your brain processes information through your eyes (reading), your mouth (speaking), and your ears (hearing). This increases your brain’s ability to recall information on tests.

Use additional formats for note taking. Concept maps and graphic organizers are great for learning science or social studies vocabulary. Start out by writing down the central idea in the middle of the page and branch out with subthemes from there. Concept maps allow you to assemble and see a lot of information at a glance.

Finishing a PhD thesis is a complicated process. It includes collecting a great amount of data, classifying them and turning all that information into a monograph. I was writing a dissertation about the foreign assistance received by Turkey in the Postwar period and I had thousands of pages of archival documents, hundreds of books, tens of articles and official reports, newspapers, magazines, assembly transcripts, other dissertations and all kinds of statistical data to collect, organize and analyze. It was overwhelming to say the least. Writing all my notes by hand to my notebooks was too cumbersome because most of my archival documents were digital. Besides, organizing my notes on paper was taking too much time so I decided to use a digital tool, an application to keep all my notes at one source. Word processors (like Microsoft Word and LibreOffice) are not designed to organize your notes. You have to create a separate file for each source, name them accordingly, put them into separate folders. If you want to move your notes between documents, you have to open each document separately which makes the process too slow with an old computer. I had to find something else.

I tried several software but none of them suit my needs. I tried Scrivener, it is a great software, especially for novelists. It has the ability to show your notes like it is on a corkboard. It has many more useful features but it wasn’t cheap and I couldn’t use it on a tablet. After using Scrivener for a month, I tried Microsoft OneNote and found out that it is the one I needed. It was better than the other tools for several reasons. Firstly, It was easy to sync between multiple platforms. (I have a Mac Mini, a netbook with dual boot for Windows and Lubuntu, an iPad and a Windows Phone.) I wanted something which could at least sync between my desktop computer and my tablet. I wanted to write at home and on the road. OneNote does more than that, you could use it on Windows, Mac OS, iOS, Android and Web. Secondly, although I was willing to pay a reasonable amount of money for a good software, OneNote is free (as in beer, not as in freedom). Microsoft made it free on all platforms, as part of their goal to convert their products into services. Anyone can try OneNote without paying anything and if not happy, they could switch to something else. Last but not least, it is easy to use OneNote. Anyone who knows how to use a word processor could easily learn to create sections and pages in OneNote. For all these reasons, I picked OneNote to organize my notes and finally write my thesis and this is how I did it.

Creating Sections and Pages

First of all, I created a notebook called PhD. Then I divided it into sections based on my sources. I had lots of primary documents from different resources: scanned documents from the Turkish National Archives (BCA) and the US National Archives (NARA), all put in their own sections. As secondary sources, I had books, journal articles, theses, newspapers, magazines etc. I also had thousands of pages of digitalized documents from the Department of State Archives (DIT), as well as Microfilm Rolls. Microfilms were numbered, so I put them into Section Groups, and each roll had its own section. The notes of each document was written in a page and if there was any document connected to a previous one, I created a subpage for it. So, OneNote provided me with four levels of hierarchy to collect my notes: Section Groups, Sections, Pages and Subpages.

OneNote on Tablet

Another great feature of OneNote is instant syncing. You do not need to save your pages or any documents. As soon as you are connected to the internet, all your opened notebooks are synced with the cloud. If I wanted to go to the library, I didn’t worry about whether I saved the notes on my desktop computer. I just left it as it is and continued taking notes on my tablet. If you are suspicious of cloud, Windows version of OneNote has the ability to backup your notebooks to a local folder. (Unfortunately, Mac OS version is still unable to do that.) Yet, automatic syncing never failed me. Tablet version of OneNote while using an external keyboard is almost the same experience as its desktop counterpart.

This is how it looks on iPad.

Pros and Cons

This was by no means a perfect solution. For example, OneNote lacks the ability to add footnotes. This may look like a major absence for an academic writer but in effect, it is not. When taking notes, if I had to add a citation for my source, I just put the page number. The book to be cited was designated in the OneNote’s page name as in “Black, Strategy of Foreign Aid”. When I was done with taking notes and wanted to add them to my thesis, I used Zotero and its Word integration. This way I wasn’t bothered with writing correct citation style or any other text formatting. I just focused on writing down my thoughts and analysis. Editing and revising was later done in a Word document where I finished my final manuscript. Seperating the processes of taking notes and actual writing/revision provided me with efficiency and peace of mind. I didn’t think about formatting when I was writing about my primary sources and when I needed to make corrections and formatting, other apps helped me to do it. (A post about how I used Zotero is coming soon.)

OneNote and Office Lens

You could also edit notes on your phone regardless of its operating system. Currently, iOS and Android versions of OneNote are quite good for simple editing. Windows Phone 8.1 version of OneNote lacks many features but once its Windows 10 version is released, it will get the feature parity in the last quarter of 2015. Even it wasn’t fully functional I often used it to check my notes and add scanned pages of books.

For that I used Microsoft’s another application called Office Lens. It takes a photo of a document or a whiteboard and converts into a OneNote page (also a Word or Excel document if you want and uploads it to OneDrive). It is quite useful when you need to takes notes from a few pages in a book. You could use your default camera and later upload it OneNote but that way it is cumbersome. There are other document scanning apps but OneNote and Office Lens’ integration makes it easy.

After adding your scanned documents to your notebook, you could add your comments besides them and add them to your thesis whenever you like.

Once you finish taking notes, you could begin adding them to your manuscript. I used it for my PhD thesis but OneNote could be useful for any longform writing. Editing an academic writing is more complex than just putting down some notes. I used Word and Zotero combination for the final text editing. In the next post, I’m going to explain how I used them to finish my dissertation.

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Organizing Your Research With Coded Notes

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How to take notes for your research paper

Jorg Greuel/Getty Images

  • M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia
  • B.A., History, Armstrong State University

When working on a large project, students can sometimes become overwhelmed by all the information they gather in their research. This can happen when a student is working on a research paper with many segments or when several students are working on a large project together.

In group research, each student can come up with a stack of notes, and when the work is all combined, the paperwork creates a confusing mountain of notes! If you struggle with this problem you may find relief in this coding technique.


This organization method involves three main steps:

  1. Sorting research into piles, forming sub-topics
  2. Assigning a letter to each segment or “pile”
  3. Numbering and coding the pieces in each pile

This may sound like a time-consuming process, but you will soon find that organizing your research is time well spent!

Organizing Your Research

First of all, don’t ever hesitate to use your bedroom floor as an important first tool when it comes to getting organized. Many books begin their lives as bedroom floor-piles of paperwork which eventually become chapters.

If you are starting with a mountain of papers or index cards, your first goal is to divide your work into preliminary piles that represent segments or chapters (for smaller projects these would be paragraphs). Don’t worry—you can always add or take away chapters or segments as needed.

It won’t be long before you realize that some of your papers (or note cards) contain information that could fit into one, two, or three different places. That’s normal, and you’ll be pleased to know that there is a good way to deal with the problem. You will assign a number to each piece of research.

Note: Make absolutely certain that each piece of research contains full citation information. Without reference information, each piece of research is worthless.

How to Code Your Research

To illustrate the method that uses numbered research papers, we’ll use a research assignment entitled “Bugs in My Garden.” Under this topic you might decide to start out with the following subtopics which will become your piles:

A) Plants and Bugs Introduction
B) Fear of Bugs
C) Beneficial Bugs
D) Destructive Bugs
E) Bug Summary

Make a sticky note or note card for each pile, labeled A, B, C, D, and E and start sorting your papers accordingly.

Once your piles are complete, start labeling each piece of research with a letter and a number. For example, the papers in your “introduction” pile will be labeled with A-1, A-2, A-3, and so on.

As you sort through your notes, you might find it hard to determine which pile is best for each piece of research. For example, you may have a note card that concerns wasps. This information could go under “fear” but it also fits under “beneficial bugs,” as wasps eat leaf-eating caterpillars!

If you have a hard time assigning a pile, try to put the research into the topic that will come earliest in the writing process. In our example, the wasp piece would go under “fear.”

Put your piles into separate folders labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Staple the appropriate note card to the outside of its matching folder.

Start Writing

Logically, you would start writing your paper using the research in your A (intro) pile. Each time you work with a piece of research, take a moment to consider if it would fit into a later segment. If so, place that paper in the next folder and make a note of it on the index card of that folder.

For example, when you are finished writing about wasps in segment B, place your wasp research in folder C. Make a note of this on the folder C note card to help maintain organization.

As you write your paper you should insert the letter/number code each time you use or refer to a piece of research—instead of putting citations in as you write. Then once you’ve completed your paper you can go back and replace codes with citations.

Note: Some researchers prefer to go ahead and create full citations as they write. This can eliminate a step, but it can become confusing if you are working with footnotes or endnotes and you attempt to re-arrange and edit.

Still Feeling Overwhelmed?

You might experience some anxiety when you read back over your paper and realize that you need to restructure your paragraphs and move information from one segment to another. This is not a problem when it comes to the labels and categories that you’ve assigned to your research. The important thing is making sure that each piece of research and each quote is coded.

With proper coding, you can always find a piece of information when you need it—even if you’ve moved it around several times.

There are two words that evoke instant anxiety in nearly every academic—research paper. In this article, we’ll break down the steps to writing a research paper.

How does a research paper differ from a research proposal?

A research paper is different from a research proposal (also known as a prospectus), although the writing process is similar. Research papers are intended to demonstrate a student’s academic knowledge of a subject. A proposal is a persuasive piece meant to convince its audience of the value of a research project. Think of the proposal as the pitch and the paper as the finished product.

A prospectus is a formal proposal of a research project developed to convince a reader (a professor or research committee, or later in life, a project coordinator, funding agency, or the like) that the research can be carried out and will yield worthwhile results.

Dig into the research process.

Although we’ll focus more on the organization and writing of a research paper in this article, the research process is an important first step. Research will help you in several ways:

  • understanding your subject
  • formulating ideas for your paper
  • developing a thesis statement
  • speaking about your topic with authority

Gather resource materials and begin reviewing them. Here are a few good information sources:

  • Google Scholar
  • Online encyclopedias, almanacs, and databases
  • Books and periodicals
  • Newspapers
  • Government publications, guides, and reports

As you read and evaluate the information you discover, take notes. Keep track of your reference materials so you can cite them and build your bibliography later. The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) and other university writing lab websites are excellent resources to help you understand what information you’ll need to collect to properly cite references.

Organize before you start writing.

Your research spawned tons of ideas. Great! Now you’re ready to begin the process of organizing your presentation . . . before you begin writing. Don’t skip the organization step—it’s critical to your paper’s success. Without it, your paper will lack focus and you’ll spend much more time in the revision process trying to make sense of your jumbled thoughts.

The Thesis Statement

The thesis statement is a sentence that summarizes the main point of your essay and previews your supporting points. The thesis statement is important because it guides your readers from the beginning of your essay by telling them the main idea and supporting points of your essay.

Most research papers begin with a thesis statement at the end of an introductory paragraph. Even if it’s not a requirement, it’s a good idea to write a thesis statement as you begin to organize your research. Writing the thesis statement first is helpful because every argument or point you make in your paper should support this central idea you’re putting forward.

Most research papers fall into one of three categories: analytical, expository, or argumentative. If you’re presenting an analysis of information, then your paper is analytical. If you’re writing to explain information, then your paper is expository. If you’re arguing a conclusion, then it’s argumentative or persuasive. Your thesis statement should match the type of paper you’re writing.

Invest time in writing your thesis statement—it’s the main idea of your paper, from which everything else flows. Without a well-thought-out thesis statement, your paper is likely to end up jumbled and with an unclear purpose. Here’s more guidance from Purdue OWL.

The Outline

An outline will help you organize your thoughts before you dig into the writing process. Once you’ve developed your thesis statement, think about the main points you’ll need to present to support that statement. Those main points are your sub-headings. Now, organize your thoughts and information under each sub-heading.

Any information that doesn’t fit within the framework of your outline, and doesn’t directly support your thesis statement, no matter how interesting, doesn’t belong in your research paper. Keep your focus narrow and avoid the kitchen sink approach. (You know, the one where you throw in every bit of interesting research you uncovered, including the fungal growth in the U-joint of your kitchen sink?) Everything you learn may be fascinating, but not all of it is going to be relevant to your paper.

Writing the Research Paper

The good news is, once you reach this point in the process you’re likely to feel energized by all the ideas and thoughts you’ve uncovered in your research, and you’ll have a clear direction because you’ve taken the time to create a thesis statement and organize your presentation with an outline.

How to get iron stains out of fabric

Want to know how to remove iron stains from clothes? This guide will tell you all you need to get rid of those pesky, red marks caused by rust or iron.

Updated November 1, 2018


How to get iron stains out of fabric

Whether you’re working on a car or you’ve accidentally brushed against some old metal furniture, it’s easy to get rust stains on your clothes. Unfortunately, they’re not so easy to remove from clothes.

With the help of some homemade remedies and a good washing detergent, like OMO, you may just be able to salvage your clothing from those red streaks.

Here’s your guide on how to remove rust stains from clothes.

When applying your rust stain remover, make sure you dab the stain instead of rubbing it. Rubbing the stain can lead to the metal in the rust damaging the fabric further.

How to remove iron stains from clothes

Store-bought rust stain removers can be harsh on hands and clothing, which is why many opt to make their own solution when they want to know how to remove iron stain marks. If you do opt for a commercial rust remover, carefully follow the instructions on the bottle, wear rubber gloves and check the labels on your garment to make sure it’s safe.

If you want to try gentler alternatives when learning how to remove rust stains from clothes then the following ingredients can be used. Always test each remedy on a small spot of clothing first to make sure it doesn’t bleach or damage the fabric.

  • Lemon juice and salt: sprinkle salt on the stained area and liberally soak the stain with lemon juice. Dry in the sun and rinse with cold water once dry.
  • White vinegar and salt: make a thick paste of white vinegar and salt and gently dab the stain with it. Once the stain is fully covered, leave it for 30 minutes and rinse under cold water.
  • Cream of tartar: boil a large pan of water and stir in six teaspoons of cream of tartar. Soak the garment in the water for an hour before rinsing and leaving it to dry. Be careful not to burn your fingers doing this.

If the stain remains after any of these remedies, repeat the process until the rust mark is as faint as possible. Once you have treated the stain, rinse the stain by hand. If the stain is still visible, you may have to resort to a commercial cleaner.

To finish the stain removal process, use your usual laundry detergent to clean the rest of the garment in your washing machine. Wash it separately from other clothes to avoid any remaining stain transferring onto other garments.

Now you know how to remove rust from clothes, you can save your clothes from those stubborn red marks.

  • Make or buy a rust stain remover
  • Apply the stain remover to stain but do not rub
  • Reapply until the stain is removed

    Even laundry masters make mistakes; so if you’ve ever ironed clothes, you’ve probably scorched a few items over the years.

    In some cases, the marks are so intense that they actually melt the fabric or leave a really dark mark that can’t be removed. But there are other times — like when it’s actually the spray starch that’s burnt on or the scorch is lighter — there’s pretty good chance it can be removed. Cleaning coach Leslie Reichert and carpet cleaning pro Dean Carter are happy to tell you how to do it.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    How to iron a wrinkled shirt in half the time

    If there’s a scorch stain on white cotton.

    Start by dabbing the mark with hydrogen peroxide, says Reichert. Give it about a minute to work on the stain, then rinse it out. Repeat as needed. The rinsing step is really important because hydrogen peroxide can weaken fibers if it’s not rinsed out completely. Ammonia can also lighten a scorch mark but, according to Reichert, it doesn’t work as well as peroxide.

    If the scorch is on colored fabric.

    For scorch marks on colored clothing, try using distilled white vinegar. Dab it on with a clean white cloth (so you can see if you’re picking up the stain or not). Repeat until stain is gone, then rinse out the vinegar with fresh water.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    Check out these surprising uses for vinegar

    If neither of the above options do the trick, it’s time to try some color-safe oxygen bleach like OxiClean, suggests Reichert. First, check the garment care label to make sure it’s safe to use oxygen bleach. If so, soak the garment overnight in a solution of warm water and oxygen bleach, mixed according to package directions. Run the garment through a wash cycle in the morning. If the scorch mark is fading, repeat the process. Just don’t put the item in the dryer until the mark is completely gone or else you’ll set the stain.

    If there’s a scorch mark on wool or fuzzy fabric.

    You may be able to snip off the singed areas or brush them off with a toothbrush. If the scorch mark has penetrated the fabric beneath the fuzzy area, it’s nearly impossible to remove. In any case, bring it to a cleaning professional as soon as possible. Depending on the extent of damage, they may be able to help.

    If you’ve scorched the carpet.

    Scorch marks happen — even on carpet. Whether you accidentally dropped a hot iron or scorched it while working on iron-on crafts, there’s not much you can do to remove the stain once the heat has damaged the fibers.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    The Spruce / Ulyana Verbytska

    If you have moved to a new home or suddenly begin to have laundry problems like mysterious stains on your freshly washed clothes, it could be the water you are using. Water that contains high levels of iron can leave clothes with yellow, red, or brown spots, cause white clothes to become yellow, and leave all fabrics feeling stiff.

    The source of rusty water is often an inground home well but some municipal water systems also have high levels of iron due to old cast iron water system pipes that are corroding.

    Rusty/Red Water

    Evidence of rusty or red water problems is usually caused by two sources:

    1. A water source loaded with suspended particles of iron bacteria leaves ugly discoloration and stains on kitchen, bathroom, and laundry fixtures and equipment, as well as on dishes and laundry.
    2. Rusty water heaters, pipes or water storage containers cause staining to be more sporadic.

    Evidence of Rusty or Red Water Laundry Problems

    • Yellow, red or brown stains on clothes
    • Yellowing of white clothes, especially when chlorine bleach is used
    • Clogged steam iron vents and sputtering rusty water stains when ironing.

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    The Spruce / Ulyana Verbytska

    How to Fix Rusty Water Laundry Problems

    If it is not possible to pass the problem water source through a water softener, a phosphate feeder or a chlorinating filter, laundry results can be improved by using a non-precipitating packaged water softener (usually containing phosphate) along with the usual amounts of heavy-duty laundry detergent. Follow the recommended amounts listed on the package. Be sure to use the compound in the rinse cycle as well as the wash cycle to prevent rust stains.

    To remove rust stains that have already occurred on white and colorfast washable fabrics, use a commercial rust remover following product directions. Add an extra rinse cycle to every load to be sure all traces of rust remover are rinsed from the fabrics.


    The important ingredient in these compounds is an acid-usually oxalic or hydrofluoric acid. The chemicals in the remover combine with the iron and loosen it from the fabric, then hold it in suspension in the wash water to be flushed away. The compounds are poisonous if ingested. Use them carefully according to the manufacturers’ directions, and rinse the clothes thoroughly. Any acid remaining in the fibers will deteriorate the fabrics.

    Never put clothes with rust stains in the dryer because the high heat will set the stain and make it extremely difficult to remove. Never use chlorine bleach to remove the stains because chlorine bleach will set rust stains permanently.

    A more economical and eco-friendly method for rust removal is to sprinkle salt on the spot and dampen it with lemon juice. Dry articles in the sun, then rinse. Test procedures on a hidden portion of the article first, since the lemon juice may cause a color change. Take non-colorfast fabrics to a commercial laundry for professional treatment.

    Use Distilled Water

    If you are treating a special garment or table linen to remove rust stains, consider hand washing the item using distilled water unless you have resolved the rusty water problem in your home.

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    The Spruce / Ulyana Verbytska

    How to Get Rid of Rusty Water

    The first step in resolving a rusty water problem is to do a physical inspection of your home plumbing system. A rusty water heater or pipes can leach enough iron into your washer to cause problems. Replacement of the water heater, pipes, or a rusty water storage container may solve the problem.

    The next step is to talk to your neighbors and ask if they have the same problem and then have your water tested. Many local water municipalities will perform this service for you at no or a very low cost. You can also purchase water testing kits online.

    If the test shows that the level of iron is small, a mechanical water softener will generally remove the iron along with other minerals. Another alternative is to hold the iron in suspension by use of a phosphate feeder system.

    For moderate iron levels, a green sand filter or oxidizing filter may be adequate. It is important to have a filter sized to handle large quantities of water throughout the house.

    For high concentrations of iron, a chlorination/filtration system treats water before it enters the lines. The chlorination/filtration system has two main parts: a chlorinator and a filter. An automatic chlorinator, generally using household chlorine laundry bleach and releases chlorine into the water system.

    The chlorine does two important things: it kills iron and disease-causing bacteria and it changes (oxidizes) colorless, soluble iron to insoluble, red iron particles that can be removed from the water by a filter in the system. This type of iron treatment system should be installed on the main water lines in the house before the water passes through the water softener and the water heater.

    These treatments which usually require professional installation can be expensive. Always have your water tested by an independent lab before installing any system.

    Whether it’s a single spot or your entire piece has become shiny, iron marks on polyester and synthetic clothing can be a real pain. These shiny spots are created when the hot iron touches the fibers of the clothing and causes them to melt. Since these spots are actually melted fabric, they may be permanent, but there are a couple solutions you can try to remove them.

    Removing the Spots

    1. This method was submitted by a site user (Thanks Myra!). Wet a pressing cloth, then wring it out so it is only damp, not dripping. (A pressing cloth is a thin piece of fabric used for ironing to keep the iron from touching fabrics that can melt, such as polyester or rayon. If you don’t have a pressing cloth, you can use a cotton bed sheet or similar item instead.) Lay the damp pressing cloth over the spots, turn the iron on low (warm), and hold the iron over the area long enough for the pressing cloth to start to steam. This method also works to remove wrinkles that have been melted in place on the fabric. Rub the area with a clothing brush or dry towel afterward.
    2. Very gently scrub the spot with steel wool. It may take some patience, but another one of our site users reported successfully removing the shine and returning their fabric to normal by doing this.
    3. Very gently filing the marks with the weak side of a nail file may also work to remove the marks.

    An Ounce of Prevention

    • When ironing synthetics, such as polyester, be aware of the following guidelines:
    • Always use a cool to warm iron (low to medium heat). Unlike some other fabrics, polyester does not require a high level of heat to remove wrinkles. Most irons have separate polyester settings that help identify the proper temperature.
    • It is also helpful to cover the clothing with a pressing cloth to keep the iron from touching the fabric. A moist pressing cloth will help remove wrinkles.
    • A mixture of equal parts vinegar and water can be sprayed on to the fabric prior to ironing to help set or remove a crease.
    • Once the piece is ironed, hang it immediately to avoid any further wrinkling.
    • If the piece is severely wrinkled, it may be best to wash it again and hang it to dry. Often the weight of the material will remove most wrinkles as it dries.
    • Remember that you should never use laundry starch on synthetic clothing like polyester as it can cause the iron to stick and scorch the fabric. Instead, use sizing or fabric finish.

    Additional Tips:

    • If there are any scorched areas of the fabric, use our guide How to Remove Burn Marks from Clothing for those marks.
    • If you are unable to remove the spots, consider covering them with a patch.


    • Green Housekeeping by Ellen Sandbeck
    • The Cleaning Encyclopedia by Don Aslett
    • Field Guide to Stains by Virginia M. Friedman, Nancy Armstrong and Melissa Wagner.

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    To remove shine, place the section in question right side up on ironing board and cover with a damp cloth. Hold a hot iron over the cloth until it steams. The iron should not touch the pressing cloth. Remove the pressing cloth and brush lightly with a clothes brush.

    I accidently burned my cream silk gown. I’m really annoyed. There is no actual burn (brown) mark, but the area has gone shiny and the wrinkles are sort of molten together and crispy. It’s been a week since the incident and I have not touched it since. Will the above methods work for silk?

    There is hope on polyester fabric. I managed to remove the shiny patch.
    When we ironed directly on the fabric, it kind of melted the fibres and it sticks flat, creating a shiny patch. So the idea is to give it a buff to fluff up the fibres. Be very gentle, lots of patience and time, or else the patch becomes visibly rough and ball up like a wool. Took me an hour or so to work on a patch size of 6 x 2 inches. You can expect your material to be slightly rough to the touch, but at least the shine is gone. Here’s what I did:

    I used a white damp cloth (cotton / thin linen) soaked with white vinegar. Then placed it on the wrong side of the shiny patch and hover the iron above it until it steams, but do not touch the fabric. (If you can’t get your iron to steam, try placing the iron on the white damp cloth but on low heat). I don’t have sandpaper so I used a foot buffer (the smoother side please) to press on shiny patch and lift. As you lift the file, almost create a short stroke and in the opposite direction to get a gentle friction. You will know it when you hear as if you strip off a velcro, only the sound is subtle.
    Rinse the fabric with water after complete. Lesson learned. Good luck!

    I am having a problem removing the iron stain mark from my son’s uniform. What should I do?

    You can use one of several techniques to remove shiny iron marks from natural fibers like wool blends and cotton. These techniques will help soften the fibers and help them return to their natural, uncompressed state.

    Shine marks on polyester are more likely to be melted fibers as opposed to compression. In these cases, the damage is permanent and impossible to reverse. However, if the shine is caused by compression, then the below techniques will have the same effect on man-made materials as they do with natural fibers.

    How to remove iron marks from clothes? Iron marks, burns or shiny marks can be removed by treating the area with Hydrogen Peroxide. In natural fabrics where shine has occurred, applying steam or vinegar to the spot can help restore the flattened fibers to their natural state.

    Here are 6 techniques that should help improve, if not completely eliminate the problem.

    1. Identify the Fabric

    The chance of removing shine from natural fibers such as cotton is much higher compared to man-mad synthetic fibers like polyester. If synthetic fibers have melted because of exposure to high heat, there is little chance of undoing the damage.

    2. Steam-out Shine

    This is one of the quickest ways to undo shine as soon as you spot it. Without letting the soleplate come into contact with the fabric, apply steam to the shiny area. This could be enough to loosen the fibers that have been compressed.

    You could also hang the garment and use your irons vertical steam feature. You can also run over the area with a clothing brush or a dry towel to help loosen and decompress the fibers.

    If it’s a faulty iron that got you into this pickle in the first place, check out our list of tried and tested steam irons for home use. You’ll see the best results from an iron with a more powerful steam output.

    3. Cold Water Plunge for Shiny Marks

    This technique works for shiny marks. Dip the item of clothing into cold water and leave it overnight. Like with steaming, this should soften those flattened fibers, and by soaking them, they can return to their normal condition.

    4. Re-wash the Garment

    For both shine and scorch marks, you should see a marked improvement. Following the wash instructions on the garment label, wash the piece of clothing adding a small amount of vinegar. (1 part vinegar to 2 parts detergent).

    5. Dab Shine with a Vinegar Cloth

    This is another tip that will work for shine marks. Dab the shiny area with a vinegar-soaked cloth, followed by a clean water-dampened cloth. Repeat the process, alternating between the two until the sheen disappears.

    6. Hydrogen Peroxide for Burn Marks

    This technique works incredibly well for accidental scorch or burn marks. Soak a clean white cloth in 3% hydrogen peroxide and then lay the cloth over the damaged area. Iron over the spot, lifting the cloth to check for improvement. Repeat the process until the shine is lifted.

    On a white shirt, you will notice the caramel burn marks start to fade to a pale yellow. Depending on the severity of the burn, you may need to repeat the process a few times.

    Hydrogen peroxide is available at most drug stores. Make sure you buy a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. This is best done on white fabrics as hydrogen peroxide has a mild bleaching effect. For black or colored garments, first, test a small drop of hydrogen peroxide on an inside seam to make sure the fabric is colorfast and will not discolor.

    Finally, wash and dry the garment as normal when you are done.

    7. Use a Brush to Help Lift the Fibres

    In some fabrics where fibers have been compressed or flattened, you may need to help lift them by brushing them gently. For more delicate fabrics, start with a more gentle tooth brush. For denim and thicker fabrics, a course brush and a little extra pressure may need.

    In Conclusion

    It’s a relief to know garments can be brought back from “the shine”, but it’s much easier and more time-efficient to avoid the problem completely. Check our article on how to avoid shine marks while ironing.

    Black fabrics show up scorches the most and those pieces of clothing are often our go-to favorites. Because they are worn more frequently, we need to care for them a little more to ensure they don’t look tired and old before their time. A good tip is to buy two of the same item so you can circulate the two.

    Shines or accidental scorches are an easy mistake to make. Ironing can become an automated activity and if your gym shorts are at the bottom of the ironing pile, without any thought, their polyester fibers will melt and die a shiny death. Prevention is better than cure!

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    Along with cool tips and guides, we also test and review the latest steam irons, sewing machines and more to give you an unbiased review on which is the best option for you.

    As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

    It doesn’t matter if you are doing some home renovations, you are into arts and crafts, or you want to fix the sole of your shoe. One thing we never appear to get away from is glue.

    In many occasions, when we go about these tasks, there are no issues. However, there are times the top is loose, or you need to cut off the nozzle as it has dried and we have an accident.

    You may think wiping glue of fabrics is easy, yet there is a bit more to it than that. If you don’t tackle it the right way, you can find you make it worse.

    Here you can learn how to remove an ironed on patch, how to get sticker residue off clothes and a few other tips for removing glue. (Learn How to Get Stickiness Off Wood)

    Glue Removal Tips

    Unlike hard surfaces where you can remove sticky residue or glue with a knife or solvents. Fabric is different as the glue can soak into the strands of the material.

    Besides this, you will need to test a corner that is inconspicuous no matter which method you decide to use.

    You can use a brown paper bag for this if you don’t have any clean white clothes.

    How to Remove Dried Glue from Fabric

    One of the most common glues we use around the homes for woodworking, crafting or other uses is hot melt glue.

    As it is molten from the gun to the piece you are sticking, any drops that fall soak and cling to the fibres of the fabric as it soaks in. One thing is that we can use the power of heat, namely an iron to remove the majority if not all the glue from our fabrics. (Learn How to Get Sticker Residue Off Plastic)

    How to Get Hot Glue Out of Fabric

    The only items you need for removing hot glue from fabric are your iron and a cotton cloth (brown paper as an addition).

    Here you can see how to remove hot glue from fabric.

    • Take your cotton cloth and lay it flat on your ironing board
    • Place your item of clothing or fabric with the glue face down on the cloth or paper bag
    • With your hot iron, place this on the back of the glue for 10-20 seconds (make sure the iron is the right heat for your fabric)
    • Remove your iron and slowly peel the clothing away from the cloth
    • Move the glue spot to a clean part of the cloth and repeat
    • Repeat these steps as often as is required until you remove the glue, or most of it has been removed

    Depending on how much is left after using your iron to remove glue from fabric, you can finish off with other methods. You can also place your paper bag between the iron and your fabric to prevent glue on your iron.

    How Do You Remove Dried Glue from Fabric?

    If you need to remove the last traces of glue after using your iron, you can try this method first.

    1. Place your fabric on a clean cloth and apply some rubbing alcohol to a clean lint-free cloth, (you can also use Vodka).
    2. Gently run your glue stain from the outside inward so you won’t spread it any further.
    3. Repeat as necessary until the glue finally melts and you can wipe off any excess.
    4. You can cover the last drops of the stain with liquid detergent and let it sit before you try to wash it off.

    How Do You Remove Tacky Glue from Fabric?

    Depending on the type of glue you are using, it may be tacky rather than it has already dried.

    If this is the case, you can dip a cotton ball or cloth in nail polish remover or acetone, (Check your fabrics first in a corner).

    Gently soak the tacky glue stain with the acetone-soaked cotton ball. With reapplication, you will see it breaks down and lifts from the fabric.

    Make sure you keep the area wet and keep applying the remover until you remove the glue. Also, lay your fabric on a clean cloth to avoid spillage.

    How Do You Remove Contact Glue from Fabric?

    As in the above, it is possible to use acetone of nail polish remover, although, if there is a lot to remove, you may find another trick easier to try first.

    Glue is brittle once it reaches extreme cold. Hence the reason most wood glue isn’t suitable for outdoor use.

    You can place your item in the freezer until it is as cold as it will get. You can then remove it from the freezer, and using a spoon or the back of a butter knife; you can scrape away most of the glue traces from your fabric. (Learn How to Flush a Car Radiator)

    Remove Water Based Glue from Clothes

    While all the glues above, such as hot glue are mainly because of adult use, children can use water-based glue that can make as much of an issue.

    Luckily, removing this glue is much easier to remove, and all you need to make sure of is you remove all the stains before the glue has a chance to dry. Besides this, never dry your clothing with glue in tumble dryers or your radiator as this can make the glue set hard. (Learn About Washing Clothes with Baking Soda and Vinegar)

    Here are the things you need before the steps to remove this kind of glue.

    • Spoon or stiff brush
    • Freezer or some ice cubes
    • Coldwater from the faucet
    • Cotton wool or a clean cloth
    • Liquid laundry detergent
    1. Let the glue dry as this stops it spreading. You can freeze it to make this job faster
    2. Using your brush or the edge of your spoon, break away as much of the hard glue as you can
    3. If you see a stain, soak this in cold water. You can also flush it with cold water from your faucet
    4. Soak it in water and make sure it is submerged overnight
    5. Next, remove from the water and add liquid detergent
    6. Drop your clothing in the washing machine and wash on cool. Around 30º is about ideal.

    With all the above, you can easily remove hot glue, sticky glue or dried glue from fabrics and many other materials.

    As long as you take your time and don’t heat up and dry the glue, you can be free from the sticky stuff and won’t ruin your fabric.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    1. Home
    2. Laundry Tips
    3. Stain Removal Tips
    4. How to remove scorch marks from clothes its easier than you think

    A quick iron of a garment can take it from drab to fab in less than a couple of minutes. But what happens when you accidentally leave the iron on a shirt for just a second too long? Scorch marks – and these definitely don’t improve the look of your clothes! When you have an ironing catastrophe like this, you may think your item is ruined for good, but actually you may be able to salvage it. The trick is to act fast.

    Follow our simple method below to find out how to remove scorch marks from clothes and help improve the appearance of unsightly iron marks.

    How to remove scorch marks on clothes

    Before you read on, it’s important to remember that some scorch marks on clothes may be unsalvageable. With a scorch mark, you’ve essentially burnt the fabric, so (unfortunately) this type of stain can be permanent. However, for light scorch marks (especially those on cottons or linens) there is hope.

    Act fast to remove scorch marks. Remove the iron from the garment immediately and turn it off – don’t continue with your ironing. You should tackle the scorch mark as soon as possible.

    Rinse the garment in warm water. This will wash away any loose singed matter and prepare the item for pre-treatment.

    Soak in bleach (optional). Check the care label on your garment to make sure it is safe to use bleach on it. If so, you can then pre-treat the item further by soaking it in diluted bleach for about 15 minutes. A pre-soak can help improve your chances of removing scorch marks, but you should always consult the product’s label to learn the appropriate ratio of bleach and water to use. Always follow the safety instructions, such as wearing gloves and keeping children and pets out of the room. If your clothing can’t take bleach, you can gently work in some neat laundry detergent (Persil liquid’s Stain Eraser Ball makes this easy to do) to help loosen the stain.

    Pop the garment in the washing machine. After you’ve pre-treated the item, place it in the washing machine with a high quality laundry detergent.  Switch the machine to the appropriate cycle and temperature, as recommended on the garment care label. If you have pre-soaked your item with a bleach and water solution and are washing other items at the same time, then make sure they are bleach-safe too.

    Dry in the sun. Once your wash cycle is finished, check if the scorch mark is less visible and hang the item out to dry in the sun. The sun’s natural brightening abilities may help to lighten the mark even more. Alternatively, you can try repeating the pre-treating and washing steps above for optimum results.

    How to get rid of iron marks on clothes

    As we mentioned above, unfortunately some severe scorch marks on clothes may be impossible to remove. However, by following the above tips, acting swiftly, and having some patience you may be able to remove scorch marks – or at least improve the appearance of lighter marks.

    If the damage is permanent, it doesn’t mean you have to throw the item away. You could recycle the fabric into something new – perhaps a hair band or a belt – or you could try and fix the mark with some nifty sewing tricks (like covering it with a colourful patch).

    Remember, prevention is key when it comes to scorch marks. Brush up on your ironing technique with our guide to ironing to avoid scorch marks on clothes happening again.

    Stains are a big deal at our house. It seems that my kids are stain magnets. I know that just about everyone would say that their kids do their fair share of staining clothing. But my kids have a penchant for attracting stains of the gross and unusual kind—you know, the kind that no one really knows how to get out.

    A while back, when we started fostering kids, I decided to go through my clothing storage and pull out the baby clothes just in case we got a small foster child. Much to my dismay, most of the baby clothes had yellowed and had huge brown spots on them.

     I was so sure that they didn’t look that horrible when I put them away! But time and heat (they had been in the garage last summer as we moved) had set in previously mild spit up and food stains.

    I was determined to find a non-toxic way to get those set in stains out of those cute baby clothes, which is a daunting task, because, let’s face it, even the toxic cleaners don’t really get set in stains out.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    Then this past winter, we entered a time of a few months when the air was really dry. My children started getting nosebleeds. And about 99% of the time, of course, it would happen in the middle of the night while they were sleeping and no one would know the better until the next morning when the blood was dried all over the sheets.

    This summer I have faced yet more frustrating stains. During the summer, we keep white sheets and a white quilt on our bed. All in the same day, my muddy dog decided to come inside and hop up on my bed, leaving the red Oklahoma clay mud stains all over my nice quilt; and my 3 year old daughter proved that she could open child proof caps by spilling a whole bottle of grape cough syrup all over my sheets. What is a mom to do?!

    It seems that there are several good options for getting fresh stains out of clothes, and many of those have been highlighted on this website. But after much experimenting, I have found a very easy solution to getting really tough set in stains out of fabrics—powdered oxygen bleach.

    I have found oxygen bleach to be highly effective in getting awful stains out of just about everything. Here’s how I use it:

    1. I simply fill a large tub (think trash can size) with hot water. I know hot water is contrary to everything you have heard about getting stains out of clothes. However, it helps the bleach dissolve better and thus, work better.
    2. Then I stir in the appropriate amount of powdered oxygen bleach.
    3. After that, I simply add in whatever clothes or bed linens need to be soaked. At that point, I leave it alone for up to a whole day.
    4. I will periodically check to see if the stains are fading.
    5. Once they appear to be gone, I then throw the soaked items into the washer to be cleaned as normal.

    How to get iron stains out of fabric

    Photo credit: edwebproject

    Is Oxygen Bleach Safe to Use?

    There are many options out there for oxygen bleach. When shopping for a good product, you will want to find one that doesn’t have any fillers. Many of the more popular brands don’t work as well as they could because they are full of fillers.

    If you are like me, you may be wondering what exactly oxygen bleach is and how it works. I was hesitant for quite some time to use it because when I hear the word “bleach,” I automatically think about chlorine bleach. But rest assured that oxygen bleach is a very different cleaner.

    Oxygen bleach is made of two natural chemicals, sodium percarbonate and sodium carbonate, and it is completely biodegradable. It doesn’t have any strong odor and, while I wouldn’t recommend soaking your skin in it, it is fine for normal contact with skin. It can be used to break down set in stains or fresh stains, and it can be used on organic and inorganic stains.

    The one drawback to using oxygen bleach over using a commercial spray is that it takes time to work—sometimes it takes a lot of time. My muddy white quilt had to be soaked twice, each time for a whole day, before it came clean. But the good news is that on most kinds of fabric, the stains should come out completely.

    So if you have a houseful of little stain magnet children, or even a naughty muddy dog or two that like to jump onto your bed, I highly recommend trying oxygen bleach. As you can imagine, oxygen bleach is definitely this mom’s favorite go-to product in my laundry room!

  • How to attract hawks

    This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow’s Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards.

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    Hawks belong to the group of predatory birds known as raptors. Besides being beautiful to look at, they are also great natural exterminators! Try attracting hawks to your property to help control the rodent population in an environmentally-friendly manner. If you do so, make sure you don’t use any poison baits on your property. A hawk could eat a rodent that has the poison inside of it and meet an untimely end. Also, keep in mind that hawks will prey on other types of small birds, so if you want to protect the rest of the local bird population, don’t encourage hawks to come around.

    How to attract hawks

    Tip: Bird baths and other water sources can also attract small birds and mammals that hawks prey on, which can make your property even more attractive to the raptors.

    How to attract hawks

    Want to attract birds to your yard? What about hawks? Knowing how to attract hawks to tour the backyard or garden gives you great benefits, especially pest control. Having hawks in your garden also creates a more balanced life cycle, perfect for a more natural garden ecosystem.

    Here is everything you need to know before attracting these birds to your yard (and keep them there).

    Reasons to Attract Hawks to Garden

    Hawks are great pest control because they prey on mice, gophers, squirrels, and rats. If you often have rodent problems, having hawks as backyard species is great for protecting your plants. Besides, hawks eat large insects and snakes, keeping your house safe from these animals.

    Attracting hawks to yard is also a great achievement in creating a healthy backyard ecosystem. Hawks, especially the smaller ones, have impressive looks and colorings. Birdwatchers, both professional and amateur, will have a blast observing hawks from inside the house.

    Tips to Attract Hawks to the Yard

    The best way to attract hawks is by using natural methods. You must provide all the natural elements hawks like from a habitat: meal, perching spot, water, and shelter. Here are various tips to attract hawks to the yard in natural ways.

    1. Provide Living Food Source

    Hawks will not come if you do not have living food sources they can hunt. You can install a bird feeder for this purpose and let small birds come for the hawks to kill. A robust garden is usually full of small animals for hawks. Remember, hawks do not like being baited with dead animals, so you should not do that.

    You can fill bird feeders with delicious treats for small birds, such as seeds, mealworms, peanuts, and yes, jellies! The feeders will attract varieties of small birds the hawks can hunt, like woodpeckers, orioles, chickadees, and jays.

    2. Provide Shelters and Perching Spots

    How to attract hawks to your garden if you do not offer them shelters? Hawks need the perfect spots for both spying on preys and relaxing after finishing meals. Deciduous and coniferous trees are great options for these spots. You can plant snags or any pine trees for hawks to perch and rest.

    What if you cannot plant such trees? Provide structures that can serve as shelters or perching spots. Deck railings, gazebos, or large bird boxes hanging from a tree will do.

    3. Provide Birdbath

    A large birdbath gives hawks a great place to cool off. Hawks may not drink too much since they get liquid from the blood of their preys. However, any hawks will love chances to bathe or cool off, especially during summer or the hottest days of the year. Ideal birdbath models include the wide ones with a fountain and deep basin. You can also have a ground birdbath providing it is wide.

    4. Have Nesting Spots

    Hawks love places where they can build nests. Larger birds love any trees with big, stable branches. The smaller ones will do with large bird boxes that you hang from a tree. Make sure the boxes are spacious enough for the local species, complete with entrance holes.

    5. Keep the Yard Quiet

    Hawks wait patiently and quietly until they find the perfect time to grab the preys. Therefore, hawks do not enjoy the noisy, rowdy area. Make sure your yard or garden is a perfect quiet place for them. Have a different activity spot for yourself away from the area where hawks are supposed to come.

    Seeing a hawk perching quietly and not hunting or eating? Do not shoo it away! Hawks need time to digest their meals after eating. Scaring them away will make the hawks refuse to return.

    6. Keep Yard of Garden Natural

    You cannot attract hawks to garden if it does not look natural. While a little pruning, landscaping work, or structure is good, an excessively groomed garden is likely to deter hawks. Natural or rustic gardens are perfect for hawks, and you can also attract their natural prey more easily.

    7. Create Safe Habitat for Hawks

    Minimize or eliminate the use of insecticides, pesticides, and rodenticides in your garden. You also do not need rodent traps. If hawks regularly visit, you do not need all those products to protect the garden. Contaminated preys will not do good for the hawks.

    What Backyard Hawks to Expect?

    Types of backyard hawks are different between areas, but some of the most common ones include:

    1. Broad-winged Hawks

    A common species in North America, these hawks are small yet having chunky bodies. Their broad wings are distinctive when they are flying. The most common look is reddish-brown with white-backed markings on the chest and stomach. There are usually wide black stripes on their tails.

    2. Red-shouldered Hawks

    Red-shouldered hawks have reddish-brown coloring with streak patterns on their wings and tails. When in flight, their tails spread like fans, and the tip of their wings resembles reaching fingers a little bit.

    3. Sharp-shinned Hawks

    Sharp-shinned hawks are tiny, with long, slim tails. Their wings look rounded and short when in flight, and their usual colorings are bluish-grey with streak patterns on the underside of the wings. Adult and juvenile birds have broad stripes on their tails.

    4. Cooper’s Hawks

    Cooper’s hawks are medium-sized with unique colorings. They have bluish-grey backs with reddish chest and streak patterns underneath their wings. When in flight, their wings look short and broad, and their tails have multiple bands.

    5. Red-tailed Hawks

    As the name suggests, red-tailed hawks have distinctive reddish coloring on their tails. These large hawks show long, reaching wings when in flight, but their tails are open like short, wide fans. You can almost hear the beating sounds when these birds are flapping mid-air due to their sizes.

    6. Northern Goshawks

    Northern goshawks usually have a slate gray color with markings on their chests and bellies. They are large and bulky with broad wings, but their tails are short.

    Hawks are great birds to have if you want to protect your outdoor areas. Knowing how to attract hawks to your garden or yard will protect the place from natural pests.

    Related To:

    How to attract hawks

    Horned Owl

    Owls can keep pest population down in the garden.

    We often hear their voices calling across the night air. The soft “hoo” of the Great Horned Owl, the familiar “who cooks for you?” of the Barred Owl or the trilling whinny of the Eastern Screech Owl, all share our yards, trees and gardens, although the largely nocturnal birds are more often heard than seen. With over 200 species found worldwide and 19 in the U.S., they are out there in the darkness and a functioning part of the ecosystem.

    But what have they done for you lately?

    Anyone who has ever shelled out a few dollars for a “decoy” owl to place on their home or near the garden will tell you, owls strike fear in the hearts of rodents, skunks, rabbits and smaller birds likely to feast on plants, roots, fruit and cultivated nuts. Although potential prey are usually quick to catch on to the decoy ruse, rendering it ineffective, the premise is sound. Owls are aggressive carnivores, snapping up these garden pests and disappearing before the break of dawn.

    For those with smaller outdoor pets, the presence of such a vicious predator may not be so welcome. Although tales of dogs being swept away are often exaggerated, the danger is not unprecedented and for those who keep chickens, attacks from larger breeds like the Great Horned are a legitimate concern. In my own yard, a recent owl attack left one of my flock shaken, but intact. The concern is compounded in that once an owl has successfully found a source of prey, it will return until the food source is depleted.

    Owls can be troublesome for some, but if outdoor pets or chickens aren’t part of your backyard life, attracting owls to the yard can help reduce a pest population often hard to manage without resorting to drastic means. Over a single season, an owl will devour hundreds of garden-munching rodents and other pests. Offering them a hospitable habitat can be managed with minimal expense.

    Tips for Attracting Owls

    Install nesting boxes to provide owls with a secure location to set up home. Most owls seek hollow cavities in trees to nest, but some, like the screech owl, are attracted to manufactured boxes. Place boxes in trees 10-12 feet from the ground on property perimeter where leavings will not be a problem.

    Don’t prune large branches from trees. Horizontal perches give owls a prime location on which to perch.

    Put outdoor flood lights on timers. A well-lit yard does not appeal to these night-stalkers. Once you’ve gone to bed, turn out the lights so these pest controllers can get to work.

    Provide bird baths. Like other birds, owls may be attracted by a large bird bath from which to drink and bathe.

    Mow the lawn less often to give owls a more appealing hunting ground. Mice and other small rodents are likelier to traffic spans of grass left a little longer.

    Attracting owls isn’t for everyone. If outdoor pets or chickens make an owl presence a problem, keeping brush cleared, pruning large branches and keeping the lawn trimmed will discourage owls from hanging around. Removing bird feeders can also reduce available prey, sending owls in search of more populous turf on which to hunt. Once owls have found a place to successfully hunt, they are likely to return. Keep pets and poultry locked up after twilight.

    When trying to attract birds to your home creating a habitat that serves their basic needs is essential. Food, water, and shelter are key but aren’t the only variables you need to consider. While these satisfy their physiological needs, birds also prefer a safe space where they can socialize freely. That’s why we reached out to the birdwatching experts from Vancouver to New York to provide you with a few creative ways to attract birds to your home.

    How to attract hawks

    Foster a bird haven

    The most effective way to attract many different species of birds to your yard is to offer a wide variety of food sources including seeds (especially black oil sunflower seeds), suet, nuts, jelly, sugar water (for hummingbirds) and fruits. Also consider installing native plants, fruit-bearing trees, and shrubs in varying degrees of density in your backyard to promote an attractive, safe habitat for the birds to forage, roost and nest in. It’s also a good idea to put out a birdbath or install a small pond garden so that the birds have someplace to bathe, cool off and grab a drink, something that is particularly important during the summer months. Lastly, make sure that you clean your feeders and birdbath periodically and keep your feeders full. Following these steps, it won’t be long before your backyard will become a bird lover’s paradise! – Birdwatching N.C.

    This spring, consider turning your backyard space into a welcoming haven for birds! The key to attracting birds to your yard is by providing for their basic needs. Growing native plants is a great way to encourage birds to settle in your yard by offering natural food sources and shelter. In addition, you can add bird feeders with a variety of food types to entice many different species. Proving a water source is another great way to attract birds because of course, they all need water! Putting a birdbath in your backyard is an easy way to provide a place that birds can drink and bathe. A couple of other important things you can do to help out our feathered friends are to avoid using pesticides and herbicides, which are harmful to birds and also to keep cats out of your yard! Have fun birding and good luck! – Meewasin

    Incorporate a variety of feeders

    Get some hummingbird feeders up in various parts of your garden. Hummers can be territorial so we suggest at least 2 or 3 different feeders in different corners. Keep the feeders well stocked with a 4 to 1 dissolved mix of water to sugar. Once the birds know there is a regular supply of food they’ll keep coming back. Take care to clean the feeders every day or so, and replace sugar water which ferments quickly on hot days. It’s not just about feeders – get some plants on the go too. Hummers love brightly colored tubular hanging flowers rich in nectar. Reds and purples are perfect, like cardinal flowers, columbines and fuchsias. – Home Happy Gringo

    How to attract hawks

    Don’t underestimate the importance of a clean water source

    Our Friends know that their own yards can serve as vital mini-sanctuaries whether you live in the rural vast expanse or eastern Oregon or an urban ‘jungle’. We have a few tricks for ensuring that you are supporting the birds that may find themselves in your backyard. First things first – food is not enough. Clean, freshwater is a vital and often overlooked necessity for many birds. A resident of Burns, OR and Friends of Malheur Board Member, Rick Vetter, says, “I use a combination of water, feed, and bait to attract a variety of birds to my backyard in winter.” Water can be a shallow bath or bubbler and should be cleaned regularly. Rick continues, Feed consists of 2,000 lb of cracked corn and black sunflower see in several feeders supplemented with suet and a large plastic container of skippy super crunchy peanut butter with holes for wood pegs and slots for access to the peanut butter.” What about the bait you ask? Well, Rick has a unique approach to that as well. ” Bait consists of California quail and Eurasian collared doves eating the feed and in turn, they attract northern goshawks, Cooper’s hawks, sharp-shinned hawks, red-tailed hawks and northern harriers that feed on them. Merlins feed on the smaller birds. – Friends of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Try planting local natives

    Firstly, I recommend planting local native plants like the Firebush (Hamelia patens). This plant is very attractive to hummingbirds and insects, therefore attracting other birds like warblers and flycatchers. Something important to keep in mind is that this plant has a tropical and subtropical distribution. Therefore it attracts birds suited for those conditions that the plant is also well adapted for. For that reason, before planting your garden or designing your landscaping, you have to investigate the local native plants in your area. Also, another helpful and easy way to attract birds in the garden, for example, is if you have old tree trunks on your property. These dead plants can provide a suitable habitat for woodpeckers, owls and in general birds that need a cavity to nest inside. – Drake Bay Birdwatching

    Planning your outdoor space with bird-friendly plants that flower at different times of the year will attract a variety of birds throughout the flowering season. By planting early bloomers you will be providing a food source for early summer migrants (or straggling fall migrants) and by planting late bloomers you will be attracting birds leaving a little later (or fall migrants arriving early). And of course, you’ll be providing for your resident birds as well! To learn how to spot some of California’s most notable birds, check out our Guide to Birding . – Santa Clara Valley Open Space Authority

    How to attract hawks

    The most effective way to encourage a variety of birds to your yard is to plant as many native trees, shrubs and flowers as possible. These are plants that the native birds have come to know and depend on over centuries. By using more native plants in your backyard, especially those that flower profusely in spring and follow the blooms with berries, you will not only encourage birds and other fauna to visit your yard, you will also encourage them to stay in your yard and call it home. – Ferns & Feathers

    Install a moving water feature

    A simple, cheap, clean and effective way to attract birds to your garden is to install a moving water feature. Place a floating solar-powered water pump in the middle of your birdbath, surrounded by small rocks to keep it in place and to act as perches. Alternatively, if you want to DIY it, you can make your own “spring” out of a large plastic bucket with a lid (eg paint bucket) and a small solar-powered pump. Paint or decorate it to your taste, punch holes in the lid for the tubing and drainage back into the bucket, and place small rocks or stones on the lid to give it a more natural feel. The moving water ensures that it is oxygenated and stays clean for longer than still water, and it attracts the bird’s eye more readily. – Birding in Spain

    How to attract hawks

    Meet the noisiest birds around; Starlings! From their name, they form the shape of a star when they fly. They are attractive small birds and have an iridescent black-green color with short tails and long, slender bright yellow beaks.

    They are known for murmuration, which refers to the swarming behavior of starlings when they fly in intricately coordinated patterns in the sky. They may do this for safety, warmth, or exchanging information on good feeding areas. Nonetheless, this is a dazzling display that you would want to see.

    Where can They be Found?

    Starlings can be found in North America and are actually the most numerous songbirds around. It is actually very easy to spot a starling as they are commonly seen in cities and towns. Just go to fields, lawns, city parks, and you will be seeing them working their way across the grass.

    In the countryside, they can be seen flying in flocks over fields or roads or perched at the tops of trees.

    Best Ways to Attract Starlings

    If you are a backyard birdwatcher who would love to see starlings in your backyard, here are a few tips to attract them:
    Eliminate possible threats

    If you want starlings to visit your backyard, it’s best to remove all the possible threats around. If you have any bird repellers like fake owls or scarecrows, they will obviously be afraid to come near your home. Although these may be a good way to keep other birds at bay, you may want to take them down if you want to have a starling come to visit.

    If you also have pets like cats, it’s best to keep them indoors as starlings wouldn’t want to be chased around by them.

    Choose the Right Food

    Once you have removed the possible threats that would keep them from coming near your yard, it’s now time to give starlings a reason to keep coming. That, of course, is food!

    The only reason why starlings, or any other birds for that matter, would want to visit your backyard is that there are food sources available. If you know what certain foods starlings are interested in, you will be able to get them straight to your backyard. It’s a good thing they are so easy to cater for! Here are just some of their favorite foods:

    Suet cake

    Suet is essential for birds and suet cake is actually known to be a favorite of starlings. This provides them with instant energy and is also soft enough for starlings to eat.

    Suet pellets

    Suet pellets are a great quick meal for starlings since they are very easy to swallow and digest. A starling’s beak is not designed to crack hard seed shells, so they prefer small bits of food.

    Dried mealworm

    Dried mealworms are a very nutritional food that is ideal for attracting starlings and other birds like blue tits and blackbirds. If you want them extra juicy for your birds you can soak them in water overnight.

    Cracked corn

    Cracked corn is a good way to attract starlings and other bird species like doves, cardinals, chickadees, and house finches. It’s also a cheap and accessible option. All you need to do is fill a tubular feeder with this and hang it from the limb of a tree.

    Peanut butter

    Just like the cracked corn, peanut butter is cheap and accessible, and it attracts starlings to your backyard. It’s easier for them to collect in small bills, and it doesn’t need to be cracked or broken for them to eat it.

    Feeding a Baby Starling

    If you also spot a baby starling and would like to feed them, you should know what they need. Baby starlings need food that is high in protein. They usually feed on insects, but you can also use dog or cat food as long as you mix it with water.

    Baby starlings also need plenty of water to avoid dehydration. Make sure to just put small drops of water on the outside of its beak or give it watermelon since it is rich in fluids.

    How to attract hawks

    Use a Proper Bird Feeder

    Now that you know what foods starlings are fond of, you need to make sure that the food you provide is also accessible to them. You need to make a proper bird feeder for them, so they’ll notice you and keep coming back.

    Make sure to not build a bird feeder that’s too small for them since they might just bully away small birds and it might lead to fighting for the food.

    Build a larger feeder that will have plenty of room for the starlings. Choose tubular bird feeders for starlings since these can allow them to eat from different points around the cylindrical shape.

    Once you have your bird feeder, hang it from a tree branch or above your porch and make sure that it’s tucked away from predators. Starlings like to roost during the winter or when raising their young so it’s good to hang a birdhouse where it’s safe from the wind and predators.

    Musical Bonds

    Starlings have marvelous mimicry and are even said to have inspired Mozart in the past. They are considered to be the noisiest birds around as they sing with life and joy. They love to copy many different sounds from other animal sounds to mobile ringtones.

    If you happen to see a starling in your backyard, one way to keep them there is to interact with it musically or socially. Just use some treats along with it!


    Starlings are dazzling creatures that you would want to see in your backyard. If you are planning to attract them, make sure to remove any possible threats around. When you’ve done this, you can use musical bonds to attract them, or of course, food.

    The best way to attract starlings is food! Starlings are easy to cater to since they are omnivores and are not very picky birds. They like suet, mealworms, cracked corn, and peanut butter. Just make sure to have a proper bird feeder for them, and you’re sure to get them in your backyard in no time!

    By Stephen W. Kress
    April 1, 2008

    How to attract hawks

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    Water: The Universal Need

    Compiled from The Audubon Society Guide to Attracting Birds, in association with the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

    With growing recognition that our climate is warming, native plants are the best choice for creating bird friendly habitats for the future. Native plants are adapted to temperature extremes of the past and they are the best bet for future changes because of their long history with local climates. If you are trying to bring more birds to your backyard, the single best thing to do is plant native shrubs, vines, and trees.

    Provide a Water Source near protective shrubs during the summer months. On hot days, birds are especially eager to bathe and drink. Bird baths should be only an inch or two deep with a shallow slope; a dripping effect will lure more birds. Mount the bath on a pedestal if cats prowl your neighborhood. Clean it once a week with a stiff brush.

    Create a Songbird Border along your property edge by planting trees and shrubs that meet the needs of birds throughout the year. Select native plants adapted to the weather extremes of your local climate. The border can take the form of a hedge or windbreak, depending on your property size. Plant several of each species adjacent to each other, selecting a mix of plants, with the tallest planted at the edges of the property, and shorter species tiered toward your home. Include at least one species of thorny tree, such as hawthorn or raspberry, for nesting. Also include evergreens, such as spruce, holly, or juniper, for cover. Plant berry-producing shrubs such as dogwood, serviceberry, and viburnum that will provide fruit throughout the seasons.

    How to attract hawks

    Create a Brush Pile in a corner of your property. Each time a storm drops limbs, heap them up. During spring clean-up, save those downed branches and tree trunks from the community wood chipper. Layer the larger logs as a foundation, then build up the pile in successive layers. In large fields that are growing into young forest, create living brush piles by cutting neighboring saplings most of the way through the trunks, then pulling them into a collective heap. Songbirds will find shelter from extreme weather in such cover throughout the year.

    Rake Leaves Under Shrubs to create mulch and natural feeding areas for ground-feeding birds such as sparrows, towhees, and thrashers. Earthworms, pill bugs, insects, and spiders will thrive in the decomposing leaf mulch, and will in turn be readily eaten by many songbirds. In general, overly tidy gardeners are poor bird gardeners!

    Reduce Your Lawn by at Least 25% to favor meadow plants and taller grasses. Tall grasses provide seeds and nesting places for birds. Cut this meadow just once each year, and let the remainder of the lawn grow 3 to 4 inches tall before cutting. Take the “ healthy yard pledge ” to avoid lawn pesticides and wasteful sprinklers. Currently, 50 percent of U.S. households treat their lawns with chemicals that kill about 7 million birds each year. These chemicals also leach into our groundwater where they move to wells, streams, lakes, and oceans.

    Clean Out Old Bird and Mouse Nests from nest boxes in early spring. When setting out new nest boxes, consider the preferred habitat for different species, as well as the size of the entrance hole, and its distance above the ground. Face boxes to the east in northern latitudes to provide extra warmth. In forests, play “woodpecker” by using a power drill to create 1 1⁄4-inch holes into dead snags 4 to 5 feet off the ground. These holes will serve as nest cavity starts for chickadees and titmice.

    How to attract hawks

    Photo by Josette Shachter Trappe.

    Clean Tube Feeders by taking them apart and using a dishwasher on a hot setting or hand wash either with soap and boiling water or with a dilute bleach solution (no more than 1 part bleach to 9 parts water). Bottle brushes can reach all corners of a long feeder and are recommended. Rinse thoroughly and allow to dry before refilling. Rake up soggy seed from under feeders that could grow deadly mold. Move feeders close to the house to avoid window strikes. Collisions with windows may kill as many as a billion birds in the United States each year. Birds at feeders that are spooked by a hawk or other predator will scatter in all directions. Move feeders within three feet of a window. At such close distances, birds are less likely to gather lethal momentum when startled. The birds will be safer, and you’ll get a better view!

    Keep Your Cat Indoors for the safety of both the birds and your cat. There are about 100 million pet and stray cats in the United States. They kill hundreds of millions of birds each year, especially in the spring when young songbirds are fledging, often on or near the ground. And cats themselves are safer from collisions with cars, predators, diseases, and parasites when kept indoors.

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    funded by donors like you

    How to attract hawks

    You don’t need acres of property or an expansive yard to bring birds to your home. If you know how to attract birds to your urban home, you can enjoy feathered guests no matter what type of city space you call your own.

    From patios and courtyards to tiny yards to balconies, any urban outdoor space can be useful if you know how to attract birds. First, look carefully at the amount of space you have and its layout with walkways, parking spaces, trash cans, and other features. Note how the space may be visible from the air as birds fly by, and consider what you can do to convert the space to a more natural, oasis-like appearance to catch birds’ attention and invite them for a visit. Even if you don’t have natural greenspace, you can create an oasis with carefully chosen potted plants, window boxes, and hanging containers.

    How to attract hawks

    Once you understand your space, it’s important to know what birds you can expect to visit. A surprising number of species – from thrushes and chickadees to hummingbirds, orioles, doves, sparrows, woodpeckers, and more – can be found in urban habitats. Visit a nearby park to notice what birds are common residents or consult a local birding group about which species are frequent guests. By catering to specific species’ needs, you can be more effective at attracting urban birds.

    It’s easy to attract birds when you meet their needs for food, water, and shelter. Before you begin, however, note whether your community – especially an apartment, townhome, or rental unit – restricts how you may be able to attract birds. Abide by any community guidelines or you could face fines or other penalties. When you’re ready to attract birds, however, there are many creative ways to do so in any urban environment.

    First, provide high-quality food. Even a small hanging feeder, filled with good quality birdseed mix, black oil sunflower seed, or other treats, will quickly attract hungry guests. Because urban birds have less access to natural food sources, they will come to feeders readily. 100% edible wild bird foods, like Kaytee Ultra Waste Free Nut and Fruit Blend , will minimize mess and keep the area under your feeder free of seed hulls. If possible, offer specialized foods such as mealworms, peanuts, or suet to attract even more species, but position feeders away from the busiest part of your space so birds will feel more comfortable. Try not to hang feeders near doorways, for example, but instead put them further away so birds can notice feeders more quickly and feel safe when they visit.

    Water is also an essential part of how to attract birds in urban areas. A simple dish can provide a refreshing drink or easy place for a quick bath. Clean the water dish or bath basin regularly to avoid diseases or breeding insects, and refill it with clean, fresh water often, especially when birds may vigorously bathe and splash water out. Adding a small solar fountain or a dripper can help birds notice the bath and will bring them to the yard when they see the sparkles of each splash.

    Even a great feeder and refreshing bath won’t attract birds if they don’t feel safe in the urban habitat. Providing shelter with thicket-like plants is critical to attract urban birds, particularly where abundant growth may be scarce. Use potted plants, hanging pots, trellises, arbors, and climbing vines to create a green oasis that birds will easily notice. Even better is using plants that will also provide natural food for birds, such as berries, seeds, or nectar.

    How to attract hawks

    One of the best ways to attract birds to your urban home is to expand their local habitat so more green space catches their attention. Consider sharing plants with your neighbors or giving a new bird feeder as a welcome gift. Support local and regional nature and wildlife preserves, and contact local churches, schools, businesses, and community centers to encourage bird-friendly landscaping. The more individuals who take small steps to attract urban birds, the bigger the overall impact will be and the more birds you will enjoy in your own private urban space.

    How to attract hawks

    Purples Martins are beautiful and athletic birds that birdwatchers absolutely love to see. These helpful birds are great at working to balance an ecosystem and can make it easy for you to comfortably invest in living alongside the insects in your garden. Fortunately, these flyers are known for their interest in soaring through the air and exploring the world around them, which makes it fairly simple to draw them to you as long as you are willing to make some changes on your property. Some people find that these birds can be difficult to win over, but that isn’t necessarily true. With the right approach, you can win their favor and enjoy watching them soar by!

    What do Purple Martins eat?

    Purple Martins are birds that are constantly on the go. These stunning creatures are fast and enjoy flying more than some of the other birds around. Since this is the case, they are known to focus their dietary habits around this premise. Purple Martins can be found flying through the air and quickly snatching up bugs. Many people enjoy watching the process, but it does mean holding onto a steady bug supply.

    When it comes to feeding purple martins, you won’t find them looking for birdfeeders. While some birds enjoy stopping by for a snack, purple martins expect you to provide them with the wonders of nature. Since this is the case, you will need to make sure that you have plenty of natural food to offer them. In some cases, they have been known to chow down on eggshells and other comparable calcium-filled options as well. These can be a huge health boost for them.

    How to clean a dirty cd

    Since you always take the best possible care of your CDs and DVDs, let’s assume the dirty CD or DVD you have is from the library. Some careless patron of that literary establishment spilled juice, coffee, ice cream, etc. on it, and now it won’t play properly. Or maybe he left the CD or DVD sitting on his desk for days on end and now it’s covered in dust. Well, here is what you’ll have to do to clean it. Don’t worry. It is pretty easy.

    The CD Cleaning Process

    1. Assemble your materials

    The materials you will need for this task are very few. You’ll need a cloth that won’t shed a lot of fuzz, such as a special electronics cleaning cloth, a handkerchief or a rag made out of the arm of an old t-shirt. Also, you’ll need either a bottle of rubbing alcohol, or a bottle of dish soap for hand washing (the less abrasive the better) and some lukewarm water, and a small bowl, such as a cereal bowl.

    *If your CD is simply dusty, you may be able to clean it with just a dry cloth or CD wipe. Try this first to make your life easier.

    2. Carefully remove the CD or DVD from its case

    Once you’ve assembled your supplies, it’s time to carefully remove the disc in question from its case. By carefully removing it from its case, this means holding it by putting your thumb in the center hole and your fingers on the curved sides of the disk. Don’t touch the main (flat) area of the disk, as you could scratch its surface or add even more smudges and fingerprints.

    3. Wet the cloth

    Mix about a teaspoon of the dish soap and a cup of tap or bottled water together in the bowl to form a uniform solution, or pour about a half cup of rubbing alcohol into the bowl, no water required. Then, get the cloth damp but dipping one corner of it into the liquid. You do not want the cloth to be dripping wet (if you get it too wet, wring it out immediately).

    4. Wipe the CD or DVD with the cloth

    Still holding the disc by it edges, or with the disc resting on a clean and dry table or countertop with the data side up (the side with nothing printed on it), use the cloth to gently buff out the fingerprints, dust or debris. Be sure to rub from the center of the disc outwards, as if you were drawing the rays of the sun on a piece of paper. If you follow the circular shape or the grooves of the disc you risk damaging it and losing your information. Also, use light pressure. You know how easy it is for CD and DVDs to break in half.

    5. Dry the CD or DVD

    Since you didn’t use a lot of solution to wipe the disc, you shouldn’t really need to rinse it off. Simply dry the CD or DVD carefully with the still dry corner of the cloth or with a clean one. You want to make sure your disc is completely dry before you put it away so that it doesn’t end up with streaks on it. And you definitely don’t want a wet disc in your computer, sound system or DVD player.

    Didn’t work?

    If you can’t seem to get the gunk off of your CD or DVD with the dish soap or the rubbing alcohol, there are some cleaners made especially for CD and DVDs that you can try. A good place to start to look for one is at your local music or electronics store. You may want to bring the disc in with you when you’re shopping so that the salesperson can recommend the right product for the substance spilled on the disc or refer you to a professional cleaner.

    If your CD is clean but still doesn’t play properly, this may be due to a scratch. See the article, how to fix a scratched CD or DVD for more information.

    Keeping your CDs and DVDs clean

    This is pretty much a no-brainer. Don’t spill things on your CDs and DVDs. Keep them at a safe distance when you or your family members are eating or drinking.
    Also, don’t leave your CD and DVDs out of their cases for extended periods of time, and if you must leave them out, try to avoid leaving the data side facing up, as it is more sensitive to dust and debris. Also, don’t put stickers or tape on your CDs and DVDs, since the glue can leave a residue that can be hard to remove. Again, if you must, do not attach them to the data side of the disc.

    Happy watching and listening.

    Filed Under: Electronics Tagged With: cd, disc

    Ever wonder how to clean a CD, when it has fingerprints all over it, or even worse, when something gets spilled on it, like soda?

    When a CD gets dirty it can skip or otherwise not allow proper access of the data stored on the CD, making it frustrating to use.

    This dirt can be from various sources, several of which will be discussed below.

    Dusting CDs

    When a CD is merely dusty you don’t even need to use any type of cleaner on it, but can instead just wipe it with a clean, soft cloth.

    I recommend using a microfiber cloth, which grabs the dust easily, and has a weave which will not easily scratch the CD. You could also use a lint-free, anti-static pad available at electronic stores.

    Proper Way To Wipe CDs When Dusting Or Cleaning

    When you either dust or clean CDs make sure that you do not rub them in a circular motion. Rubbing a CD in this manner can cause scratches.

    Instead, always wipe in a straight line from the center of the CD to its outer edge.

    How To Clean A CD When It Has More Than Dust On It

    If you have something on a CD, such as soda or something else sticky, you definitely want to clean that off before placing the CD in your CD player.

    When this happens first try removing the sticky stuff by wetting a clean wet cloth with plain warm (not hot) water, and wiping as discussed above.

    Try not to get the CD too wet, if possible. That is why you always should, for any of the methods discussed that use liquid to clean the CD, wet or spray the cloth with the liquid, not spray or pour it directly onto the CD.

    If plain water does not work, you can progressively use stronger cleaning products, but caution should be used with anything stronger than water. If a CD is too precious to be ruined, take it to a professional to be cleaned!

    You can also use a cleaner made especially for CDs.

    CD manufacturers have warned that household cleaners can be too harsh for cleaning CDs, and can damage them.

    However, when you want to figure out how to clean a CD at home using household products two of the most used are alcohol and glass cleaner.

    Glass cleaner can be used to remove oily fingerprints or other oily residue from CDs that water alone can’t easily remove.

    A solution of rubbing alcohol and water, mixed in a one-to-one ratio, is also commonly used. It can remove fingerprints, and is useful because it evaporates quickly.

    Proper Handling of CDs

    To avoid additional dirt and scratches on your CDs in the future make sure to place the CD back into its case after each use.

    In addition, hold the CD by the center, by placing your finger in the center hole, or by holding it on the edges. This will keep your fingerprints and the oil from your hands from getting on the CD and dirtying it.

    What About Cleaning A Scratched CD?

    Cleaning scratched CDs, and perhaps even fixing the scratches, uses a different method than just cleaning alone.

    Check out this article on cleaning scratched CDs to learn more.

    You may have heard some strange home remedies for cleaning CDs such as rubbing them with banana peels or applying automotive car wax to buff out the scratches. Do these techniques really work? Or do they do more harm than good? Optical storage devices are prone to scratching which makes home remedies for cleaning CDs necessary from time to time. Before peeling that banana, take a few minutes now to find out which CD cleaning tips are safe for your CDs, CD-ROMS and DVDs. When Does a CD Need to be Cleaned?
    If your CD plays just fine and looks clean with no visible smudges or scratches, leave it alone. However, if your CD or DVD skips, gets stuck, shuts down, won’t play, shows no data when inserted in your computer’s CD-ROM drive or is physically smudged or scratched, it’s time for some cleaning. If the debris or scratching appears minimal, try playing the CD in a different player. Many CD players and DVD players are more sensitive than others. A disc that’s unreadable in one player may play perfectly in another. Look at the disc, holding it at different angles. Does it look dirty? Scratched? Smudged? Or is it spotless? A spotless CD may be warped or have other issues preventing proper playback. Once you’ve decided it’s time for a good cleaning, you’ll need to know what to do. No matter which home remedies for cleaning CDs you try, a few key points must be made. First, never wipe your CD using a circular motion. Granted, it’s counter-intuitive since CDs are round by design and have concentric circles. Avoid the temptation to follow these circles. Instead, all wiping should be done using a straight across motion. Next, never use household cleansers like glass cleaner or bleach.

    Finally, never spray cleaning fluid, even fluid that comes in a home CD cleaning kit, directly on the disc. Instead, spray the fluid on a cloth. How to Handle the CD
    When preparing to clean your CD or DVD, it’s also important to know how to handle it. Avoid touching the shiny surface. Instead, hold it by its outer edges and inner circle hole. For example, insert your thumb into the center hole and clutch the outer rim with your fingers. You can also hold it entirely by the outer rim with your thumb on one edge and your fingers on the opposite edge. Now that the precautions are out of the way, here are some popular home remedies for cleaning CDs: The Anti-Static Wipe Method
    Anti-static wipes are a terrific tool to use when cleaning CDs at home. Because of their anti-static properties, dust is repelled. You can use the anti-static wipe on its own or spray a little CD cleaning fluid on it first (remember to spray the fluid on the wipe, not the CD). Start by wiping the disc from the center hole outward in a straight across motion. You will need to do this all the way around the CD working from the inside center to the outer rim, one wipe at a time. Continue until the CD is clean and dry. If you don’t have an anti-static wipe, you can substitute a clean, lint-free cloth or a tissue designed for cleaning camera lenses in its place.

    The Toothpaste Remedy
    Toothpaste is thought to smooth out scratches on a CDs surface. By its nature, toothpaste is a gentle abrasive. Start by rubbing a thin layer of toothpaste on the CD remembering not to use circular motions. Allow the toothpaste to sit for about five minutes and then rinse it off under running water. This particular home remedy can cause additional scratches because of the abrasive action of the toothpaste. Use it as a last resort for large scratches where other home remedies for cleaning CDs have failed. The Baby Shampoo Method
    Use a clean, lint-free cloth and a solution of water and baby shampoo. Dip your cloth into the soapy water and wipe the CD clean, using the approved wiping technique. Rinse thoroughly with water and dry using a dry, lint-free cloth, once again using the proper wiping method. This method is designed to clean a CD that’s greasy or sticky. If you don’t have baby shampoo on hand, a mild dish detergent is a suitable substitute. The Home CD Cleaning Kit
    Several commercial home CD cleaning kits are on the market and are safe to use for cleaning CDs and DVDs. Typically, these kits contain a small bottle of cleaning solution and an approved cloth. More deluxe kits such as radial cleaning kits consist of housing to place the CD. A chamois or foam cleaning disc and cleaning solution work to clean the CD without damaging it.

    Other Home CD Cleaning Tips
    You can make your own cleaning solution using a solution of distilled water and dish detergent. The ideal ratio is about one quart of distilled water to one drop of mild dish detergent. The detergent adds just enough emulsion to help lift and slough the dirt away. If your disc is severely scratched but playable, burn a copy of it right away as insurance against the inevitable day that it stops playing. You can do simple tests to see if your CD is repairable. Hold the disc with the reflective side facing you. Now, hold it against a bright light. Do you see light coming through the tiny holes or scratches in the disc? If so, the aluminum layer is damaged beyond repair. If not, it could be fixable. Another test is to look at the scratch carefully and then tip the CD. Do you see a reflection of the scratch in the disc? If so, you may be able to fix it. If not, it has punctured the aluminum layer. If the scratches are deemed repairable, use a commercial CD scratch repair product to buff them to oblivion. When going through this list of home remedies for cleaning CDs, don’t overlook the value of cleaning the actual CD tray and laser unit (or CD-ROM drive). Did you know that these components get dirty too? A dirty optical system will have difficulty reading the CD or DVD so even if you have a spotless disc, read errors may occur. To clean these units, it’s best to buy a commercial CD-ROM drive cleaning kit. These kits remove dirt, debris, dust and even hair.

    A typical CD-ROM drive cleaner has a cleaning disc and cleaning solution inserted directly into the tray. The cleaning disc usually has a small brush that cleans the laser as the disc spins. In addition, you ought to clean out the tray that holds the disc by using a damp soft, lint-free or anti-static cloth. Dry the tray completely before closing it. While you will stumble across some bizarre home remedies for cleaning CDs, such as rubbing banana peels or peanut butter on the damaged discs, many home remedies are effective. Always follow the golden rule of wiping CDs clean by avoiding circular motions and wiping perpendicular to the CD’s tracks. You can test the scratches on your CDs to see if they’re worth repairing with the light and reflective tests. In addition to the home remedies, many fine commercial products are available and they don’t cost too much.

    Do you know how to clean a CD or DVD? Every time you keep your CD outside the pouch, there is a high possibility that the CD could get dirty, smudged or fingerprinted. And the problem with most of you is that you want to clean it but you don’t know how to clean it in such a dirty condition. How do you remove fingerprints, dust and debris?

    Clean Dirty CD, DVD

    How to clean a dirty cd

    For all those who want to clean a dirty CD with minimum effort in the cheapest way, follow the process with simple steps given below in order.

    • Find yourself a container (a medium sized one which is good enough to submerge a disk in it)
    • Squeeze into the container a table spoon of liquid soap or window cleaning solution. You can also use all-natural cleaning liquid made out of distilled water.
    • Now pour clean water into the container and fill it. Now the water should become soapy once it gets mixed with the cleaning solution added whatsoever.
    • Now put the dirty disk into the container filled with soapy water. Leave it there for about a minute or two.
    • Now remove the disk from the soapy water container and rinse it with running warm water.
    • Repeat the process if the disk is still a bit dirty. In case the smudges on the disk are stubborn, you can use a soft cloth to rub soap on those parts.
    • Finally shake off the excess water and let the disk to dry naturally. Do not use any artificial blower or hair drier.

    Now you have your shiny good as new CD which can be easily run on your computer and there are less chances of getting data copy errors on running it.

    This guest article was written by Amit Bhawani ( writes different articles on cleaning anything. Photo by Violets and Handshakes (under CC)

    WARNING: Use this technique at your OWN RISK. If you have important stored data, seek professional help to clean your CD. We take no responsibility for data loss or CD damage.

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    Proper care and cleaning of your CD, DVD and Blu-ray is important to ensure the data contained on the disc plays correctly, and lasts for lifespan of the disc, which should be about 20 years.

    Fingerprints, scratches, dust and dirt on the data side of the discs are usually the main cause of any damage incurred to a disc.

    Unlike CDs and DVDs, Blu-Ray discs usually have a harder coating and are therefore slightly less prone to the data being unreadable due to scratches. However, Blu-ray are susceptible to smudges dirt and dust, so should be thoroughly cleaned to remove these artefacts as soon as possible; this will maintain the playability quality of the disc, as well as its lifespan.

    For discs that are vitally important, it would be advisable to duplicate these and make back-up copies. This can be physical backups or using disc imaging software to create soft backups. This would apply to your critical data, and music. If your master disc was to get damaged beyond readability then you would have a backed up version to revert to if necessary.

    What you need

    To clean a CD or DVD a microfiber cleaning cloth or cotton based tissue or cloth is recommended.

    Any materials used should be checked to ensure they are non-abrasive. In most instances water will suffice as a cleaning agent. If water does not remove everything then a more powerful cleaner such as isopropyl alcohol can be used, but this should only be used in the most extreme of cases.

    Dedicated CD and DVD wipes are also available which are already coated in a suitable cleaning solution.

    For Blu-ray discs a soft cloth can be used instead of the tissue because it has a much harder surface, and a very mild detergent can also be used if necessary.

    How to clean

    Once you have your cloth and appropriate detergent ready, you’re ready to start cleaning.

    Hold the disc from the outer edges with the index finger and thumb of one hand. Avoid directly holding the playing surface, as this is likely to introduce further smudges, and possible damage. If a detergent is being used then it should be sprayed on the cloth or tissue rather than directly to the disc.

    The discs must be cleaned in a specific pattern; Do not move the cloth in a circular pattern, rather wipe the disc from the centre, out towards the edges. This greatly reduces the chances of spoiling the disc as any scratches caused by such a motion will have very minimal effect on the readability of music or data. Specifically, Blu-ray discs should never be wiped in a circular pattern.

    How to dry and maintain the discs

    After the initial cleaning using water or any other detergent, it is important to wipe off the cleaning agent from the surface of the DVD, CD or Blu-ray using a dry cloth; if it is still not as clean, repeat the process again until the grease, fingerprints or any other smudges are removed. Make sure you repeat the cleaning in the same motion as described above.

    Once you are satisfied that the disc is clean, let it dry completely before attempting to play it, or place it inside any electronic equipment. Playing a wet CD, DVD or Blu-Ray will damage the machine and the disc.

    It is also advisable to routinely clean the internals of your equipment used to play the discs, as this can also contribute to the dirt on a disc, due to years or months of accumulated dust within the machine.

    Ideally, discs should be looked after from the start to avoid emergency cleaning, and the best way to store discs is in their original casing, or a multi-pocket CD wallet. Well maintained discs will last for a long time and will need very little cleaning.

    If you have a large collection of discs that require cleaning then it is advisable to invest in a disc cleaning kit which will have a selection of cleaning cloths and liquid solutions.

    How to Clean a Dirty CD

    How to clean a dirty cd

    Cleaning Dirty CDs

    For all those who want to clean a dirty CD with minimum effort in the cheapest way, follow the process with simple steps given below in order.

    • Find yourself a container (a medium sized one which is good enough to submerge a disk in it)
    • Squeeze into the container a table spoon of liquid soap or window cleaning solution. You can also use all-natural cleaning liquid made out of distilled water.
    • Now pour clean water into the container and fill it. Now the water should become soapy once it gets mixed with the cleaning solution added whatsoever.
    • Now put the dirty disk into the container filled with soapy water. Leave it there for about a minute or two.
    • Now remove the disk from the soapy water container and rinse it with running warm water.
    • Repeat the process if the disk is still a bit dirty. In case the smudges on the disk are stubborn, you can use a soft cloth to rub soap on those parts.
    • Finally shake off the excess water and let the disk to dry naturally. Do not use any artificial blower or hair drier.

    Now you have your shiny good as new CD which can be easily run on your computer and there are less chances of getting data copy errors on running it.

    WARNING: Use this technique at your OWN RISK. If you have important stored data, seek professional help to clean your CD. We take no responsibility for data loss or CD damage.

    A common cause of skipping, a quick clean may save you cash.

    The most common causes of your CD or DVD player skipping can be scratched disks, dirty lens or faulty laser pickup. The first thing to do is to test your unit with a known good CD, check for scratches and never touch the shiny side with your fingers. If it looks like a new CD and is not a recordable CD (some players don’t like recordable CDs) then this is the CD we will use for test. Put it in the player, most players should read the table of contents (toc) within 2 to 3 seconds, now press play. Did the player take a long time to play track one and is it skipping? now try the last track, it too should play within a few seconds and not skip.

    If your unit failed any of these tests it maybe time to clean the lens. CD lens cleaners do work in 50% of cases but if it’s too dirty, cleaning it manually is the only way to go. If your unit is a multi disk unit or 3 in one I recommend trying the CD cleaner as access to the CD lens in one of these type of units ranges from difficult to impossible and best left to the experts.

    Other home component type units are often easy to work on sometimes with only 4 screws needing to be removed. Firstly unplug the unit unscrew the top and remove, you should see the CD deck in the unit. Take a look for a box with a blue lens (it maybe under the CD clamper) this lens is what you want to clean. You will need cotton buds and we recommend isopropyl alcohol, never use turps, thinners or anything sharp. All it takes is a quick twirl of the cotton bud and perhaps a quick go of the dry end to clean away any excess alcohol. If the lens was dusty or cloudy this should have fixed your skipping problems (smokers unit often suffer from a cloudy CD lens). Reassemble your unit before plugging it back in to try it out. If the problem persists, it maybe time to take it for repair but remembering a laser replacement may be more expensive than a new unit perhaps it’s time you purchased a new CD or DVD player.

    The information presented here is for a guide only. If you doubt your technical abilities do not attempt to perform the procedures documented here. We will not be held responsible for any damage to your equipment or injury to yourself.

    How to Clean a Video Game Disc

    Gone are the days of blowing into a cartridge to clean your games. Depending on what systems you own, you’ll be caring for and cleaning games that are burned onto DVDs or Blu-rays (and if you like vintage gaming, perhaps even some old-school CDs). Luckily, the cleaning process is the same for all disc-based games. However, there’s some disagreement about the best technique to clean your discs. A quick Internet search will give you countless methods and variations for game cleaning, but not all of them are going to work. In fact, some Internet solutions (such as the banana-cleaning method) usually make the situation worse and will turn a game that skips occasionally into an unplayable piece of plastic trash. Therefore, if the only boss you can’t get past is dirt on your discs, try following the manufacturer’s guidelines to get back into the game.

    Most instruction manuals and console manufactures will tell you to clean your games with a clean, lint-free, soft, dry or slightly damp cloth and wipe in straight lines from the disc’s center to its outer edge. Don’t wipe in circles: That’s how the discs are read, and doing so could cause further damage. Also, be sure to hold onto the outer edges of the video game disc as you clean — grasping it any other way will just add fingerprint smudges to your already smeared or scratched-up disc.

    This cleaning method will buff out smudges and some small scratches, but if your game is badly damaged, you’re going to have to break out the big guns. In this case, that’s toothpaste.

    Yes, you heard that right — we said toothpaste. Cleaning your scratched game with toothpaste is a long-standing Internet rumor that actually works … if you do it right! First, squeeze a moderate amount of toothpaste (a little more than you’d place onto your toothbrush) and evenly rub it onto the disc in straight lines from the center to the edge. (Remember what we said about forgoing circular wiping motions?). Leave on the paste for about five minutes or so, then off wash the disc with warm water until all the solution has been removed. Dry off your game with a clean, soft cloth, and you should be back in front of the TV, controller in hand, in no time. Of course, this technique isn’t foolproof, and extremely deep scratches may be unbeatable and force you to restart with another copy of the game.

    You can also always pick up a specialized disc-cleaning tool or machine. There are numerous products out there on the market, but the truth is that if damp cloths and toothpaste didn’t work for you, these products probably won’t, either.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    A new car for first time drivers should be cheap, easy to drive and safe. Here are the 10 best first cars

    • Introduction
    • 1. VW up!/Skoda Citigo/SEAT Mii
    • 2. Kia Picanto
    • 3. Ford Fiesta
    • 4. SEAT Ibiza
    • 5. Hyundai i10
    • 6. Volkswagen Polo
    • 7. Toyota Aygo/Peugeot 108/Citroen C1
    • 8. Skoda Fabia
    • 9. Dacia Sandero

    See all pages

    Buying your first car is often one of the most memorable milestone on the passage into adulthood; once you’ve passed your driving test, the level of freedom you’ll have will be unprecedented. However, the cost of buying and running a car can be prohibitive, so the best way to maximise how far your money goes is to get a car that’s affordable, economical and with cheap insurance. While many first time car buyers will focus on used cars, buying or financing a brand new car means you’ll get a warranty, while also reducing the chances of mechanical problems in the first place.

    Here we’ve listed 10 of the best new cars for new drivers. They are small enough to be manageable – new drivers will be able to position them easily on the road – but offer some luxuries to keep new drivers safe and connected, too. They’re also good to drive, which will help new drivers to build confidence with every mile.

    What to look for in a first car

    One of the biggest obstacles to driving is sky-high insurance costs. As a new driver, your lack of experience will count against you in the eyes of an insurer. If you can keep out of trouble for 12 months, you will accrue a no-claims discount which will give you a percentage reduction on your premium. And if you continue to not make any insurance claims, then this discount will only grow over the years. There are even finance deals which include free insurance, although this usually raises the monthly payments drastically.

    One way of boosting a no-claims discount is to fit your car with an insurer-approved ‘black box’. This electronic device plugs into your car’s electronics and monitors your driving, and you and your insurer can review your performance to see how and where you can improve your driving. Return a good score, and the insurer can further reduce your payments for cover.

    Some parents will be in a position to buy their children their first car, and if you’re in that enviable situation, then you’ll likely want to buy the safest car possible. You need to find the small cars that come with the highest rating by independent assessment organisation Euro NCAP: the higher the score for a car, the safer it is.

    Still, buying a new car rather than an old second-hand one will mean it’s inherently safer, because kit such as anti-lock brakes and electronic stability control is generally fitted as standard.

    We’d recommend going for a petrol car over a diesel. There aren’t many small diesel cars on sale anyway, and you’ll only reap the benefit of their better fuel consumption if you do lots of motorway miles, which is unlikely if you’re an inexperienced driver. It’s better to go for a small petrol, and if the option of stop-start is available – either as standard or an extra – then that will reduce running costs even more. While the experience of the engine cutting out when you put the car in neutral might be unnerving, you’ll soon get into the habit of saving fuel and making your money go further.

    If you’ve got an automatic-only licence then you’ll obviously be limited to cars with automatic gearboxes, which tend to be more pricey and in relation to small cars, rarer. Manual cars can also help build driving confidence with greater control over the car’s mechanicals.

    Other highlights to look out for when buying a car for a new driver include light steering, good visibility, a responsive engine and brakes, user-friendly controls and a positive gear shift; all of these help a new driver build confidence during their time behind the wheel.

    Top 10 best first cars for new drivers 2021

    1. Volkswagen up!/Skoda Citigo/SEAT Mii
    2. Kia Picanto
    3. Ford Fiesta
    4. SEAT Ibiza
    5. Hyundai i10
    6. Volkswagen Polo
    7. Toyota Aygo/Peugeot 108/Citroen C1
    8. Skoda Fabia
    9. Dacia Sandero
    10. Vauxhall Corsa

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    We show the difference between tire types, then steer you in the right direction

    Buying car tires is easy. It’s finding the right ones for your car that can be difficult.

    Get it wrong, and you can hobble your car’s performance and its ability to tackle any type of weather.

    Since car tires usually need to be replaced every three or four years, here’s a refresher course on how to make sure you’re getting the right ones.

    Most car tires fall into three main types: all-season, summer, and winter. Most people buy all-season tires because it’s easier and cheaper than buying one set for the winter and another for summer.

    All-season car tires deliver a good, well-rounded performance but are never outstanding in any way. Summer tires deliver on handling and dry/wet braking, but they have dismal snow traction. By contrast, winter tires have outstanding snow traction but just fair braking ability on cleared roads.

    Within each car tire category, there is a range of performance, as our tests routinely remind us. To see the basic differences in tire types, look at the chart below.

    Need new car, SUV, or truck tires?

    Check our tire buying guide and ratings.

    As you can see, no single tire type is outstanding in all conditions.

    So how do you find the best tires for your car? Follow these three steps:

    What Size Do You Need?

    First, consult your owner’s manual or the placard on the driver’s side door jamb to find the recommended tire measurements. The label will look something like this: P215/60R16 94T.

    The first part of the label—P215/60R16—refers to the tire’s various size measurements such as width and diameter. The 94 indicates the load index, which is how much weight each tire can support. Finally, the T is the speed rating, which is the tire’s maximum speed in relation to the load index.

    You should match the tire’s size measurements, but you have some flexibility to go higher with the load index and speed rating.

    For more on how to read a tire label, go to our tire buying guide.

    What Type of Tire Do You Need?

    Many retail websites will give you a listing of all tires available in your size. But in many cases, you’ll need to dig deeper to match the speed rating. The list below can help ID your tire type.

    • All-season tires come in S- and T-speed ratings. Known for good all-weather grip and long mileage, these are commonly fit to mainstream cars and SUVs.
    • Performance all-season tires come in H- and V-speed rating on many newer cars, especially those with enthusiast appeal or upgraded wheels. They tend to have better cornering grip than S- and T-speed rated all-season tires, but performance tires may not wear as long.
    • Ultra-high-performance all-season and summer tires typically come in ZR-, W-, and Y-speed ratings for sports cars and performance sedans. Differentiating between all-season and summer tires can be challenging and may require going to a manufacturer’s website to find out the details. One clue to tell them apart: A summer tire would not have an M&S (Mud & Snow) designation on the sidewall.
    • All-season and all-terrain truck tires naturally come in large sizes and are designed for the hauling and towing duties of light-duty pickups and SUVs. All-terrain tires generally have a more aggressive tread pattern to aid off-road traction. A tip is that many all-terrain tires will have “A/T” or “All Terrain” right in the model name.
    • Winter/snow tires are easily identified by a mountain and snowflake symbol displayed on the sidewall of the tire. Plus the tread looks busier than all-season tires with lots of slits, known as sipes. When shopping, be sure to buy winter tires in sets of four to optimize braking and handling.

    What Are Your Priorities in Selecting a Tire?

    Our research shows that people often choose a direct replacement tire when the car is still relatively new. But as the car ages, consumers become more inclined to switch to another model based on performance or price.

    If you’re looking to make a switch, be sure to check our extensive tire ratings, especially if you’re seeking a model with maximum tread life and all-weather grip.

    Many manufacturers have websites to help consumers choose the right tire. Online retailers like and have simple-to-use vehicle selectors. Some sites like go further, giving consumers personalized choices and an all-in-one price including installation at a local retailer.

    We have had good success with most online retailers we buy from. But many local tire dealers, big-box stores, and tire-company-owned retailers can offer good deals, too. So shop around once you have made your tire choice.

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    How to choose the perfect first car

    Choose the Right Car Based On Your Zodiac Sign

    Are you looking for a new car but you’re not sure what you’re, well, looking for in a new car? Maybe the answer is in the stars!

    The perfect car isn’t one that just ticks off a checklist of features and performance stats. It should be something that fits your personality, a vehicle that you can connect with and enjoy driving.

    After all, the best car for you depends much more on you than on the car!

    Your zodiac sign says a lot about who you are and what makes you happy. So check out this “automobile horoscope” and see what resonates. It just might give you a better idea of what you really want in a car and where to find it.

    Best cars for every astrological sign

    Aries: Go fun and flashy

    How to choose the perfect first car

    Playful and young at heart, Aries people are confident, adventurous and enthusiastic. Look for a car that’s fun, fast and flashy, preferably in a bright color, like a Jeep Wrangler or a sporty Corvette.

    Taurus: Practical, stable and dependable

    Taurus is solid and grounded. You want a car that’s just as steady and reliable as you are. It should be built to last and designed with safety in mind, like a Volvo or Subaru. Take your time checking out the vehicle in detail to make sure it fits your requirements.

    Gemini: Versatile with a lot going on

    Ruled by Mercury, the Gemini personality is curious and versatile. Zip around in a car that’s light and up-to-date with plenty of extra features, like the new Kia Stinger, Audi A5 or a Smart Fortwo.

    Cancer: At home on the road

    Cancer people are looking for comfort behind the wheel, both physical and emotional. The right car for you is safe and stable with a spacious, well-equipped interior. Soft seats and a great infotainment system will help you enjoy the ride. Try something like the Chevy Equinox or Honda CR-V.

    Leo: Show off your style

    How to choose the perfect first car

    Leo is the star of the show, and wants a car that expresses it. These natural-born leaders will love a Mustang, Audi R8 or Acura NSX. Ruled by the Sun, you won’t shy away from a fiery, eye-catching color.

    Virgo: Only the best, in every detail

    Perfectionism and attention to detail are the name of the game for Virgo. People of this sign have high standards for their cars’ performance, and won’t settle for less than top fuel efficiency. Japanese brands are a safe bet, or the sleek, gas-sipping new Mazda CX-5.

    Libra: Harmony and family

    Libras are committed to family and relationships. Harmony and elegant aesthetics are important to them. Think in the direction of a classic minivan that looks good while allowing you to be surrounded by the people you love. Of these, the Chrysler Pacifica is a great choice.

    Scorpio: Sexy with hidden depth

    Scorpio people will enjoy a car that’s intense, sexy and mysterious, just like them. You’ll enjoy the subtle-yet-scintillating 2017 Chevrolet Camaro, or Mazda 3 for more than meets the eye. Choose a dark color.

    Sagittarius: Straight and to the point

    How to choose the perfect first car

    Sagittarius people are direct and fly straight as an arrow. They’re interested in getting where they want to go, without unnecessary bells and whistles. Something like a BMW Sports Wagon, Honda Accord or Toyota Camry can do the trick.

    Capricorn: Classy and functional

    Capricorns are hardworking, stylish perfectionists who want to show their success to the world. This personality goes well with a stable but high-end vehicle like a Mercedes or Acura, or the luxurious Volvo XC90 if you want an SUV.

    Aquarius: Drive into the future

    Aquarians love everything new and futuristic. You’ll want something progressive and ecological, with a unique flair. Try a hybrid or electric vehicle: Tesla, Chevy Volt or Prius.

    Pisces: Comfort with creative flair

    Like Cancer, Pisces people want a car that feels like home, but they also want it to have some personality. They are artistic and want their vehicle to have some spark. The Kia Soul or Volkswagen Beetle will suit a Pisces well.


    I hope this article gives you some inspiration in your search for a new set of wheels.

    Of course, astrology depends on a lot more than just your sun sign, and choosing the right car depends on a lot more than astrology!

    If you want expert help finding a great car to lease, contact Capital Motor Cars. The team there is ready to get you the best deal on a vehicle that fits all your needs perfectly.

    Updated July 2, 2018 7:15 PM NEWSDAY.COM STAFF

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2018 Ford Mustang GT features a 5.0L V8 engine with 460 horsepower. Credit: Robert Hradil / Getty Images

    Sure, we all hate car shopping, but if you know what you’re looking for, the process becomes a lot more painless. Take our quiz to help you figure out your car personality and make the choice easier.

    People buy cars for many reasons, whether it be affordability, eco-friendliness, horsepower or advanced features and styling. Take this quiz to find out what kind of car is right for you, based on your preferences, personality, favorite movie and favorite beverage.

    Tell us how we did in the comments!


    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2015 Dodge Journey is a much cooler alternative to a minivan with a much cooler price, writes Malcolm Gunn. Credit: Dodge

    Because of your family-size and priority in your life, a minivan or crossover would be your choice of vehicle. Sporty crossovers like the Dodge Journey can provide a bit more adventurous feel to a normally bland minivan experience, with large-capacity features such as seven-passenger seating.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2015 Subaru Impreza earned at Top Safety Pick+ for features that include EyeSight driver assist technology that monitors traffic movement, optimizes cruise control and warns when the car leaves its lane. The car starts at $18,195. Credit: Subaru

    You just need a car to get you from place-to-place, meaning a basic sedan will do you just fine. You may not be the flashiest or loudest on the road, but you’re one of the safest, and aren’t going to pay an exorbitant amount for the car or gas. Four-door sedans like the Subaru Impreza are affordable, safe and get good gas mileage.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2016 Audi A7 starts at $68,300 and comes with a supercharged 3.0 TFSI engine, full LED headlights and a corner view camera system. Credit: Audi

    Anything less than luxurious simply won’t do. You need high-end transportation: leather seats, latest technology and the all the safest bells and whistles a car can have are your priorities. Luxury cars like the Audi A7 provide the best in style and technology — all at a higher cost, of course.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2018 Ford Mustang GT features a 5.0L V8 engine with 460 horsepower. Credit: Robert Hradil / Getty Images

    Power is your priority, with the sound of burning rubber and sight of blurred streetlights your calling. A muscle car — whether it be modern or classic — should be your go-to, with nothing less than a V8 engine even a consideration. The 2018 Ford Mustang GT puts out more than 460 horsepower, and if you’re feeling like more power, the Shelby GT350 model has 526 horsepower.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2015 Toyota Prius c is one of the greenest cars, according to’s annual list. Credit: Toyota

    Your main issue with cars is that they’re horrible for the environment, so your best option would be a hybrid or electric car. Luckily for you, the market for such cars is only growing and getting better, with hybrids like the Toyota Prius C offer high gas mileage with little to no negative impacts on the environment.

    How to choose the perfect first car

    The 2015 GMC Canyon. Credit: GMC

    Off-roading, towing and tough terrain are your favorite roads, so you’ll need a tough truck as your vehicle of choice. Whether it’s GMC’s small-sized pickup the Canyon or any of their larger models and SUVs, your priority is how tough you’ll look on — and off — the road, as well as using your car for work.

    Setting your priorities, checking reputations and financial standings, comparing quotes—shopping for the best car insurance company for your needs might seem daunting unless you tackle the process one step at a time.

    Know What You Want

    Understand what coverages and amenities you’re looking for in a car insurance company. Are you solely looking for cheap auto insurance? How might choosing the cheapest option affect your actual coverage? What about customer service—that’s important, too, right?

    Know your priorities before you begin looking to buy car insurance. Ideally, you’ll want a company that offers great coverage at an affordable price from customer service-oriented agents.

    Check for Reputation and Financial Standing

    Once you’ve found a few seemingly compatible car insurance companies, do some investigative work and check out the companies’ reputation and financial standing.

    • First, check with your state’s Department of Insurance website and make sure the company is licensed to sell auto insurance in your state.
      • Also, take a look at complaint ratios, if available.
    • Then, look at the companies’ financial standing on reputable websites such as J.D. Power and A.M. Best.
      • Auto insurance is a two-way street: you pay for the coverage and your company provides the coverage. You need to make sure your company can pay your damages when required.
    • Finally, find out how the companies stand with the Better Business Bureau (BBB).
      • The BBB ranks companies from A+ to F, and gives you a multitude of information about those companies, such as the length of time they have been in operation and information about customer complaints (including resolutions).

    Compare Car Insurance Quotes

    Consider these tips when comparing auto insurance quotes:

    • First and foremost, never look at just one or two car insurance companies; always get and compare at least three quotes.
    • Talk with family members and friends about their car insurance providers.
      • How long have they been with the company?
      • Are they satisfied with their rates?
      • What about customer service? How has the provider handled their premiums in the events of traffic violations, at-fault accidents, and other common premium-increasing situations?
    • Look for auto insurance companies that offer discounts and good-driver rewards programs.
      • Some companies provide breaks for drivers of certain ages or for drivers with anti-theft devices.
      • Others offer rewards (e.g. lower premiums) for drivers with consistently good driving records.
    • Ask about bundling insurance policies.
      • Also known as “multi-line coverage,” some companies provide discounts for purchasing two or more lines of coverage (such as car insurance and homeowner insurance).
    • Check out the companies’ social media accounts.
      • Reach out to your potential insurance companies on platforms such as Facebook and Twitter and evaluate how they respond to your questions about issues such as coverage and discounts.

    Remember, comparing car insurance quotes is never just about what’s cheapest.

    Periodically Evaluate Your Coverage

    Getting great car insurance coverage at an affordable rate is fantastic, but don’t get complacent. Many companies decrease premiums for certain life events, such as:

    • Buying a new car. You might get lower rates if you purchase a new vehicle with great safety and anti-theft features.
    • Moving. Living in low-crime areas tends to get you lower premiums.
    • Getting older. Mature drivers (generally those who are 25 and older) often benefit from lower car insurance rates.
    • Getting married. Combining two insurance policies into one can save you money. Married drivers are also viewed as more responsible and often see lower rates.
    • Purchasing a new home. Remember multi-line insurance? You could get a discount if you insure your home with the same company.

    Of course, some life events can increase your rates—which means you’ll want to talk with your agent about ways to decrease them or even start comparing quotes from other providers. Such situations include:

    • Moving. Again, moving can affect your car insurance rates, and in this case moving from a low-crime area to one with a higher crime or accident rate might cost you.
    • Filing claims. Each claim you file can increase your rates—especially claims for at-fault accidents. Talk with your agent about ways to decrease rates or avoid rate hikes, or consider shopping for another provider.
    • Traffic violations. Similar to filing claims, the more traffic violations and driving points you accumulate, the higher your premium could become.
    • Adding a teenager to your policy. Often, increased rates when adding a teenager to your policy are unavoidable; however, if you feel the premium has become too high, talk with your agent about ways to decrease it (such as teen driving courses) or start looking at other companies.

    Simply put, whenever you experience a life event that might decrease or increase your rates, it’s time to evaluate your coverage and perhaps even start comparing quotes from other providers.

    Consider Working with an Agent or Broker

    The difference between car insurance agents and car insurance brokers is that, generally, agents work with one company while brokers work with several companies.

    So, while an agent can help you get the best coverage and rates from his or her particular company, a broker can shop around and help you find the best coverage and rates from a number of companies. Keep in mind, however, they may charge you a broker fee.

    Unless you feel comfortable shopping around on your own or have your heart set on one company, you might want to consider consulting an agent or broker about your car insurance needs.

    There’s only one way to bring baby home from the hospital, and that’s in a car seat. From deciding between an infant car seat or a convertible to features you should look out for, here’s how to buy the right one.

    Choosing a car seat can be a stressful experience. Not only is it one of the most important purchases you’ll make, but it’s likely to be one of the most expensive.

    Here are a few basic tips to make the search a little easier, and to ensure you go home with the right one.

    1. Scope out your car before you shop

    First things first: Read your vehicle’s owners manual before buying a car seat. Car seats can be attached using either the seat belt or the LATCH system (which stands for the Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children system, and which all new vehicles have). You can decide before buying which one you want to use and then look for a seat based on how you want to install it — belt or LATCH.

    If you decide to use LATCH, make sure you know where the LATCH attachments are in your vehicle — there may not be any in the middle, rear-seating position, which is the safest spot for a child.

    Another tip? Measure your back seat to know how much room there is for a car seat. A car seat with a large base may not fit in a small car — you may have to opt for one with a narrower base instead. Also consider who’ll be sitting in the back seat. How many children do you have? How many are in car seats? Take back seat measurements before you go shopping and bring the measuring tape with you to the store to measure the base of the seats.

    2. Pick a convertible car seat that’ll grow with your child

    Take it from us: Not having to invest in another car seat in the midst of that crazy first two years will be a blessing. Newborns can sit in two kinds of car seats: a rear-facing infant seat, or a convertible seat (which faces the rear of the car at first, and later is turned toward the front). Buying a convertible car seat saves money because it lasts through toddlerhood, and it’s completely sound in terms of safety.

    The only drawback? Convertible car seats cannot be taken in and out of the car like an infant seat can.

    3. Consider a car seat stroller if you’re trying to save

    While convertible will save you money in the long run, some parents agree that the ability to move a sleeping baby in an infant car seat — even if the baby fits the seat for only a year — is priceless. If you want to buy an infant car seat but need to trim costs, consider shopping for a travel system — an infant seat and stroller that are sold together at a discount. You may find these in the stroller aisle, not the car-seat aisle.

    4. Spring for a new seat to be safe

    Understandably, you want to know which car seat is safest. But all car seats that are on the market have been tested and approved for the current safety standards (check for the JPMA stamp on the box which means it’s been approved by the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association).

    Because the safety technology improves so frequently, the most important thing you can do is buy a new car seat and not accept a hand-me-down.

    5. Focus on the most important features

    At the lower end of the price range ($80 to $200), whether you’re purchasing an infant car seat or a convertible car seat, look for a model that has a 5-point harness (two shoulder straps, two waist straps, and one strap between the legs that meet in the middle), side-impact protection (extra foam or air pads at the side of baby’s head), and compatibility with the LATCH system (a way to fasten the base tightly without using seatbelts).

    If you can afford to buy a premium car seat, priced above $200, expect additional features, such as an anti-rebound bar at the foot of the seat that limits the amount of movement during a crash. Other features that bump up the price include cushier fabric, accessories such as a little “boot” around baby’s feet, and a larger canopy.

    Another feature to size up are the straps: To save trouble, check to see if straps of the car seat you’re buying will be easy to adjust as your baby grows. Ideally, you want straps that will not have to be rethreaded. Many brands now have adjustment handles in the back of the seat, or a pull cord between baby’s legs, that make rethreading a thing of the past.

    6. Choose something easy to clean

    Seats made with a smooth fabric will wipe clean more easily than a textured fabric such as corduroy. This one’s more about cleanliness than safety — but easy-to-clean is a virtue, too. Just trust us.

    7. Opt for one with installation diagrams as well as text

    You’re not finished once you walk out of the store. Make use of all the instructions you can — those in the instruction booklet (which should always be kept with the seat), and the diagrams on the seat itself — to have the best possible chance of installing the seat correctly.

    Although all companies continue to simplify the installation process — videos on YouTube supplement some instruction books — it’s still recommended that, after you install the car seat, you have your work checked by a professional. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration makes it easy for you to find an inspector near you: Just enter your location here at NHTSA to search.

    The easiest way to ensure correct installation though? Have a Child Passenger Safety (CPS) technician in your area do it for you. CPS technicians can be found at police stations, fire stations, hospitals, your local AAA, and more.

    25 Amazing Statistics on How Consumers Shop for Cars

    1. Car buyers spend 59% of their time online researching. (Autotrader)

    2. When researching online, 46% of car shoppers use multiple devices. (Autotrader)

    3. Most car buyers are undecided at the start of the shopping process. When they first begin to shop, 6 out of 10 them are open to considering multiple vehicle options. (Autotrader)

    4. Third-party sites are the most used sites for car shopping, used by 78% of shoppers. (Autotrader)

    How to choose the perfect first car

    5. Walking in remains the common form of initial contact with a dealership by more than half of car shoppers. (Autotrader)

    How to choose the perfect first car

    6. The top five activities conducted online by car shoppers include researching car prices (71%), finding actual cars listed for sale (68%), comparing different models (64%), finding out what current car is worth (63%), and locating a dealer or getting dealer info (46%). (Autotrader)

    7. When asked to rate their satisfaction on a scale of 1-10, 81% of car buyers gave the test-driving process an 8-10 rating. However, satisfaction declined to 67% when interactions with the F&I department were factored in. Of the 3-hours average time spent at the dealer during the purchase process, more than half of that time is spent negotiating or doing paperwork, resulting in a 56% satisfaction rate for the process. (Autotrader)

    How to choose the perfect first car

    8. Among automotive internet shoppers, 22% use a social media site as a source while shopping for their new vehicle, up from 16% in 2015. The most popular social media sites used by auto internet shoppers during the shopping process are YouTube (13%), DealerRater (7%) and Facebook (5%). (J.D. Power 2016 New Autoshopper Study)

    9. Among automotive internet shoppers who use social media, only 13% indicate that the information posted on social media sites influenced their purchase decision, and only 2% say a social site was the “most useful site” they visited. (J.D. Power 2016 New Autoshopper Study)

    10. Slightly more than one-third (34%) of new-vehicle buyers using social media for automotive information post a picture of their new vehicle on a social site. Facebook is by far the most posted site at 88%, followed by Instagram at 21%. (J.D. Power 2016 New Autoshopper Study)

    11. Smartphones Surpass Tablets for Automotive Research: More than half (53%) of automotive internet shoppers use a mobile device in their quest for automotive information. For 2016, smartphone usage surpasses tablet usage (37% vs. 33%, respectively). The use of desktop or laptop computers remains most common at 92%, but has been steadily decreasing from 99% in 2012. Consequently, the proportion of time spent shopping on mobile devices continues to increase, with 33% of the total shopping time now conducted on a mobile device. (J.D. Power 2016 New Autoshopper Study)

    12. When looking to buy, Millennials consider slightly more vehicles on average than Baby Boomers. Millennials also usually take longer to decide what car to buy than Baby Boomers, an average of 16.9 vs 15.7 weeks. Millennials invest more time in the actual buying process as well, almost four and a half hours more on average. (J.D. Power)

    13. 87% of Americans dislike something about car shopping at dealerships and 61% feel they’re taken advantage of while there. (2016 Beepi Consumer Automotive Index)

    14. 52% of car shoppers feel anxious or uncomfortable at dealerships. Millennials lead the pack in their dislike, with 56% saying they’d rather clean their homes than negotiate with a car dealer. Gen X-ers aren’t fans either, and faced with alternatives 24% say they’d rather have a root canal than get into car negotiation. Among millennial women, 62% feel pressured to buy right away and 49% said they felt tricked into buying features they didn’t need. (2016 Beepi Consumer Automotive Index)

    15. When asked about newer car buying alternatives, 54% said they would “love” being able to sell or buy a car from home and 42% were fine buying a car without a test drive, as long as there was some form of guarantee. (2016 Beepi Consumer Automotive Index)

    16. According to research from Facebook, US vehicle shoppers not only use mobile devices as they research new cars, they even prefer them for some activities. A majority of vehicle shoppers, for example, said mobile was a better way to ask friends and family about auto options, and about two in five preferred to book a test drive from a mobile device.

    17. For automotive dealers, the biggest marketing priority by far is increasing lead volume and conversions. (9 Clouds, “The 2016 State of Automotive Marketing”)

    How to choose the perfect first car

    18. Dealerships are also utilizing the data they have on hand prior to contacting a prospect. The most common pieces of consumer data include basic contact details, vehicle interest, and purchase/service history. (9 Clouds, “The 2016 State of Automotive Marketing”)
    How to choose the perfect first car

    19. 54% of consumers would buy from a dealership that offers their preferred experience, even if it didn’t have the lowest price. ( Autotrader )

    20. 72% would visit dealerships more often if the buying process was improved. (Autotrader)

    21. Research that Google commissioned from Millward Brown Digital indicates that 70% of people who used YouTube as part of their car buying process were influenced by what they watched and views on YouTube of test drives, features and options, and walk-throughs have doubled in the past year.

    22. A report by automotive research company, SBD provides evidence that these connected systems are important to younger, more digitally oriented consumers and will likely impact their next vehicle brand purchase decision. Cars play a key role in supporting Millennials’ need to stay connected, and in a study by, 72% of younger millennials indicated that a car is important to their social life. Style and features, especially technology, are critically important to them. For example, more than 70% of younger millennials cite technology and infotainment features as “must-haves” when purchasing a car.

    23. Integrated mobile apps and connected vehicle services deliver more value for the customer, enhancing customer loyalty after the initial car purchase. A study by DMEautomotive showed that vehicle buyers using a branded app were 73% more likely to make a purchase from the dealership, and after making a purchase, booked 25% more service appointments than shoppers without an app.

    24. They also spent more money than non-app users when purchasing a vehicle, 7% more according to a study commissioned by

    25. According to a study by Arthur D. Little, dealers average response time is 9.2 hours and OEMs average time is around 24 hours. This is a huge opportunity for improving the overall customer experience.

    How to write a script to a teenage sitcom

    Maybe you’re an aspiring comedy writer or maybe you have a school project to complete. Either way, writing a 30-minute sitcom script is not as hard as you would think. As in any story, a sitcom episode has to have a well-thought out plot with well-conceived characters. It will also be important to learn how to write your script in the proper format.

    Step 1

    Create a cast of characters. When creating new characters it is important to know everything about them — how they look, how they talk, what makes them funny, what they do for a living, what quirks they have and what sorts of things are they likely to say. For a sitcom, it is advisable to create between four and eight main characters who will appear in every episode.

    Step 2

    Plot out the story lines in your script. Sitcoms, minus the commercials, are typically 22 minutes long. Thus, a sitcom script is generally between 25 and 40 pages long. Every sitcom episode has a main plot (story A), as well as one or two subplots (stories B and C). Sitcoms usually have three main acts (divided by two commercial breaks), as well as a teaser scene in the beginning. Make sure that the problems or challenges of stories A, B and C are wrapped up or have some conclusion by the end of the third act.

    Step 3

    Buy or download a scriptwriting program or template such as Final Draft or the Screenwright screenplay formatting template. Both programs provide directions on where your margins should be, where the dialogue goes and where your stage directions, scene headings and character descriptions go in the script. Start each scene heading with either “INT.” for a scene taking place indoors, or “EXT.” for a scene taking place outdoors. Indicate where the scene is taking place and the time of day. Write the entire scene heading in caps and separate all of the information using a dash. For example, INT. JOE’S APARTMENT — LIVING ROOM — DAY. Tab down two lines and describe what’s currently happening and which characters are in the scene. For instance, Jack and Jill are chatting at a local café or are sitting in a park having a picnic. All of your scenes must start with a scene heading.

    Step 4

    Write the teaser of your script. The teaser typically consists of one or two introductory scenes that get people interested in your program and that will make them want to stick around for the whole half hour. The teaser scenes can be stand-alone (having no connection to plots A, B or C) or can be the start of one of your three main plots. The title sequence, show title or a commercial break generally follows after the teaser.

    Step 5

    Write acts 1 and 2 of your script, which should consist of three to five scenes in each act. In act one you will start each of your two or three plots by presenting a character or various characters with a problem, challenge or obstacle (i.e. a character might think she’s pregnant, another character is wants to break up with his annoying girlfriend who is also his boss while another character needs to find a job). Act 2 will see a continuation of plots A, B and C and show the characters’ progress in overcoming those problems or obstacles. The final scene in acts 1 and 2 should feature some sort of twist or added complication that will leave the audience engaged and make them want to wait through the commercial break to see what happens in the next act.

    Step 6

    Write Act 3 of your script, which features the resolution to all of your main story lines. For example, one character will find out the results of her pregnancy test, another one successfully breaks up with his girlfriend, and another character finds a job.

    Keep the dialogue in your script funny. The greatest element of a sitcom is the comedic moments that come from the dialogue and actions of the characters.

    Have as many people read your script as you can and have them each offer you feedback. This can help you learn what your writing strengths and weaknesses are and how to improve the script overall.

    Caren Kennedy

    • 25 May 2012

    Synopsis. Summary. Two words capable of striking fear into the hearts of even the most hardened and experienced of screenwriters. Now why is that? Because more often than not a writer has less than five minutes flat, sometimes less, to sell an idea complete with storyline, setting and characters.

    What happens when you visit a book store? You cruise shelves and if a cover, title or author’s name catches your eye, you grab the book and scan the blurb on the back. One of three things happens next. Either the book gets returned and you move on or, if it seems interesting, if it poses a question you want answered, then you’ll thumb pages and read excerpts. It might even end up coming home with you.

    The purpose of the synopsis in television is exactly the same. It’s what writers use to try and sell their ideas. For although you may have a clear picture in their head about what your story is all about, unless you can communicate this idea, complete with the storyline, characters and situation, using circa less than 500 sparkling words, then that is exactly where your idea remain … dead and buried in your head.

    At the initial pitch, whether in writing or in person, a writer has one minute – two at the outside – to sell an idea. It doesn’t matter how amazing this idea is, if the writer can’t capture a script editor’s attention, he will never be seduced into reading or listening further. However, if the synopsis seems interesting, suggests depth, and seems like a practical yet exciting proposition, then a script editor might be enticed into taking the idea further.

    To do this, the synopsis should answer some of the possible questions going through a script editor’s mind, such as:

    • What is this story about? Meaning where is the comedy or drama?
    • What sort of characters are involved?
    • Where does the action take place?
    • How much will it cost to make?
    • Who’d want to watch it?
    • Do I want to hear more?

    Distilling an idea into a few short sentences involves re-writing and yet more re-writing. The language used must be concise, vibrant and evocative. Every single word must perform a function or be cut. Ruthlessly. Newspaper legend Joseph Pulitzer summed up the essence of succinct powerful writing in one 34-word quote:

    Put it to them briefly, so they will read it;

    clearly, so they will appreciate it;

    picturesquely, so they will remember it;

    and, above all, accurately, so they will be guided by its light.

    Some writers say condensing a complex plot down to few short paragraphs is impossible. But it can be done. It must be done. There’s no way round it if you want to make a career out of writing for television. And the only way to learn is to practise and to keep on practising.

    A good exercise to try is after watching a show, be it comedy or drama, write a summary of what happened. Keep going over it until the summary has that essential ingredient … it tempts the reader to keep on reading. Read it aloud and if you stumble over a word or a phrase go back and edit.

    If doubts begin to creep in as you do this, always remember writing for television is rewriting. Four Weddings and a Funeral, a Channel 4 co-funded project, went through 17 re-writes before hitting the screen. It takes numerous edits to achieve clarity in a synopsis without losing the sizzle factor … the thing that spurred you into plonking your bottom down and writing up your idea in the first place.

    However, when you get to a point where you can close your eyes and see your story playing out in your head without feeling the need to grab a pen, make changes or explain anything, you’ll have it nailed.

    For more about Caren visit …

    Writing under the name of ‘Caren Kennedy’, Elizabeth is the creator of a scripted television comedy drama series optioned by JJ Abrams (Star Wars) and Warner Brothers TV (2007 – 2014) and co-author of Fake Alibis (BenBella Books, 2009). In 2015, she won a place on the RED ROCK Writers Academy (funded by Screen Training Ireland and the BAI) where she underwent intensive training on writing for television with John Yorke, former head of Channel Four Drama. This included completing a shadow / trial script and she began writing for TV3’s RED ROCK drama series in 2016 (Season 3, 2017).

    Elizabeth is also book editor with, online writing tutor with The Inkwell Group, and active member of Arts Council Ireland sponsored ‘Writers in Prisons’ scheme. She is currently working on completing her first screenplay, Tough Love, an extract of which came runner-up in the Linen Press 2015 ‘New Beginnings’ Competition for its: multiple layers, depth, political backdrop, vibrant and rich dialogue. Other writing credits include local, national, and international publications.

    She is a full member of Writers Guild of Ireland and is represented in the US by Vamnation Entertainment.

    Free Online Jigsaw Puzzles

    How to Write a Puppet Script. Writing puppet scripts for children can be a challenge, but it can also be fun. Sometimes children are hard to please, but if you write skits that you believe are entertaining and interesting chances are your audience will too. The following steps will help you create a puppet script.

    Things You’ll Need:

    • Puppets
    • An Idea

    Know your audience and know what you can or cannot write about. If your skit will be put on in a church, make your skit about Biblical principles and so forth. If your skit will be put on in front of an organization run by the government or in a government building you may not be allowed to use religious beliefs in your skit.

    Know the characters that will be in your play. Look at what you have to work with and write your script around that. Pick a main character (protagonist) from among the puppets you have in your selection.

    Choose a bad guy (an antagonist) who will make life hard for your hero. When choosing this character, which can be a boy, girl or animal, make sure it is one that is believable in appearance. For example, don’t choose a sweet looking little boy to be your villain.

    Come up with a plot. Along with who your character is, you need to know what your play is about, where it is happening and what is wrong. Your character must desire something, but is unable to get it for some reason.

    Come up with some humor. Children love slapstick humor and lots of animation. Make it fun and exaggerate everything to the hilt.

    Practice your skit with your puppets. Check out their expressions as you go through the play which will give you inspiration. Use improvisation as you go and write down any new ideas or dialogue that comes to you in this process.

    Try to avoid preachy language or longwinded dialogue. Make your skit full of action and try not to let the scenes in your script be stagnate. The most important rule in creating a puppet skit is to make it fun and enjoyable.

    Make you characters distinctive and exaggerate their flaws or features. Name your characters according to their quirks. For example, Jolly Ginger laughs a lot, or you can not please Mr. Grumpy. Incorporate music into your play if possible, especially at the beginning and at the end. Print your skit so it is readable to those performing it. Design the outline in a script format and make the names of the characters in large capital letters.

    Web Minesweeper – Play Free Minesweeper online

    A television show idea that is written out without being put in script form is called a treatment. It’s a long synopsis that summarizes everything that will happen within an episode, and it’s written in prose form with little to no dialogue. Writing a television treatment before writing a script is advisable because you can read it like a story and see if it works before you spend time and energy completing a full script. A television treatment can also be useful when you try to sell a concept. These tips will show you how to write a television treatment.

    Create an outline of your television show idea. Try to break it up into acts with distinct breaks for the commercials. Leave each of these breaks on a cliffhanger that will make the audience want more.

    Write the title at the top of the page in quotation marks. Two lines down, type the author “By: ” centered on the page so it falls under the title. Skip two lines. Start at the left side of the page, and do not indent your paragraphs.

    Set up the opening scene. It should be the first thing readers see so they can instantly get into the story. Describe things in the present tense so that the treatment reads as if it was happening just as the reader gets to it on the page. The first time you mention a character, capitalize his first name. Then add a comma, his age and a brief physical description so the reader can visualize him.

    Describe the actions of the story–i.e., the key points that continue the plot and push things along. You can leave out the smaller filler items and dialogue. Include only key lines that change the story or become a catchphrase or common theme that propels things along and brings elements together later on.

    Write each act in equal parts. If you’re writing a four-page treatment then act one should be one page, act two should be about two pages and act three should be one page long. This is because the first act is 30 pages, the second 60 pages and the third another 30 pages. Keep the treatment as even as possible so the story seems to stay on the same flow time wise and makes sense to the reader.

    Read the treatment aloud after you’ve written it and listen to how it sounds. You want it to read like a story stripped of all the adjectives, descriptive language and details that can make a book run on so long. Make sure you explain all the key story elements. Make corrections or changes as necessary.

    Keep your paragraphs relatively short so they are easy to read.

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    Getting Around Morocco With A Buses & Trains (Travel Ideas)
    When You Are in Morocco there are several ways to travel efficiently and affordably when visiting different cities.

    But not all means of transportation can get you everywhere you need to go.

    The exception to this is any one of the three national bus companies that operate between major towns and cities as well as having drop off points at the stops of some smaller towns.

    Though there are many travel options, The cheapest and most efficient way to travel around the country is through buses, It’s generally safe, although drivers sometimes leave a little to be desired.

    They are Operating on many intercity routes and night buses can be both quicker and cooler, although risks from other road users are considerably heightened.

    Getting Around Morocco By Bus

    Compared to Trains, Buses are a cheaper and more comprehensive in Morocco’s travel Industry, They are serving smaller cities and towns that aren’t reached by rail.

    There is a major bus companies which provide safe and modern way of traveling in Morocco within cities and towns with a well scheduled timetable.

    There are also some smaller companies as well, but they often don’t operate on a schedule and may not leave a station until they are full.

    All major bus companies are the most reliable, operating comfortable coaches and many with air conditioning. Booking of these companies have been facilitated where you can purchase tickets on their websites

    Getting Around Morocco
    All buses have rather meagre curtains, so to avoid melting in the sun, pay attention to where you sit.

    Heading from north to south, sit on the right in the morning and the left in the afternoon; east to west, sit on the right, or on the left if traveling from west to east.

    You will often be assigned a seat when you purchase your ticket, but you can ask to choose a place.

    Most Of The Bus trips which takes longer than three hours incorporate a scheduled stop to stretch your legs and grab a snack.

    Buses are sometimes delayed at police checkpoints for about 10 minutes longer than grands taxis, whose local drivers usually know the police.

    Getting Around Morocco By Train (Map & Travel Tips)

    Another option to have a safe and comfortable travel in Morocco is by taking a Train. Most train routes run regularly so it’s rare to have every seat sold out, but it’s good to book in advance if you want to guarantee your spot.

    The stations are always centrally located and you can buy tickets a few weeks in advance, so just grab ‘em whenever it’s handy.

    Train Classes And Costs
    In Morocco there are two types of train, and the main difference between the two is comfort, rather than speed. These classes are:

    First Class: Rapide (Train Rapide Climatisé, TCR) which is standard for intercity services.

    Second Class: Ordinaire (Train Navette Rapide, TNR) which is less comfortable, without air-conditioning, apart from the double decker TNR Rabat to Casablanca shuttle. Mostly operate in late night and local services.

    Getting Around Morocco
    First and second class fares are available, with six seats in 1st-class compartments and eight in 2nd class. First-class tickets include a reserved seat, while in 2nd class you just sit in any empty seat.

    Second class is more than adequate on short journeys. For longer trips, the extra for 1st class is worth paying.

    Shuttle services operate regularly between Kenitra, Rabat, Casablanca and Mohammed V International Airport, and they supplement the rapide services on this line.

    At weekends passengers get up to 25% discount on return trips, on major-line trains.

    Getting Around Morocco (Train Ticket Prices in Morocco)
    If You want to get all of the details on pricing and ticket options at the ONCF website. You will find that many ONCF staff speak English so they can usually help you out at the station.

    NB: It is not possible to book either the train or the bus outside of Morocco, or much before the date of travel. As such, you may ask your hotel to help you book the tickets at the time.

    Trains are operated by ONCF, coaches by an ONCF subsidary, Supratours, it is possible to book one ticket for a route that covers both rail and coach.

    I had stayed in Morocco for a little bit more than a month and below are my experience so far to travel around Morocco.

    (1) Train

    I had took the train from Rabat to Morocco and from Casablanca to the Airport. It’s by far the most comfortable and fastest method to travel around Morocco. You won’t be afraid to get lost because friendly moroccan will for sure tell you what to do:). However, my train ride from Casa to Casa airport there’s a little delay due to accident. I don’t know whether accident happen very often but YOU ALL NEED TO KNOW YOU ONLY NEED ARRIVE ONE HOUR BEFORE THE FLIGHT DEPART- INCLUDING INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT! Amazing right.

    How to travel around morocco

    I use inter city bus to travel around most part of morocco and they are the cheapest mode to travel between cities. However, there are often many police stops and UNKOWN stops in between so the travel hours are usually much longer! I had experienced bus drivers arguing in the middle of nowhere and all passengers had to waited for 2 hours just to wait for them to resolve the problem!

    (3) Air

    There’s is intercity flight between big city and if money is not a problem, then go for it because it will save you a lot of time:) However, my only experience in a Morocco Airport was just to fly out from Casablanca to Dakar-Senegal. My experience so far is SUPER POSITIVE! Why? Very funny:)

    -they allow me to carry FRISH FRUIST ON A PLANE!

    -they allow me to bring a 1/2 litre bottle on a plance

    -when I asked them how many bottle of alcohol and cigarette I can buy if I went to Dakar, they said.. AS MANY AS YOU LIKE.

    -I paid $390 for my flight from Casablanca to Dakar but I seat right behind the pilot! He offered me Wine and gave me Mosquito Repellant s as a Gift:). Due to security reason, I cannot take photo and mention the airline I was traveling in here. But If you have follow me on Facebook, you knew this is because I met a Chief Pilot in Casablanca during my final stay in casablanca. I met him because I rented out one of his apartment in the city. And when he found out that I am flying to Dakar through his Airline company, he introduced me to his pilot friend who would operated my flight. It’s just an amazing experience because I got to see how the landing of the flight and got to be the first passenger to get off the plane!

    How to travel around morocco

    Traveling around Morocco was just amazing because Moroccans are really really friendly people. although some moroccans might hassle you to make you buy in one of their shops, but they are genuine people in their heart:) My experiences in Morocco are awesome and it’s such a SAFE COUNTRY TO TRAVEL TO. The pilot who rented me the apartment not only gave me the best apartment with the same price I paid for a standard one; He also gave me contact for Senegal ad invited me to his house to Lunch:)

    How to travel around morocco

    The house(or Mansion) is just so beautiful and grand. I love the touch of Moroccan design a lot.

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    I would love to have this kind of Door in my house:)

    How to travel around morocco

    And there’s a gym and swimming pool in the house which are still under renovation!

    How to travel around morocco

    There’s 2 maid who prepared the Couscous for us! IT’s decious:)

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    There’s salad and Fruit afterward. Tea served after dinner at the backyard:)

    How to travel around morocco

    I have to say, I love Morocco so much and I will definitely go back sometimes later for sure. Cheers:)

    I had stayed in Morocco for a little bit more than a month and below are my experience so far to travel around Morocco.

    (1) Train

    I had took the train from Rabat to Morocco and from Casablanca to the Airport. It’s by far the most comfortable and fastest method to travel around Morocco. You won’t be afraid to get lost because friendly moroccan will for sure tell you what to do:). However, my train ride from Casa to Casa airport there’s a little delay due to accident. I don’t know whether accident happen very often but YOU ALL NEED TO KNOW YOU ONLY NEED ARRIVE ONE HOUR BEFORE THE FLIGHT DEPART- INCLUDING INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT! Amazing right.

    How to travel around morocco

    I use inter city bus to travel around most part of morocco and they are the cheapest mode to travel between cities. However, there are often many police stops and UNKOWN stops in between so the travel hours are usually much longer! I had experienced bus drivers arguing in the middle of nowhere and all passengers had to waited for 2 hours just to wait for them to resolve the problem!

    (3) Air

    There’s is intercity flight between big city and if money is not a problem, then go for it because it will save you a lot of time:) However, my only experience in a Morocco Airport was just to fly out from Casablanca to Dakar-Senegal. My experience so far is SUPER POSITIVE! Why? Very funny:)

    -they allow me to carry FRISH FRUIST ON A PLANE!

    -they allow me to bring a 1/2 litre bottle on a plance

    -when I asked them how many bottle of alcohol and cigarette I can buy if I went to Dakar, they said.. AS MANY AS YOU LIKE.

    -I paid $390 for my flight from Casablanca to Dakar but I seat right behind the pilot! He offered me Wine and gave me Mosquito Repellant s as a Gift:). Due to security reason, I cannot take photo and mention the airline I was traveling in here. But If you have follow me on Facebook, you knew this is because I met a Chief Pilot in Casablanca during my final stay in casablanca. I met him because I rented out one of his apartment in the city. And when he found out that I am flying to Dakar through his Airline company, he introduced me to his pilot friend who would operated my flight. It’s just an amazing experience because I got to see how the landing of the flight and got to be the first passenger to get off the plane!

    How to travel around morocco

    Traveling around Morocco was just amazing because Moroccans are really really friendly people. although some moroccans might hassle you to make you buy in one of their shops, but they are genuine people in their heart:) My experiences in Morocco are awesome and it’s such a SAFE COUNTRY TO TRAVEL TO. The pilot who rented me the apartment not only gave me the best apartment with the same price I paid for a standard one; He also gave me contact for Senegal ad invited me to his house to Lunch:)

    How to travel around morocco

    The house(or Mansion) is just so beautiful and grand. I love the touch of Moroccan design a lot.

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    I would love to have this kind of Door in my house:)

    How to travel around morocco

    And there’s a gym and swimming pool in the house which are still under renovation!

    How to travel around morocco

    There’s 2 maid who prepared the Couscous for us! IT’s decious:)

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    There’s salad and Fruit afterward. Tea served after dinner at the backyard:)

    How to travel around morocco

    I have to say, I love Morocco so much and I will definitely go back sometimes later for sure. Cheers:)

    How to travel around morocco

    International flights to Morocco have resumed since June 15, 2021. Travelers have access to Moroccan territory, under certain conditions, if they have a vaccination certificate or a negative PCR test at least 48 hours before the date of entry into Morocco. To implement this procedure, a classification of countries into two lists (A and B) has been adopted following the recommendations of the Ministry of Health.

    How to travel around morocco

    What are the steps to follow for travelers from A-list countries?

    The classification of countries into two lists was made following studies established by the scientific committee of the Ministry of Health to evaluate the epidemiological situation of each country. The A list includes all countries that can access Morocco and to which it is possible to travel.

    Travelers from list A countries present a vaccination pass or certificate of vaccination to enter Morocco. The vaccines authorized in Morocco are : AstraZeneca, Sinopharm, Sputnik, Pfizer/BioNTech, Janssen, Covishield, Moderna, Sinovac.

    For people who could not be vaccinated or fully vaccinated, they must have a negative PCR test on boarding not older than 72 hours. Both types of travelers must complete and sign the health form.

    Children under 11 years of age are exempt from PCR screening.

    The operation “Marhaba 2021” will take place from the same maritime transit points of last year, namely Genoa in Italy and Sete and Marseille in France in accordance with the sanitary conditions mentioned above, while specifying that in addition to the PCR test presented at the time of embarkation, the travelers will carry out another test on board and this to ensure the maximum sanitary safety for them and for their relatives.

    How to travel around morocco

    What are the steps to be taken by travelers from B-list countries?

    List B countries are not included in the first list and are not affected by the relief measures available to List A countries. As the gradual opening of the borders is an evolving process, an update of these two lists is planned every two weeks.

    Tourists coming from list B countries are classified in two categories. Vaccinated travelers or holders of a certificate attesting that the person is vaccinated with one of the vaccines accepted in Morocco are exempted from quarantine and must present only a negative PCR test dated less than 48 hours and a health form completed and signed before boarding.

    Unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated persons must observe a 10-day controlled quarantine by presenting a negative PCR test less than 48 hours old, a completed and signed health form, a completed and signed declaration of honor for a 10-day confinement and a voucher confirming this confinement in one of the hotels previously designated by the Moroccan authorities. A PCR test is mandatory on the 9th day.

    What about people in transit?

    A person from country B in transit through a country must complete the 10-day isolation. However, if the person is in transit for more than 10 days in country A, he or she does not need isolation in Morocco.

    Sarah Schlichter

    Deputy Executive Editor Sarah Schlichter’s idea of a perfect trip includes spotting exotic animals, hiking through pristine landscapes, exploring new neighborhoods on foot, and soaking up as much art as she can. She often attempts to recreate recipes from her international travels after she gets home (which has twice resulted in accidental kitchen fires—no humans or animals were harmed).

    Sarah joined the SmarterTravel team in 2017 after more than a decade at the helm of Sarah’s practical travel advice has been featured in dozens of news outlets including the New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, USA Today, Budget Travel, and Peter Greenberg Worldwide Radio. Follow her on Twitter @TravelEditor.

    The Handy Item I Always Pack: “A journal. Even years later, reading my notes from a trip can bring back incredibly vivid memories.”

    Ultimate Bucket List Experience: “Road tripping and hiking through the rugged mountains of Patagonia.”

    Travel Motto: “‘To awaken quite alone in a strange town is one of the pleasantest sensations in the world.’—Freya Stark”

    Aisle, Window, or Middle Seat: “Aisle. I get restless on long flights and like to be able to move around without disturbing anyone else.”

    Travelers have a wealth of options for crossing Morocco’s varied mountain and desert landscapes. A network of trains, buses and shared taxis will get you between cities at a reasonable cost, though rental cars are also available for those who prefer to venture out on their own. And Morocco is closer than you might think — flying there doesn’t take much longer than flying to Western Europe, making the trip from the East Coast a manageable one.

    Read on to learn more about Morocco transportation.

    How to travel around morocco

    Depending on the destination of your stay in Morocco, there are many ways to travel accross the country. Whether you take a taxi, a bus, train, or a bicycle, learn how to get around easily, to take a peek at all the wonders of Morocco.

    At the exit of any airport, you can either take shuttle buses, taxis or call a car rental agency.

    Travel all across the country

    High-speed train

    Besides taking the conventional train, you can take the High Speed Train (TGV) which currently serves 4 stations: Tangier, Kenitra, Rabat and Casablanca. You can make the journey Tangier-Casablanca only in 2h10, Rabat-Tangier in 1h20, and Kenitra-Tangier in only 50 minutes. You can either get your tickets on the spot or on the ONCF website.


    The Moroccan National Railways (ONCF) is renowned for having the second rail network in Africa, which covers a large part of Morocco. It connects Marrakech to Oujda and serve the main cities of Morocco, except for Agadir, Nador, and other small cities. If you want to avoid possible rush ad irritation, book your trip ahead and buy your ticket on the. ONCF website.

    Coach tour

    Taking a coach is a fun way to travel around Morocco while gazing at the beauty of the cities. Many private companies offer you all the necessary comfort to make your journey enjoyable. Coaches can pick you up from the train station to the most remote village. Here, you can find out about timetables and fares and buy your tickets online.

    Rental Cars

    Hire a car might sound like a great alternative to make the most of your stay at your own pace. Before you leave your country for Morocco, you can rent a car ahead, using of the many travel agencies platforms which offer you a wide range of cars that suits you best.

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    How to travel around morocco

    Getting around the city


    As part of the Moroccan transport network, the tramway is being the preferred mean of transport across the cities of Rabat, Sale and Casablanca. There are two lines that connect Sale to Rabat. As for Casablanca, two additional lines will soon come into effect, in addition to the two existing ones.

    Taking a cab is very common inside a city. Depending on the city, taxis are easily identified by color. Red is for Casablanca and Agadir, Blue is for Rabat, Tangier and for Asilah, while orange if for Marrakech. Either for a late night arrival or for a flight not to miss, book a cap ahead using the « on-demand taxi » service or « green taxi » wherever you are.

    Bus & Tourist train

    The sightseeing bus is a fun way to move around the cities of Marrakech and Tangier, and explore more closely. It gives you the possibility to plan your trip ahead and buy your ticket online for City Tour Tanger et City Tour Marrakech. In the cities of Agadir and Ifrane, another means of tourist transport are used, such as the small tourist train. It allows you to make pleasant strolls making you explore the beauty of the cities.

    Important COVID-19: travel is different

    To understand the risks in a country, including the latest COVID restrictions (including for entry), follow FCDO Travel Advice.

    To prevent new COVID variants from entering the UK, you should not travel to red list countries.

    Check what you need to do to travel abroad and return to England, or read travel guidance for Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.


    Further restrictive measures have been introduced by the Moroccan authorities to minimise the spread of COVID-19, including the introduction of a nationwide curfew and restrictions of movement to / from Casablanca, Agadir and Marrakech (See ‘Coronavirus’ section for full details)

    COVID-19 entry restrictions for Morocco

    Before you travel, check the ‘Entry requirements’ section for Morocco’s current entry restrictions and requirements. These may change with little warning. Monitor this advice for the latest updates and stay in contact with your travel provider.

    Returning to the UK

    If you’re planning travel to Morocco, find out what you need to know about coronavirus there in the Coronavirus section.

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is more important than ever to get travel insurance and check it provides sufficient cover. See the FCDO ’s guidance on foreign travel insurance.

    For information about COVID-19 vaccines, see the Coronavirus page.

    Almost 700,000 visitors from the UK come to Morocco every year. Most visits are trouble-free.

    Morocco is a Muslim country which follows Islamic laws and customs. You should respect these at all times. See Local laws and customs

    Terrorists are very likely to try to carry out attacks in Morocco. You should be vigilant at all times. See Terrorism

    Protests take place occasionally across the country. Most of these are peaceful, but you should take sensible security precautions and avoid all demonstrations. See Political situation

    Morocco has a poor road safety record. See Road travel

    If you’re travelling to Western Sahara, you should read our travel advice for this disputed territory.

    Following the attack on the coalition base at Taji in Iraq on 11 March, and subsequent US airstrikes, tensions may be raised across the region. There is a possibility of an increased threat against Western interests, including against UK citizens. You should remain vigilant and keep up to date with the latest developments, including via the media and this travel advice.

    The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

    If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission.

    A gateway to Africa, Morocco is a country of dazzling diversity. You’ll find rugged mountain ranges, rolling deserts, ancient cities, deserted beaches and warm hospitality. With such varied geography, it’s best to time your visit to Morocco based on where you’re traveling within the country.

    Here’s a month-by-month guide for the best time to visit Morocco.

    How to travel around morocco

    High season: March to May and September to October

    Best time for balmy temperatures

    Spring and fall are the most popular times to visit Morocco because of the pleasant temperatures in many parts of the country. However, there can be spring sandstorms in the Sahara and persistent rain in the north. Demand and prices for accommodations jump around Easter when European families head to Morocco to warm up over the long weekend.

    How to travel around morocco

    Shoulder Season: November to February

    Best time for quieter explorations

    The cooler winter months are a great time to head into the Sahara Desert. Marrakesh and the south are popular at Christmas and New Year, but the northern part of the country can be chilly and wet. Snows can render mountain roads impassable.

    How to travel around morocco

    Low Season: June to August

    Best time for heading to the coast

    Accommodations are discounted in the summer as inland cities sizzle, but domestic tourism means peak prices in July and August on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    Month-by-month breakdown

    Here’s a monthly guide to what you can expect through the year in Morocco. All events are subject to change.


    January is the depths of Moroccan winter. The north is wet, and snow makes many mountains impassable for hikers and even drivers. Marrakesh and the south receive the most tourists, especially around the New Year.
    Key events: Marrakesh Marathon, Yennayer (Amazigh New Year)

    How to travel around morocco


    Winter continues in Morocco. The weather is generally poor, although drier, balmier spots, such as Marrakesh and Agadir, are bearable. Apart from overlanders and city-breakers, few visitors are spotted.
    Key event: 1-54 Contemporary African Art Fair


    Morocco wakes up with the beginning of spring when the mountains thaw and wildflowers and almond and cherry trees blossom. Winds begin to disturb the desert and Souss Valley, continuing through April.
    Key events: Almond Blossom Festival, Marathon des Sables, TEDx Marrakesh, Beat Hotel


    Spring continues: the country is lush and green, and temperatures are now reliably warm nationwide. Tourist numbers are high, particularly around Easter, when prices jump.
    Key events: Printemps Musical des Alizés, Jidar Street Art Festival, Casamémoire Heritage Days, start of Ramadan in 2022

    How to travel around morocco

    Prices drop in hotels and markets as the tourist season starts to quiet down, although the heaviest summer heat is yet to come. The average daily temperature in Marrakesh is about 82°F (28°C). May is a great month for trekking in the Moroccan mountains.
    Key event: Festival of the Roses

    Summer is heating up quickly, although the peaks of the High Atlas Mountains are still snowy. Northern Morocco and the coast are good places to be, and music festivals abound.
    Key events: Cherry Festival, Fes Festival of World Sacred Music, Festival Mawazine, Gnaoua World Music Festival

    Snow melts from the mountains, and temperatures in the High Atlas hover around 86°F (30°C). The beaches are breezy but busy with both domestic and European tourists in the north.
    Key events: Asilah Festival, Jazzablanca, National Festival of Popular Arts, Feast of the Throne, Eid Al Adha in 2021 and 2022

    How to travel around morocco


    August is a scorcher of a month, with an average of 104°F (40°C) in Marrakesh, and it can easily exceed that in the interior. Head to southern Atlantic beaches to beat the heat and avoid the crowds.
    Key events: Moulay Idriss Moussem, Atlas Electronic


    With the start of fall, Morocco is once again prime territory for foreign travelers. Beaches empty of local holidaymakers and even the desert is pleasant with the scent of dates and gentle breezes.
    Key events: Marriage Moussem, Hamdouchi Moussem​​​​​​, Moussem of Moulay Idriss II, Sidi Yahia Moussem, TANJAzz, Oasis Festival, L’Boulevard Festival of Casablanca, Jazz au Chellah, Oasis Festival, Driftaway Music Festival, Origins Festival


    October is a popular month to visit Morocco, although rain is beginning to set in north of the Middle Atlas mountain range.
    Key events: Festival of Sufi Culture, Rallye Toulouse Saint-Louis, Toubkal Marathon

    How to travel around morocco


    November is a busy time in Marrakesh and further south, with more people heading to the desert or hiking nearby. Birdwatchers stake out wetlands.
    Key events: Festival du Safran, Visa for Music, Moroccan Independence Day


    The country is busy at the end of the month with Christmas holidaymakers from Europe. Snow closes High Atlas mountain passes, but the white blanket is good news for skiers.
    Key events: Marrakesh International Film Festival

    Buy Lonely Planet’s Beautiful World mini

    Journey to the planet’s most magnificent places with this thought-provoking portrait of our world. See it as you’ve never seen it before and renew your relationship with the place we call home.

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    The next time you enjoy a frosty beverage, take a closer look at the label. If you see a symbol that says CA CASH REFUND or CA CRV,* you’ll get more out of that bottle or can than a little refreshment. That symbol means the container is eligible to be recycled for cash.

    What you get:

    • 5¢ for most glass bottles, plastic bottles, and aluminum cans less than 24 ounces.
    • 10¢ for equal to 24 ounces and larger.

    Most beverages other than milk, wine, and distilled spirits are subject to California Refund Value (CRV)

    What symbol to look for:

    • CA CRV
    • California Redemption Value
    • CA Redemption Value
    • California Cash Refund

    Where does this money come from? Actually, it’s added to the price of the beverage when you buy it. You get it back when you bring containers to a recycling center. The CRV from containers placed in curbside or public recycling bins is claimed by the entity that collects them.

    Where do I go? In most cases you don’t have to go far out of your way to recycle. There are approximately 2,000 recycling centers all over the state, many conveniently located near the places you live and work. Just enter your ZIP code to find the one nearest you.

    Are recycling centers owned or operated by the State of California? No, recycling centers are not owned or operated by the State of California. All recycling center days and hours of operation are determined and overseen by the individual recycling center operator and must be posted at the center. Most recycling centers are required to be open a minimum of 30 hours per week, and at least five of those hours must be other than Monday-Friday between 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. (examples of this are opening earlier than 9:00 a.m., closing later than 5:00 p.m., opening on the weekend, or combining these). Please contact your local recycling center to find out their days and hours of operation. If you would like to report a recycling center closure or file a formal complaint regarding a certified recycling center, or call 1-800-RECYCLE.

    You can get your beverage container recycling refunds on a per-container basis instead of by weight.

    • By law, you can bring up to 50 aluminum, 50 glass, 50 plastic, and 50 bi-metal California Redemption Value (CRV) containers in a single visit and request to be paid by count. You will be paid the full CRV redemption of 5 cents or 10 cents on each container. Inform the site attendant of your load content and how you would like to receive payment before you hand over your load.
    • Any consumer who has been denied this right by a recycling center can file a complaint via email or by calling 1-800-RECYCLE.
    • If recycling more than 50 containers of any one material type, the decision to pay by count or weight is determined by the recycling center operator. Make sure your containers are whole and free of contaminants such as dirt, excessive liquid or other foreign substances. If you are being paid by weight, make sure the load contains only eligible CRV beverage containers.
    • Daily load limits of empty CRV beverage containers are 100 pounds each for aluminum and plastic, and 1,000 pounds for glass. If the load includes containers not eligible for CRV, the recycling center must either reject the load or pay only scrap value.

    To learn which beverages are covered by CRV, read either Beverages Subject to California Refund Value (CRV) (English | Spanish) or CRV Only–It’s the Law (English | Spanish).

    This article was co-authored by Kathryn Kellogg. Kathryn Kellogg is the founder of, a lifestyle website dedicated to breaking eco-friendly living down into a simple step-by-step process with lots of positivity and love. She’s the author of 101 Ways to Go Zero Waste and spokesperson for plastic-free living for National Geographic.

    There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

    wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 11 testimonials and 85% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

    This article has been viewed 504,340 times.

    Recycling not only benefits the environment – it can also benefit you by giving you some extra money. In states and countries with “bottle bills,” you can redeem deposits on bottles and cans by bringing them to recycling centers. Start by figuring out if you have a bottle bill where you live and finding your local recycling center. Collect bottles and cans, sort them, and turn them in. Recycling centers will pay you by the weight or number of items turned in. In states/provinces/countries with a bottle deposit, you will receive a designated deposit value by weight or count. In places without a deposit, you will be paid by the weight and material type based on the current scrap value.

    March/April 2020 note: In the United States, many redemption refund operations have been suspended due to COVID-19 pandemic. [1] X Research source Stay home and save lives. Hang onto them for now, but avoid leaving them outside to avoid theft. [2] X Research source With regard to scavengers, San Jose, California Police Department says: “Although, you may feel this is a harmless crime, scavenging presents an opportunity for individuals to check out your alley, garage and home. They may want more than your recyclables and could come back later to burglarize your garage or home.” [3] X Research source Scavenging and vagrancy related to recyclable bottles and containers are best reported to the police. [4] X Research source

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    • AB 793: Beverage Container Postconsumer Plastic Minimum Content Standard. Assembly Bill 793 (Ting and Irwin, Chapter 115, Statutes of 2020) requires beverages sold by a beverage manufacturer to have a postconsumer plastic recycled content standard of 15 percent beginning January 1, 2022, increasing to 25 percent on 2025 and 50 percent on 2030. For more information, follow this link to our Plastic Minimum Content Standards web page.
    • COVID-19 Guidance for Recycling Centers and Beverage Retailers Related to Executive Order N-54-20
    • Recycling Pilot Project Program Opportunities. The CalRecycle Pilot Project Program is designed to assist jurisdictions that lack CRV beverage container recycling opportunities for their residents. Recent amendments to the program allow more flexibility for operating pilot projects and limited funding availability. For more information, use this link to the CalRecycle Pilot Program web page.
    • New Reporting Requirement for Importation of Beverage Container Materials. Effective immediately there are new reporting and inspection requirements for anyone importing empty beverage container materials into California.
    • Precertification Training Requirements for Recycling Centers & Processors. As of January 1, 2014, everyone wishing to submit a new or renewal application for certification as a recycling center or processor must first attend precertification training and pass an exam.

    Welcome to California’s Beverage Container Recycling Program. Whether you’re a consumer who wants to redeem your empty bottles and cans for cash, a recycling center operator who needs the latest industry updates, or anyone else with an interest in beverage container recycling, you’ll find the information you need on these pages.

    CalRecycle, officially known as the Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, administers the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act. Beverage containers covered under the Act are subject to California Redemption Value (CRV), which is 5 cents for containers less than 24 ounces, 10 cents for containers 24 ounces or larger. Thanks to the CRV cash incentive, more than 300 billion aluminum, glass, and plastic beverage containers have been recycled since the program began in 1987.

    Many communities in California now offer curbside collection in addition to beverage container recycling centers. To find your closest recycling center, check out the Where to Recycle Map for the nearest recycling center near you. Commercial businesses (and multifamily residential dwellings of five units or more) are now required by law (AB 341, Chapter 476, Statutes of 2011) to arrange for recycling services if they generate more than four cubic yards of commercial solid waste.

    Californians bought more than 23 billion carbonated and noncarbonated CRV-eligible drinks in aluminum, glass, plastic, and bi-metal containers in 2015. More than 18.6 billion of those containers were recycled, saving natural resources, conserving energy, extending the life of our landfills, and helping to reduce emissions of harmful greenhouse gases.

    California Redemption Value

    Consumers pay California Redemption Value (CRV) when they purchase beverages from a retailer, and receive CRV refunds when they redeem the containers at a recycling center. Most beverages packaged in aluminum, glass, plastic and bi-metal containers are eligible for CRV. Notable exceptions are milk, wine and distilled spirits, which are not included in the CRV program. CRV is 5 cents for each beverage container less than 24 ounces and 10 cents for each container 24 ounces or greater.

    Find A Nearby Recycling Center

    Recycling Rates

    CRV Redemption

    California Refund Value (CRV) is the amount paid by consumers at the checkout stand and paid back to consumers when they recycle eligible aluminum, plastic, glass and bi-metal beverage containers at certified recycling centers. The minimum refund value established for each type of eligible beverage container is 5 cents for each container under 24 ounces and 10 cents for each container 24 ounces or greater.


    for California Redemption Value (CRV)

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    • Beer and Malt Beverages
    • Wine Coolers
    • Carbonated Fruit Drinks,
      Water, or Soft Drinks
    • Noncarbonated Fruit
      Drinks, Water, or Soft
    • Coffee and Tea Beverages
    • 100% Fruit Juice less than 46 oz.
    • Vegetable Juice 16 oz. or less

    Not Eligible

    for California Redemption Value (CRV)

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    • Milk
    • Medical Food
    • Infant Formula
    • Wine
    • Spirits
    • 100% Fruit Juice 46 oz. or
    • 100% Vegetable Juice
      more than 16 oz.
    • Food and Non-Beverage

    When in Doubt

    Check the label on the container

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    • “California Redemption Value”
    • “CA Redemption Value”
    • “California Cash Refund”
    • “CA CRV”
    • “CA Cash Refund”

    Per-Container Redemption vs. By Weight

    Customers may request to be paid by count for up to 50 CRV beverage containers of each material type per day: 50 glass, 50 aluminum, 50 plastic. Daily load limits of empty CRV beverage containers are 100 pounds each for aluminum and plastic, and 1,000 pounds for glass. Any consumer who has been denied this right by a recycling center can file a complaint via email or by calling 1-800-RECYCLE.

    Redeem Clean, Eligible Containers

    Make sure your containers are whole and free of contaminants such as dirt, excessive liquid or other foreign substances. If you are being paid by weight, make sure the load contains only eligible CRV beverage containers.

    Non-CRV Materials

    State law requires recycling centers to pay California Redemption Value (CRV) refunds for loads that contain ONLY eligible CRV beverage containers. Non-CRV materials must be removed from the load, or the recycling center may reject the load or pay only the scrap value for the material.


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  • How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    Cash Payments for Recyclables

    The State of California Department CalRecycle oversees the California Redemptive Value (CRV) Buy Back Centers and In-Store Redemption programs. To redeem your CRV aluminum cans, glass, #1PET and #2HDPE plastic bottles you must bring them to an approved site.


    There are currently two Buy Back Center sites in Livermore to bring the recyclables to redeem for cash.

    Dos Palos Recycling Co
    1565 Olivina Ave
    (209) 518-4771

    Refund Recycle Center LLC
    2680 Old First St
    (925) 606-1435


    There are 26 In-Store Redemption locations. You may redeem your CRV materials at a cash register or a designated location in the store. Look for a sign which is required to be posted at all public entrances.



    3760 Hopyard Rd

    99 Ranch Market

    2701 Stoneridge Dr

    99 Ranch Market

    4299 Rosewood Dr

    Banou International Food

    5321 Hopyard Rd

    Beverages and More

    5765 Johnson CT

    Chevron USA Inc

    5280 Hopyard Rd

    3999 Santa Rita Rd

    Genes Fine Foods

    2803 Hopyard Rd

    3790 Hopyard Rd

    Hopyard Shell & Car Wash

    5251 Hopyard Rd

    6155 W Las Positas Blvd

    Santa Rita Shell

    6750 Santa Rita Rd

    5775 Johnson Dr

    2787 HOPYARD RD

    Total Wine & More

    4225 Rosewood Dr

    Trader Joes Market

    3903 Santa Rita Rd

    2991 Hopyard Rd

    4501 Rosewood Dr

    3192 Santa Rita Rd

    6750 Bernal Ave

    5420 Sunol Blvd

    Rite Aid Pharmacies

    2819 Hopyard Rd

    1701 Santa Rita Rd

    6790 Bernal Ave

    Santa Rita Chevron

    1797 Santa Rita Rd

    Walgreens Drug Store

    1763 Santa Rita Rd

    If a resident has a complaint regarding Buy Back Centers or In-Store Redemption locations by emailing your/their name, phone number, a brief summary of the issue, and the name and address of the dealer to: [email protected] .

    For more information regarding the CRV Buy Back Program visit the CalRecycle Website.

    If residents do not wish to bring their recyclables to a Buy Back Center they should place their recyclable materials in the mixed recycling cart (blue lid) on their regularly scheduled garbage pick-up day to ensure that those materials are properly recycled.

    There are 1,215 recycling centers statewide that buy back empty California Refund Value (CRV) beverage containers. Most beverages sold in glass, plastic, or metal (other than milk, wine, and distilled spirits) are subject to CRV – More information on beverages subject to CRV is available here

    Is a Recycling Center or Retailer on the List Refusing to Redeem CRV?
    The fastest, most effective way to lodge a complaint against a recycling center or an obligated retailer to initiate a CalRecycle inspection of that entity is by emailing your name, phone number, a brief summary of the issue, and the name and address of the subject of your complaint to: [email protected]

    You can get your beverage container recycling refunds on a per-container basis instead of by weight.

    • By law, you can bring up to 50 aluminum, 50 glass, 50 plastic, and 50 bi-metal California Redemption Value (CRV) containers and request to be paid by count. You will be paid the full CRV redemption of 5 cents or 10 cents on each container. Inform the site attendant of your load content and how you would like to receive payment before you hand over your load.
    • Any consumer who has been denied this right by a recycling center can file a complaint via email or by calling 1-800-RECYCLE.
    • If recycling more than 50 containers of any one material type, the decision to pay by count or weight is determined by the recycling center operator. Make sure your containers are whole and free of contaminants such as dirt, excessive liquid or other foreign substances. If you are being paid by weight, make sure the load contains only eligible CRV beverage containers.
    • Daily load limits of empty CRV beverage containers are 100 pounds each for aluminum and plastic, and 1,000 pounds for glass. If the load includes containers not eligible for CRV, the recycling center must either reject the load or pay only scrap value.

    For details. To learn which beverages are covered by CRV, read either Beverages Subject to California Refund Value (CRV) (English | Spanish) or CRV Only–It’s the Law (English | Spanish).

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    There are 1,215 recycling centers statewide that buy back empty California Refund Value (CRV) beverage containers. Most beverages sold in glass, plastic, or metal (other than milk, wine, and distilled spirits) are subject to CRV – More information on beverages subject to CRV is available here

    Is a Recycling Center or Retailer on the List Refusing to Redeem CRV?
    The fastest, most effective way to lodge a complaint against a recycling center or an obligated retailer to initiate a CalRecycle inspection of that entity is by emailing your name, phone number, a brief summary of the issue, and the name and address of the subject of your complaint to: [email protected]

    You can get your beverage container recycling refunds on a per-container basis instead of by weight.

    • By law, you can bring up to 50 aluminum, 50 glass, 50 plastic, and 50 bi-metal California Redemption Value (CRV) containers and request to be paid by count. You will be paid the full CRV redemption of 5 cents or 10 cents on each container. Inform the site attendant of your load content and how you would like to receive payment before you hand over your load.
    • Any consumer who has been denied this right by a recycling center can file a complaint via email or by calling 1-800-RECYCLE.
    • If recycling more than 50 containers of any one material type, the decision to pay by count or weight is determined by the recycling center operator. Make sure your containers are whole and free of contaminants such as dirt, excessive liquid or other foreign substances. If you are being paid by weight, make sure the load contains only eligible CRV beverage containers.
    • Daily load limits of empty CRV beverage containers are 100 pounds each for aluminum and plastic, and 1,000 pounds for glass. If the load includes containers not eligible for CRV, the recycling center must either reject the load or pay only scrap value.

    For details. To learn which beverages are covered by CRV, read either Beverages Subject to California Refund Value (CRV) (English | Spanish) or CRV Only–It’s the Law (English | Spanish).

    Recycling centers are not owned or operated by the State of California. All recycling center days and hours of operation are determined and overseen by the individual recycling center operator and must be posted at the center. Centers are required to be open a minimum of 30 hours per week, at least five days a week, and at least one weekend day.

    Just because each can be recycled doesn’t mean they actually will be

    My reusable water bottle prevents me from needing to purchase single-use plastic water bottles , but that really only covers one beverage. I, sadly, do not have a tap for beer in my home, nor do I have much interest in purchasing a Soda Stream to deal with seltzer or other carbonated beverages I may enjoy on occasion. Nevertheless, I want to make my purchases of said alternative beverages as eco-friendly as possible. If I must purchase beverages in individual servings, what’s the best vessel to choose?

    Plastic , glass and aluminum can hypothetically all be recycled, and you probably just throw them all in your recycling bin and call it a day. Thing is, not all of it actually will be recycled. In fact, much of it will probably just end up in a landfill. The material most likely to meet this fate is plastic. In previous years, much of our recyclable plastic was shipped to China , where it would be processed for re-use. As of January 2018, though, China no longer accepts our waste, which is understandable, because they have enough of their own.

    But because we were formerly able to ship our plastics overseas, there are few regions of the U.S. with adequate plastic recycling infrastructure. To create the necessary infrastructure or otherwise pay for another country to take our plastic is extremely costly, and most cities and towns simply don’t have the available cash to manage it. So, recyclable plastic just becomes trash .

    Glass presents a similar, though less significant, problem. While glass isn’t currently a valuable commodity in the U.S. (it actually costs around $20 per ton to recycle, as of 2019 ), its rates of production and effects on the environment are far smaller than that of plastic. Still, only about a third of our glass is currently recycled .

    The case for aluminum, however, is far more optimistic. Much of the aluminum in the U.S. can be processed within the country, making it both cost and environmentally effective to do so here. In fact, aluminum recycling actually generates money : Whereas glass costs $20 per ton to recycle, aluminum is valued at $1,317 per ton. According to a 2019 report from , consumers recycle around 50 percent of their aluminum, and the average aluminum can is comprised of about 73 percent recycled material.

    Given that cans are also much lighter than glass, transporting them is less of an ecological burden, too . You’re not going to burn in hell if you occasionally choose bottled beers instead of cans, but it’s not a bad idea to make cans your go-to. Either way, the odds of it getting recycled are much higher than with plastic .

    The Earth thanks you for your sacrifice.

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    Magdalene Taylor

    Magdalene Taylor is a junior staff writer at MEL, where she began working two weeks after graduating college. Her work is a blend of cultural analysis and service, covering everything from reconsiderations of low-brow hits like Joe Dirt and Nickelback to contemporary disability issues, OnlyFans and the types of minor questions about life like why baby carrots are so wet. She’s also reported on social media phenomena like “simps” and “pawgs.” In 2018, she published her 111-page undergraduate thesis on Insane Clown Posse, the Juggalo subculture and the subversive aesthetics of class. She is from God’s Country, rural Western Massachusetts.

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

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    Aluminum cans and plastics are two of the most commonly recycled materials in the U.S., according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Recycling plastics and aluminum cans decreases the need for landfill space and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Both materials begin the recycling process in the same manner: collection at curbside or drop-off sites and delivery to processing sites. Plastics require extensive sorting compared to aluminum cans, but the resulting material is more versatile. (See References 3)

    Facts and Figures

    Plastics account for more than 12 percent of all municipal solid wastes, which equals 30 million tons per year. However, only about 7 percent of those plastics were recovered from recycling in 2009, states the EPA. The most commonly recycled plastics include jars and bottles. (See References 1) Aluminum products account for 1.4 percent of municipal solid wastes. The majority of aluminum wastes include beverage cans and other containers. In 2009 more than half of all aluminum cans produced came from recycled aluminum. (See References 2) Recycling aluminum uses 95 percent less energy than creating it from scratch; recycling plastics uses about 70 percent less energy than creating new materials. (See References 4)

    Recycling Aluminum

    Aluminum cans are inspected for dirt and separated from other food or beverage containers. After a refining process, the aluminum cans are melted into solid metal blocks called ingots. These blocks ship to manufacturers that form the metal into new aluminum cans. (See References 2)

    Recycling Plastic

    Since there are multiple types of plastic, each containing different materials, plastics must be sorted before recycling. The resin code, which appears on the bottom of many plastic products, indicates the type of plastic. Workers at recycling plants will clean and sort the plastics. Machines grind the plastics into flakes and immerse them in a flotation tank to remove contaminants. After the plastic flakes dry, they are melted and shaped into pellets. Manufacturers purchase the plastic pellets, which can be melted again and shaped into new products. (See References 1)

    Buyers of Recycled Products

    While the majority of recycled aluminum is made into new cans, an increasing amount of aluminum goes to automobile manufacturers. Aluminum auto parts are lightweight and increase fuel efficiency in vehicles. (See References 2) Manufacturers of clothing, furniture, beverage bottles, textiles and carpets purchase recovered plastics. More recycled-plastics manufacturing is possible in the U.S., but recycling centers are not receiving enough plastic recyclables to support increased production. (See References 1)

    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Plastics
    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Aluminum
    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Recycling
    • “The Economist”; The Truth About Recycling; June 2007

    Based in Colorado, Jacqueline Lerche has been writing alternative health, natural science and environment-related articles since 2009. Lerche holds a Bachelor of Science in biology and an Environmental Affairs Certification from Colorado State University.

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    By Lauren Murphy

    How to recycle aluminum cans glass and plastic bottles for cash

    When you’re shopping for beverages, what kind of container do you choose? You have a few options: plastic bottles, glass bottles, or aluminum cans. What to choose? The decision can be daunting for environmentalists. We’re here to give you the lowdown on which of these receptacles gets the planet’s stamp of approval.

    Step 1: How They’re Made

    We see beverage containers constantly — lining the shelves of the grocery store, filling coolers at BBQs, quenching a beachgoer’s thirst. Just how did they get there?


    Plastic manufacturing starts off with oil and natural gas. These raw materials are converted into smaller pieces, called monomers, and are then chemically bonded together to create long chains, known as polymers. These polymers are the plastic you see in the form of water bottles, food packaging, and much more.

    To get to the crude oil and natural gas needed to produce plastics, we must head for the Earth’s crust. However, oil and natural gas are buried beneath layers of bedrock — that’s where drilling comes in. Drilling for oil in our pristine oceans and fracking for natural gas in America’s West is destroying our environment — and endangering our health.


    Liquefied sand, soda ash (naturally occurring sodium carbonate), limestone, recycled glass, and various additives make up the glass bottles that hold our beverages.

    Limestone helps prevent glass from weathering and it’s a valuable raw material for glass containers. The sedimentary rock is typically mined from a quarry — either above or below ground. In terms of the environment, limestone mining may contaminate water and contribute to noise pollution. Limestone mining can also destroy habitat for animals who live in limestone caves, and can form a permanent scar on the landscape.

    It’s safe to say that the raw materials that go into making glass bottles are widely available in the U.S.

    New aluminum cans are almost always made from bauxite, a mineral that the U.S. gets from mines in countries like Guinea and Australia. The mining of bauxite is harsh on the planet. Miners extract raw bauxite by way of open pits — essentially, scraping a pit into the landscape and leaving environmental destruction behind. Bauxite mining contributes to habitat loss and water contamination, as well as a slew of other negative environmental impacts, like increased erosion.

    Step 2: Transport

    When getting from here to there, each container has a different footprint.


    The environmental cost of transporting plastic bottles can exceed even those of creating the plastic bottle in the first place. This isn’t always the case — it depends on the distance of transport — but it’s a vexing idea.

    For short distances, plastic bottles have a low transportation footprint. They pack tightly — companies are definitely responding to greener consumers and are keeping sustainability in mind when designing the shapes of their bottles. They’re also very lightweight, so shipping them consumes less fuel.


    There’s one big, undeniable, eco-unfriendly aspect of glass bottles — they’re heavy. The transportation of glass bottles requires significantly more energy than their lightweight counterparts. Glass is fragile, too, so shippers can’t pack glass containers into a truck as tightly as aluminum and plastic containers.

    Americans love cans because they are small, lightweight, and airtight. Turns out, the planet does, too. Their size means they save fuel — more cans can fit into a smaller space and their light weight means less gas to get them from point A to point B. Because aluminum isn’t particularly fragile, cans require less cardboard packaging for transport, meaning more room for more cans.

    Step 3: Where They End Up

    Empty — now what? Each of these containers is recyclable. Here’s how they compare.


    The recycling rate of plastics is actually quite low — in 2017, only 8.4% of plastic material generated in the U.S. was recycled. The rest was combusted for energy or sent to a landfill where its fate is uncertain — it can either find its way out and pollute our planet or sit in the landfill for up to 500 years before finally decomposing.


    Glass bottles are 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without loss of quality. That’s not something you can say about plastic. An estimated 80% of recovered glass containers are made into new glass bottles. Once you toss your glass bottle in the recycling bin, manufacturers can have it back on the shelves in 30 days. Plus, using recycled glass when making new glass bottles reduces the manufacturer’s carbon footprint — furnaces may run at lower temperatures when recycled glass is used because it is already melted down to the right consistency.

    Like glass, aluminum cans are completely recyclable and are commonly recycled worldwide as part of municipal recycling programs. And like glass, aluminum cans can be recycled repeatedly with no limit.

    In her book, The Story of Stuff, Annie Leonard notes that we are currently recycling only 45% of our cans. That means a lot of pit mining for bauxite to make new material. According to Leonard, humans have trashed more than a trillion aluminum cans in landfills since 1972, when such records began.

    And the Winner Is…

    If you can find aluminum cans made from 100% recycled materials, they should be your top choice when shopping for single-serving beverages. Their low transportation footprint and ease of recyclability make them a winner.

    However, the extraction of raw bauxite is detrimental to the planet. New aluminum cans are not eco-friendly.

    Glass should be your pick if recycled cans are not an option. Glass bottles are made from relatively innocuous raw materials and are, like aluminum cans, completely recyclable. Their weight and transportation footprint is their downfall.

    Plastic does have a small carbon footprint when it comes to transportation, but it’s tough to ignore the giant carbon footprint when it comes to manufacturing. Plus, the plastic that doesn’t end up in a recycling bin can be a huge pollutant in our environment, killing wildlife and contaminating ecosystems. Our irresponsible use of plastic is ravaging the planet.

    Feature images courtesy of Shutterstock

    Editor’s note: Originally published on August 11, 2017, this article was updated in October 2020.

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    New research finds some potential benefits when it comes to romance.

    Posted December 22, 2016 | Reviewed by Lybi Ma

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    Most men without hair would agree that being bald is sexy. However, most men with hair would rather retain their locks than become bald—a clear discrepancy. But there is some scientific research that suggests baldness has a number of social advantages.

    It’s hard to deny that our physical appearance matters in society. What we look like on the outside can determine (to an extent) the shape of our career, what kind of people we associate with, who we marry, and how socially successful we are in general.

    People draw inferences about someone else’s personality based on appearance all the time. For example, in both men and women, having small squinty eyes and thin lips suggests (to a viewer) that a person is dominant, while big eyes and full lips suggest submissiveness.

    Research shows us that physically attractive individuals are credited with a range of desirable attributes, which is hardly surprising. Anyone who has ever had any kind of interaction with anyone will tell you that being beautiful or handsome opens doors.

    Numerous studies have documented the tendency of people to form an overall impression about something, and subsequently base their evaluation of other aspects relevant to that on their initial impression (e.g. that guy/girl has a great physique, he/she must also be really confident/hardworking/happy, etc.). Research has found that physically attractive people are judged to be more musically competent and that they receive more favorable treatment by juries, are perceived as less deceptive, and are regarded as being more successful in general.

    Traditionally, baldness—or the notable lack of a luscious head of hair—has been associated with undesirable characteristics (weakness, impotence, etc.), whereas a thick mane has been tied to traits like strength and virility. Men who choose to shave their heads might seem a bit curious, as a shorn head has historically been equated with restrained sexuality and even been seen as “symbolic castration.”

    The truth is that a lot of men shave their heads because they are going bald. Research suggests that about half of all men will experience some kind of male pattern baldness by the time they are 50. It has been linked with things like poor self-esteem and body image, the perception of being old, and depression. It’s hardly that surprising then that worldwide, men spend nearly $3.5 billion naturally trying to either hide or reverse their natural hair loss.

    The Benefits

    Research in Social Psychological and Personality Science suggests that there are some benefits to being bald. The researchers had participants (men and women) rate photos of bald men and men with a full head of hair on how dominant, agreeable, and old they might be. The bald men were perceived to be about one year older, slightly more agreeable, and much more dominant.

    But what if the men who were bald or had shaved heads were naturally more dominant-looking (the same qualities that led them to baldness also may have led them to be more dominant)? In the second part of the study, the researchers had one group of participants rate photos of men with full heads of hair, and another group rated the same men, but with their hair digitally removed.

    Because only their hair was modified, any differences between the groups had to be due to baldness. This time the bald men were rated as being.

    • 13 percent more dominant
    • 6 percent more confident
    • 10 percent more masculine
    • About an inch taller
    • 13 percent stronger
    • Nearly four years older

    Finally, the researchers wanted to see if these perceptions remained even if men described in words with no photos were considered. This time they added men whose hair was “thinning but not bald” into the mix. Again, the researchers found that completely bald men were perceived to be more dominant, more masculine, and stronger, ​and to have marginally better leadership skills. But men with thinning hair fared far worse than either bald men or those with a full head of hair.

    The message from this research seems clear: If you are going bald, embrace it. It really is a case of all or nothing.

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    When I first found out I had breast cancer, I thought I wouldn’t have to do chemotherapy.

    But then it turned out I did.

    Chemo would make me bald.

    Of course, nothing says “wake up call” like a cancer diagnosis.

    You reprioritize, reevaluate, rethink who you are.

    That said, I was not thrilled I would be losing all my hair.

    Here’s how I dealt with it.

    TIP #1: Figure out who you are.

    I used to be on Playboy TV.

    I didn’t want to be bald.

    TIP #2: Take control.

    The worst thing about having cancer is that you can’t extract it from yourself and beat it with a mallet until it dies.

    It’s more slippery than that.

    I went to a salon and got my hair cut short. At least I’d have control over that.

    TIP #3: Don’t make a mess.

    After a couple chemo treatments, it really started to fall out.

    It came out in the shower.

    It clogged the drain. Twice.

    TIP #4: Prepare for the inevitable

    My Mohawk turned into a comb over. It looked unfortunate.

    I got out of the shower, and my husband was coming up the stairs.

    He walked into the room, and I put a towel over my head.

    “I don’t want you to see me,” I said.

    We used the clippers to get rid of my Mohawk.

    The next day I bought an electric razor and shaved off what was left.

    TIP #5: Be brave.

    A lot of women wear scarves, or wigs, or hats to cover up the fact that they’re bald.

    I didn’t want to do that.

    I didn’t want to hide it.

    I tried on wigs but didn’t buy one.

    I walked around bald and got stares. I pretended not to notice.

    The other day, I was walking down a long hallway to get my most recent chemotherapy treatment.

    Another woman was walking down the hall towards me. She was maybe a decade older. She had hair.

    “I always said if I ever had to do chemotherapy again, I wouldn’t wear a wig,” the woman said of my bald head as we got closer.

    “You look beautiful,” she said.

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    I cover the business of sex. I’ve written for The Atlantic, Harper’s Bazaar, Slate, Salon, and The Daily Beast. In 2008, TIME named me one of the year’s best bloggers.

    I cover the business of sex. I’ve written for The Atlantic, Harper’s Bazaar, Slate, Salon, and The Daily Beast. In 2008, TIME named me one of the year’s best bloggers. I’ve appeared on CNN, NPR, and “Politically Incorrect.” To email me, click HERE. To subscribe to my newsletter, click HERE. This blog has been cited by The Wall Street Journal, Ad Age, ESPN, BuzzFeed, and Katie Couric.

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    I am Bianca, I am 42 and I have Alopecia Areata.

    I first got Alopecia Areata 10 years ago after having viral meningitis. It was a huge shock.

    My hair grew back but, unfortunately, Alopecia made a return a year later and left me with a patchy bald head. Soon after, I shaved my head and started living my life as a bald woman with Alopecia Areata.

    The grieving that followed was indescribable.

    I looked in the mirror and was mortified at what I saw looking back at me. I no longer knew who I was. The image I had known as ‘me’ for as long as I remember was gone. Something very different, something very confronting was staring back at me.

    Every time I left the house, people stared at me. It crushed my soul.

    As a single woman, I started to tell myself that I was doomed to be alone forever. Who could wake up beside a bald woman and think she was a catch? I didn’t have any hair. My femininity had left the building. And just like that I was no longer soft. I felt flawed and undesirable.

    After much misery, I realised I had two choices. I could crumble and never leave the house, become a mere shadow of who I once was. My other choice was to saddle up, after all this was who I was now and not a lot was going to change.

    So, I decided to throw myself out into the online dating world and begin my journey as a woman with Alopecia Areata. It was uncomfortable and I risked a lot of painful rejection and judgment. I felt the fear but did it regardless.

    I was honest and positive, and as I said the words over and over again, “I have Alopecia Areata”, it started feeling like it was a part of me — no longer foreign and surreal. In fact, my Tinder profile reads:

    “All photos are recent. I shave my head, I don’t have cancer, I have Alopecia. I am at peace with who I am if you aren’t that’s ok, keep swiping, thanks for stopping by.”

    It sparked lots of questions, but also took an interesting turn and taught me a lesson or two in self-love and expression.

    Some men were completely turned off by me not having hair. Some were shallow, even rude and hurtful. But I was also complimented for my courage and bravery. Many people were empowered and inspired to talk to me, just to say hello. I ended up with friends and kind people to chat to and people who were genuinely interested in me in as a person. The rest just kept swiping by.

    I am still single, so although my ‘dating experiment’ did not result in finding ‘the one’, I learnt to love myself again. It gave me the space to experiment being the new me and helped me come to peace with my Alopecia.

    I hope that by sharing my story I can get people to appreciate what it is like living with Alopecia Areata. I don’t think there is a woman alive who doesn’t like to feel feminine and beautiful. When you take away a part of your gender make up that plays a huge part of who you are as a woman, it’s heartbreaking.

    I want people living with Alopecia to be classed as normal and to be accepted. People’s reactions, comments and stares were one of the hardest things to deal with during the early part of my Alopecia journey. It was hard enough leaving the house each day without being the target for stares and disgust.

    But most of all, I hope that my story will empower people in situations similar to me.

    Today, I am proud to say that on pretty much a daily basis, I can wake up and look in the mirror and feel happy to be me. It is crazy to think I am at this stage, after all that I have been through. It has taken lots of mental strength and resilience but I couldn’t be happier.

    When life throws you lemons, you make lemonade, right?

    Next week is Alopecia Areata Awareness Week 12 – 19 November.

    Anyone affected by Alopecia can find support through AAAF. For information on support groups and other services visit the AAAF website, Facebook, or Instagram.

    “Bald is hot,” an article in the New York Times recently announced. We bald guys hear this kind of hype all the time, “Bald is cool, bald is beautiful” — but only from people who are not bald. It’s well-meaning and is usually followed up with examples of good looking bald guys like Bruce Willis, Michael Chikless, Michael Jordan, or if you’re older, Yul Brynner. These men are not bald — well, I mean, they are bald — but they are actually covering it up by taking it all off, which puts them in a completely different category called “shave-head,” which is all-scalp-all-the-time, which makes it an elective, not a genetic imperative and just doesn’t look good on everyone. It is not bald. Bald is a guy who’s taller than his hair, whose shiny pate shines above his hair-fringe — the fringe being the defining component of bald much like a bare mountain top rises above its own oxygen-starved timberline. Looks impressive if you’re Mt. Everest, not so much if you’re Burt Reynolds.

    Let’s own up to it, as a predominantly Judeo-Christian society, we have an imbedded bias against bald. Nooo? Have you looked at the Bible lately and the story of Sampson? The guy went from winner-to-wimp, lost everything including the girl, because he lost his power-hair.

    Anyone in Da Vinci’s The Last Supper feature a slaphead? No.

    You know any Greek or Roman gods with fringe? From Ulysses to Superman to the Incredibles, can you name any bare-pated superheroes?

    How many young girls do you know grow up dreaming of a fringe-worthy Mr. Right?

    “Bald men are more ‘virile’,” that’s another one we hear. There’s absolutely no biological evidence and it raises all sorts of false expectations in both sexes.

    How many denuded presidents have we elected since the 20th century? One. Eisenhower. And that’s because there was no choice. His opponent, Adlai Stevenson, was also bald and he was derided as an “egg-head.” Yes Gerald Ford was fringe-worthy, but he wasn’t elected. So Rudy Giuliani and Fred Thompson, forget about it.

    Please understand, there is no comfort when people tell us that centuries from now highly evolved humans will be hairless. This only helps if you’re planning to be immortal.

    You see our position here? Stark-scalps enter the mating marketplace with a perceived physical deficit. Hairpieces are too obvious. Shaving it all off just doesn’t work for all heads. So we genuine fringe-worthy guys need to figure out — if not beautiful, what are we?

    How about this: Bald looks wise and all-knowing. It’s Buddha, Freud, Capt. Picard, Mr. Miyagi and Yoda. Bald looks better coming out of a pool or shower. Bald means we don’t have to spend a lot of time and money on expensive hair stylists.

    Bald tends to be taken more seriously, more substantially. When Sean Connery stopped doing the rug-bearing James Bond role and started doing fringe-only parts, he became an esteemed actor. Bald is loveable and generous — right Santa? Bald is smart, which is why the term “egg-heads” came about. I don’t think I’ve ever seen actor Ed Harris wear a rug and he never plays dolts. Bald is powerful like the enduring Mr. Clean. Any man who can get rid of dirt and grime in just a minute is some sort of potent.

    Wow, it all sounds so impressive, doesn’t it? Maybe we’re on to something here. If you sum up all these characteristics, bald is really quite special, kind of wonderful, perhaps even terrific? And maybe, just maybe, if we say it enough times, we may actually get to believe it.

    Whether you want to experiment with a shorter hairstyle or you just want a new bad, bold look, there are a multitude of bald hairstyles for women just waiting for you to try.

    Bald Hairstyles

    Buzzed pixies close to the face flatter an oval or round face while shaggier pixies with more texture do better on square and heart-shaped faces. The best part is they are all low maintenance so can spend more time on other things!

    For 25 ways to style bald hairstyles, scroll through the unique looks below!

    1. Cropped Pixie with Fade

    A brunette cropped pixie with buzzed sides is cooler for those warm summer months. Play up color with a blonde streak for flair.

    2. Buzzed Black Hair

    A black buzz cut with the same length all over can be edgy or feminine, depending on what you wear with it. A pink lip and dangle earrings will bring out your girly side while a smokey eye makes it punk.

    3. Lime Green Buzz Cut

    Lime green is an eclectic color for any short haircut. Shape the widow’s peak to be pointed for punk vibes – touch ups will be minimal.

    4. Platinum Textured Pixie

    On both dark and light skin, choose platinum for a flattering color. When your hair is this short, use texture creme to manipulate hairs into a wavy or messy style.

    5. Buzzed Blondie with Wavy Lines

    Frost the tips of a short haircut with blonde while keeping the base dark. For detailed sides, have your stylist shave in waves or line designs.

    Bald Hairstyles for Black Women

    6. Wavy Red Pixie

    When you go with a bold red pixie, tint the eyebrows to match. Again, use hair creme to get a textured feel while keeping edges at the forehead choppy.

    7. Super Short Hairstyle for Balding Black Women

    A bold super short haircut like this shows everyone you’re comfortable in your skin. It also best flatters oval and round faces.

    8. Platinum Blonde with Hard Part

    Platinum blonde will show off your brown eyes and caramel skin. To get dimension, shave in a hard part that’s just wide enough to notice.

    9. Blonde Finger Waves

    The classic 20s finger wave style looks best when kept short, so try it when your hair is at least two inches. The whole style will last about 2-3 days.

    10. Bald with Lined Details

    Another option for when hair is close to bald and you want a little detail is shaving in this zig zag on one side. It’s less maintenance than having two detailed sides and still gets all the looks.

    Bald Fade for Women

    11. Blonde Pixie and Undercut

    Want to keep some of your length? A long blonde pixie with a fade and undercut is the best of both worlds. Shape the top into a mohawk and add major detail to sides for all the edge.

    12. Finger Waves and Hard Part

    On a finger wave hairstyle, shape up sides to a bald fade and shave in a hard part that aligns with your eyebrow. This rounds out your head shape beautifully.

    13. Bowl Cut and Bald Fade

    The bowl cut is typically a man’s hairstyle, but give it an edgy feminine take with a pop of pink, high fade, and wavy texture.

    14. Pink Buzz Cut with Fade

    A peppy pink covers a buzz cut, keeping the style flirty while paired with a punk bald fade and undercut. This wake-up-and-go look is super low maintenance yet stylish.

    15. Spiky Pixie and Undercut

    Short spiky yellow hair tops this style. A shaved curved line details the undercut, making this look far from plain. Use fingers to apply and shape texture creme for this piecey pixie.

    Thin Balding Hairstyle for Women

    16. Messy Platinum Pixie

    For thinning or fine hair, platinum or a very light blonde messy pixie is just the color to soften and distract. All you need to finish this style is a spritz of hairspray.

    The Bold and the Beautiful spoilers (BB) page provides up-to-the-minute changes in plotlines and story points. It’s the only place you need to keep updated and stay a step ahead of what’s happening on your favorite soap opera!

    • B&B Cast Biographies
    • Bold and The Beautiful Comings and Goings
    • Bold and the Beautiful Spoilers
    • Commentary BB
    • Polls
    • Recaps
    • The Bold and the Beautiful News
    • Videos
    • More

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers for August 6: Steffy Forrester Becomes Mrs. John Finnegan

    B&B spoilers for Friday, August 6, 2021, promise a day of love, family, and commitment as Steffy Forrester takes her vows with John “Finn” Finnegan. B&B Spoilers Highlights It’s the beginning …

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers Video Preview: Uh Oh… Sheila Carter Is Back

    The B&B spoilers preview for August 4-6, 2021, is here! Find out what your favorite L.A. power players are up to this coming week! The B&B Spoilers Video Preview The bitch is back and this tim…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers for August 5: A Dramatic Wedding Day Shocker

    B&B spoilers for August 5, 2021, promise no wedding in L.A. can go off without a hitch, and this hitch will be a doozy. In fact, it may just be the shocker of the year for John “Finn” …

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers Wild Spec: Is Jack Finnegan Keeping A Paternity Secret?

    Sheila Carter’s return to the L.A. scene proves what we already suspected, she is Finn’s long-lost mother. B&B spoilers hint this begs the question of his paternity. While Jack Finnegan says his s…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers for August 4: A Hot Summer Night Of Love and Passion

    B&B spoilers for Wednesday, August 4, 2021, focus on love and passion. Quinn Fuller and Carter Walton turn up the heat while Steffy Forrester and Finn share a night of romance. B&B Spoilers Hi…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers Spec: Finn’s Biological Mother Could Be This Person

    B&B spoilers are sharing that a surprise visitor will show up later this week on The Bold and the Beautiful. We also know that Finn has revealed to his bride Steffy that he’s adopted. Fans a…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers for August 3: Steffy Has A Special Favor To Ask Eric

    B&B spoilers for Tuesday, August 3, 2021, promise a day of peace and belonging when Steffy Forrester asks for two loving favors. One will bring her closer to a rival, and the other honors a very s…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers Video Preview: Steffy Forrester Is Getting Married (We Hope)

    The B&B spoilers video preview for August 2-6, 2021, is here! Find out what your favorite L.A. power players are up to this coming week! The B&B Spoilers Video Preview It’s the wedding o…

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    The Bold and the Beautiful Weekly Update: The Wedding of the Century

    The Bold and the Beautiful spoilers weekly update for August 2 – 6, 2021, reveals a night to remember forever, an important question, and romantic nights. Tune in next week so you can catch all …

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    B&B Spoilers for August 2: Finn and Steffy Plan Their Wedding

    B&B spoilers for Monday, August 2, 2021, promise a day to rejoice for the Forrester and Finnegan families. Steffy Forrester and her (for sure, this time) soulmate share the wonderful news with the…

    Argument with a lady

    Yesterday I was at the mall, I was talking to a friend in the wig store. I walk in and this lady just glares at me. I was talking to my friend Nikkol about how she wants to cut her hair cause its falling out from dying it so much. I jokingly suggested to shave it off. The customer scolded me!

    She asked me why I would ever want to be bald, I told her because hair is not what makes me pretty. Simple as that.

    I am re-shaving my hair off soon, cause just as simple as I told her that hair is not what makes you beautiful, I think I am Gorgeous Bald! Bald women are a lot more confident. Don’t agree then Don’t shave it!

    Posted by diaryofabaldwomen on February 18, 2012 in Uncategorized


    What would you do if you knew one of the most influential people in your life would die in less than a week?

    Would you have spent those last days differently?

    I know I would of. I would of taken more pictures and made her laugh just a little more.

    Jan 30,2004; I was in 6th grade, I was riding home from a friends birthday party where the night before we all had been talking about life.

    Before I slept I said my annual prayer, thanking God for everything, and telling him I was ready for her to pass..

    As I slept my night away I never thought I would wake up and have her not be there anymore.

    Carroll Mae Pracht; was one of thee most amazing women that I ever have know.

    She broke me

    A lot of people ask me why I got the day she passed away tattoo on my wrist, we weren’t family.

    Here is my reasoning, When I found of she was sick I figured she would get over it like a cold. The last time I saw her she said “When I get better I’ll come to your basketball game.”

    She never got better, so when I went to her awake, I met most of her family who I had never heard much about. I walked up to enter as one of the grandsons stopped me and asked who I was. I told him my name and before I could tell him I knew her from church he stopped me and told me; So, your her little girl.

    I was her little girl! And she was “My” person!

    I put her date on my wrist to remember her, someday I hope to leave an impact on someones life like she left one on mine.

    I hope I am making you proud! That’s the only way to make not having you here; make sense.

    I’ll be visiting you in less than a week!

    Love, your little girl

    Posted by diaryofabaldwomen on January 24, 2012 in Uncategorized


    When Lily was born on April 29th, 2011, I was so full of emotion. Tears arose to my eyes as I held this beautiful baby girl in my arms. She had a smooshed nose and wrinkled hands but to me she was the prettiest baby I had ever seen. She cried for the first week of her life and normally I could of screamed but instead all I wanted to do was be with her. She is one of thee most perfect human beings I have met yet.

    My sister and her dau gh ter Lily will be returning to Minnesota tomorrow evening at 5:55pm. Could I be any more excited? Possibly a little.

    She completed me.

    I was riding in the car with my dad before the shaving, My dad asked me why I was shaving my hair off. I told him the same thing I have told everyone else. Because I want to find a cure for cancer.He said why I are you honoring these kids you dont even know them.

    I was sponsoring 2 girls both under the age of 6 and no I have never met them and for all I know their parents could be rich and not need any assistance but that thought NEVER crossed my mind.

    I told him, No, I’ve never met either but I sure would hope if Lily EVER got sick that some stranger would choose her to be honored.

    Dearest Lily,

    I hope you realize how absolutely amazing you are to me and I couldn’t wish anything but the best for you! I hope if you any thing ever happens to you that some one would choose you to honor. I sure would. I am just saying; I love you.


    ps. please learn to say auntie first 🙂

    Posted by diaryofabaldwomen on January 24, 2012 in Uncategorized

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    Spotlight : ‘ The Bald Beauty Collection’ by Photographer Hoda Amel Abdalla & ‘LunaBella Make-Up Art’

    How to be a bald and beautiful woman

    When we were initially asked to be a part of this project with photographer, Hoda Amel Abdalla, we were honored. The preface of this project was to convey the beauty and empowerment in women who are survivors of cancer, more specifically, breast cancer. The Bald Beauty Collection was done over the course of two days, both in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, Ca. with 25 female models requiring both beauty make-up & bald caps. Many of these professional models have never been placed in a bald cap for a , so this was an eye-opening and life-changing experience for them as well. Not only because of the reason behind the project, but many of the models and artists, like us, have or have had family members affected by the illness. Below, Abdalla gives her own preface to this project :

    “The Bald Beauty Collection stimulates my desire to show that the beauty of women lay within their attitude. This collection was created to empower women as a way to step back and appreciate their beauty in the state/ condition its in. As the photographer, I focused my attention toward the women, who I feel take on one of the most courageous battles in life by struggling with their hair loss from illness and treatment. These women have a large struggle in overcoming the norms of physical beauty with the acception of their changing physical state, with hair loss. A special thank you goes out to the twenty-five models, their agencies, and LunaBella Make-Up Art for providing me with such amazing talent in making this collection possible. “

    – Hoda Amel Abdalla, photographer

    And just a reminder, these models all have hair. In fact, many of them had long, full hair which did make it a challenge to get the caps as smooth as possible. If the cap were to rip or split anywhere, we would have to toss it out and start from scratch. The key to getting the bald cap as smooth as possible is to make the hair underneath as sleek as you can. The more sleek and smooth the hair is underneath, the smoother the cap will fit to the head shape. Very important. We applied a bald cap on each of these ladies and concealed with different make-up mediums to make it look ‘as close to skin’ as possible. That also means mimicking skin texture, moles , and freckles. It was an amazing shoot. Here are a few of our favorite images from the shoot that we’d like to share with you.