How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

To delete the character after the cursor on a Chromebook, press ALT + BACKSPACE. That’s the entire tip!

Hey, Chromebook fans, I’ve got a real quick one for you: the keyboard shortcut for the equivalent of the Delete key on a Chromebook is ALT + Backspace.

What’s the difference between Delete and Backspace? Quite simply, Backspace erases the character immediately before the cursor and Delete erases the character immediately after the cursor.

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

I’ve had a Chromebook for a little over a year and I still dig it. It’s all I bring with me when I travel, and for sitting around on the couch editing or writing long emails, it’s second only to my wife’s MacBook Air (and a heckuva lot cheaper).

What you lose when you scrunch down a laptop into a 10-inch form factor is a keyboard real estate. That includes the little cluster of keys in the middle the includes INSERT, HOME, END, DELETE, PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN.

The ALT + BACKSPACE keyboard shortcut replaces the DELETE key and now that I know about it, I use it quite often.

While we’re at it, I may as well share some other handy Chromebook keyboard shortcuts

ALT + BACKSPACE, as I mentioned, is DELETE—that is, delete the NEXT letter after the cursor.

CTRL + BACKSPACE will delete the previous word.

SHIFT + ALT + BACKSPACE will clear autofill form data on a page.

ALT + UP is PAGE UP.

ALT + DOWN is PAGE DOWN.

SEARCH BUTTON + LEFT is HOME.

SEARCH BUTTON + RIGHT is END.

To type SCROLL LOCK… just kidding, there is no scroll lock on the Chromebook. What does scroll lock even do? Does anyone know?

Need help with any other Chromebook keyboard shortcuts or tips? Ask about it in the comments and we’ll see if we have an answer.

Chris Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of How-To Geek. He’s written about technology for over a decade and was a PCWorld columnist for two years. Chris has written for The New York Times and Reader’s Digest, been interviewed as a technology expert on TV stations like Miami’s NBC 6, and had his work covered by news outlets like the BBC. Since 2011, Chris has written over 2,000 articles that have been read nearly one billion times—and that’s just here at How-To Geek. Read more.

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Crouton — made by a Google employee — is the ideal solution for running Linux on your Chromebook. If you’re a Crouton user, there are some extra commands you’ll want to know.

Crouton stores the Linux systems you install in “chroots.” You can have multiple chroots. The commands below will help you work with and manage those chroots.

Update: Google has added native support for Linux apps directly to Chrome OS, and this feature is available on many Chromebooks. You don’t need Crouton to run Linux software anymore.

Choose a Target

When installing Crouton, you have to specify a target. For example, “sudo sh

/Downloads/crouton -t xfce,xiwi” installs the Xfce desktop with the software that enables the Chrome OS extension. You’ll find other targets here too — Ubuntu’s Unity desktop, KDE, GNOME, LXDE, Enlightenment, and even command-line only targets like “core” and “cli-extra” if you don’t need a fancy desktop.

Update: This process has changed and you now need to move the Crouton installer to /usr/local/bin before running it. Consult Crouton’s README for more information.

After downloading the Crouton script to your Downloads folder, you can run the following command to see a list of targets:

/Downloads/crouton -t help

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Pick a Linux Distro and Release

Crouton still uses Ubuntu 12.04 as its default Linux distribution, but you can install other releases of Ubuntu, Debian, or Kali Linux. Specify a release with -r name while running the Crouton command. For example, “sudo sh

/Downloads/crouton -r trusty -t unity,xiwi” installs a chroot with Ubuntu Trusty, the Unity desktop, and the software that allows the Chrome OS extension to show it in a browser tab.

Run the following command to see a list of Linux distributions and their releases:

/Downloads/crouton -r list

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Update a Crouton Chroot

When a new version of Crouton comes out, the software in your chroot will be outdated. It won’t automatically update itself, but you can update it fairly quickly.

First, enter your chroot and run the following command. That means this command must be run from that Crouton Linux system:

Next, exit the chroot and run the following command from the Chrome OS shell, replacing “name” with the name of your chroot. If you didn’t specify a name, it’s probably the name of the release you installed — for example, “trusty” or “precise.”

/Downloads/crouton -u -n name

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Encrypt a Chroot

When installing a Crouton chroot with the installer script, add -e to the command to encrypt your chroot. You can also re-run the Crouton installer script with the -e switch to encrypt an existing chroot. For example, to update an existing chroot and add encryption, you’d use the same command as above, but add an -e:

/Downloads/crouton -u -e -n name

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Create Multiple Chroots

Crouton allows you to create multiple chroots, so you can experiment with different Linux desktops and distributions. To create a new chroot after you’ve already created one with Crouton, run the Crouton installer script again and add -n to the command. For example, the following command would create a new chroot named testchroot with the LXDE desktop:

/Downloads/crouton -r trusty -t lxde,xiwi -n testchroot

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Back Up a Chroot

Run the following command to back up a Crouton chroot, replacing “name” with the name of the chroot. This will create an archive in the current directory with your chroot’s files in it.

You can restore the backup later with the following command:

Or, when setting Crouton up from scratch — perhaps you’ve powerwashed your Chromebook and want to get your customized Linux environment back on it — you can run the following command while installing Crouton. The Crouton installer script will restore your chroot from the backup file you provide, so replace “backupfile.tar.gz” with the name of the backup file you want to restore.

/Downloads/crouton -f backupfile.tar.gz

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

Delete a Chroot

Disable developer mode on your Chromebook and it’ll automatically powerwash itself, restoring your Chromebook to its factory state. This will also wipe Crouton and all your Linux chroots. But, if you just want to get rid of one of your Linux chroots, you can run the following command in the Chrome OS shell, replacing name with the name of the chroot.

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

This information comes from the official Crouton documentation on the Crouton github page. In the interest of helping our readers, we’ve tried to make it a bit easier to digest. If a command here doesn’t work, it’s possible something has changed — head over to the official Crouton site for the latest up-to-date documentation.

This article was written by Darlene Antonelli, MA. Darlene Antonelli is a Technology Writer and Editor for wikiHow. Darlene has experience teaching college courses, writing technology-related articles, and working hands-on in the technology field. She earned an MA in Writing from Rowan University in 2012 and wrote her thesis on online communities and the personalities curated in such communities.

This article has been viewed 26,127 times.

Installing Linux on your Chromebook will allow you to access and use Linux-based programs that aren’t readily available on Chrome OS. On your Chromebook, you can install a Ubuntu distribution of Linux using a tool called crouton, which will allow you to run Linux on top of Chrome and switch back and forth between the two operating systems at any time.

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

/Downloads/crouton -t xfce” into the terminal, then press ↵ Enter . This command will install the crouton application from the downloads folder.

    Type “sudo sh

/Downloads/crouton -t touch,xfce” if you are installing Linux on a Chromebook Pixel or a Chromebook with a touchscreen.
If you want to use encryption with crouton (a variation that’s a little more demanding for your Chromebook), use the parameter “e,” so your code would look like “sudo sh -e

/Downloads/crouton -t xfce” .

  • There are other versions available as well, including -t unity and -t gnome, which may take up more or less space on your Chromebook; research which you prefer, but “xfce” is suggested for a lightweight installation. [2] X Research source
  • How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    If you’re using a Chromebook, you might have noticed that its operating system is based on Linux’s kernel, but its features are not as advanced. Chrome OS is closed-source software and doesn’t accept many classic Linux commands.

    If you’re looking to install a more advanced and security-oriented Linux OS, Kali Linux might be the system for you. Just don’t forget to backup all your files first, because your system will need to get Powerwashed before you can install a new OS, and that means deleting all your personal data.

    Before You Get to Installing a New OS…

    Like with other operating systems, you should enter Developer Mode if you want to perform a more advanced action. This is a way to use an OS that gives you more system privileges. It is turned off by default, as it’s not meant for everyday use. To turn on Developer Mode:

    1. On your keyboard, press and hold the Escape and Refresh (the button unique to Chromebooks) keys, then press the Power button. Don’t release the first two keys until you’ve pressed the Power key.
    2. If you’ve done the first step correctly, the Chromebook will restart and boot into Recovery Mode. It will greet you with an “error message,” which is nothing to worry about. If you see the words “Chrome OS is missing or damaged. Please insert a recovery USB stick or SD card,” you’re in the right place. Just press Ctrl+D and carry on.
    3. This shortcut will take you to the part where you need to toggle your “OS verification.” This serves as an option that’s the opposite from Developer Mode, meaning that you need to disable the OS verification to enable Developer Mode on a Chromebook.
    4. The next window will notify you that “OS verification” is off – again, it will look like an error message even though you are doing everything right. You’ll no longer need your device to verify the OS every time you boot it up, considering that you’re installing another OS. This also means you’ve turned on Developer Mode. Pressing Ctrl+D again (or waiting for 30 seconds) reboots the system in said mode.
    5. After booting up, if you encounter the words “Preparing system for developer mode. This may take a while. Do not turn your computer off until it has restarted,” you’re all set. You’ll have to wait at least 10 minutes before Developer Mode becomes enabled. Your Chrome OS will boot as if you have never turned your Chromebook on before.
      How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    New Beginnings

    Once you’ve enabled Developer Mode on your Chromebook, you can install another operating system. By default, the newly installed OS and Chrome OS will both stay on your device, giving you the ability to switch between the two. The hotkeys that do this are Ctrl+Alt+Shift+F1 and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+F2. Here’s how to install another OS, Kali Linux being the case here:

    1. The first step is to download Crouton, which stands for “Chromium OS Universal Chroot (change root) Environment.” To download it, click here, then click on the link next to its full name on Github. Crouton is free to use, just like Linux itself.
      How to delete a chroot in a chromebook
    2. Having downloaded Crouton, enter the Crosh terminal on your Chrome OS by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T.
    3. Crosh is the Chrome OS shell, so it’s not surprising that “shell” is the first command you need to enter.
    4. To begin downloading and later installing Kali Linux, copy the following line:
      sudo sh -e

    /Downloads/crouton –r kali-rolling –t xfceHere, “xfce” is the desktop environment, and “kali-rolling” is the version of Kali Linux. You can change these according to your requirements.

  • This might take a while, depending on your hardware’s power. If Kali Linux prompts you to enter a new UNIX username and password, do that, and make sure you remember or write down the login details.
  • Booting Up

    If you’re not in Kali Linux already, you need to start it up. To do this:

    Ive looked at many similar questions but none of them work.

    Using Crouton on the Chromebook worked for a while but not any more. I have to reinstall Crouton every time I want to use Ubuntu so now I want to make the entire system work right off of Ubuntu without running ChromeOS.

    I am using the Lenovo Thinkpad Yoga 11e Chromebook. I heard you have to take out some screw but I do not see where that would do anything. I’ve taken this thing apart many times but I did not see this red screw.

    Can you tell me in detail where the screw is and tell me the rest of the steps needed to boot Ubuntu as the OS. I already have Ubuntu 16.04 on a USB drive that I know works because I’ve used it many times.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    2 Answers 2

    I am not sure on that particular model of chromebook. I just went through the hassle of uninstalling chromeOS from my Asus c202s. Things you should provide if you want better help: Model number of chromebook and CPU Architecture. There are plenty of ways to wipe chromeOS from your machine. Each machine is unique and requires a little different process. But here is a good start for you. You need to look up how to remove the “jumper screw”. But you can also just look at the mobo, you should see a screw/ screwhole on the mobo with two copper semi circles on either side of the screw. This is the jumper, the screw head shorts the two copper pads. After you have disabled write protection, you will need to go into dev mode. Once in dev mode I would go this route; install a new bios, preferably a UEFI bios but if you cannot find one that works with your machine then you can try looking for a Legacy bios.

    After your new bios is installed you can then boot from USB.

    Don’t Brick, Good luck.

    Step one: Plug in your USB. Step two: There should be a button you can use during startup to open BIOS. Open BIOS. Step three: Go through the settings, somewhere there should be startup order. Set your USB to top priority. Step four: Ubuntu should boot up. Go to the desktop and click on the install icon. Step five: Follow the install process. I hope this helps, it’s my first time using this to answer.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

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    These are notes for myself on the crouton setup for my chromebook

    1. Enter Developer Mode

    Hold Power+ESC+Refresh, then let go of the power, when the OS verification warning screen appears enter Ctrl-D

    2. Setup Crouton

    Follow the instructions here to download the latest version of https://goo.gl/fd3zc.

    Open a chrome terminal tab using CTRL+ALT+T and then open a shell

    Figure out what version of linux you want to run here https://github.com/dnschneid/crouton

    Install the crouton extension in chromeos from here https://goo.gl/OVQOEt

    3. Setup a chroot

    I have been running Ubuntu Unity, Gnome 3 and enlightenment using an Ubuntu Trusty Tahr release.

    After the instalation is complete you will set up your unix username and password for the chroot in the terminal.

    Once the chroot is done installing and you have set up your user you launch your chroot using:

    4. Setup Lightweight Desktop

    Click the dash icon in the top left corner and search for terminal, use xterm to install software using aptitude

    Download and install Papyrus notes

    Download and install Github Atom

    ##5. Update Keyboard to match ChromeOS

    * Optional – Install Non Free Software that makes things easier and better looking

    • The keyboard command used when installing the chroot don’t do anything
    • The chrome extension with chroot chrome window functionality is not working

    You can copy and paste in the shell with Ctrl+Shift+C and Ctrl+Shift+V.

    There are some Chromebooks with awesome hardware out there, like the beautiful Chromebook Pixel , but they don’t quite hit their full potential with Chrome OS. Here’s how to install Ubuntu and get more out of your Chromebook.

    Google Chromebook Pixel Review: Awesome, Just Not $1300 Worth of Awesome

    Google set out to build “the best laptop possible.” The result: the Chromebook Pixel. A sleek and…

    Chrome OS isn’t bad, and you can actually do a lot of work with the great Chrome apps out there . But sometimes, you just need a full desktop to get things done. Enter Ubuntu: with just a few minutes of work, you can get a full-fledged Linux desktop up and running on some solid Chromebook hardware, making for a pretty great laptop.

    The Best Chrome Apps You’re (Probably) Not Using

    The Chrome app store has seen a lot of improvements lately, but a lot of the apps that work inside…

    We’re going to use a tool called Crouton to install Ubuntu (hat tip to our friends at the How-To Geek ), which uses the chroot command to run Ubuntu on top of Chrome OS, which is already based on Linux. Unlike dual-booting, that means you can switch between Chrome OS and Ubuntu with a quick keyboard shortcut, no reboots necessary, which is awesome. It’s speedy, powerful, and there only when you need it. If you prefer a more traditional dual-boot environment, check out ChrUbuntu instead, but we’ll be using Crouton today. We tested this on a Chromebook Pixel, but it should work on any Chromebook.

    Free Apple Subscriptions

    Spend nothing, get ‘Ted Lasso’
    Apple TV+, Apple Music, Apple Fitness+, and Apple News are all free for new subscribers for up to six months.

    Step One: Enable Developer Mode

    This will wipe your local data, so make sure to back anything up that you don’t have stored in the cloud. To put your Chromebook in Developer Mode:

    1. Press and hold the Esc and Refresh keys together, then press the Power button (while still holding the other two keys). This will reboot your Chromebook into Recovery Mode.
    2. As soon as you see Recovery Mode pop up—the screen with the yellow exclamation point—press Ctrl+D. This will bring up a prompt asking if you want to turn on Developer Mode.
    3. Press Enter to continue, then give it some time. It’ll pop up with a new screen for a few moments, then reboot and go through the process of enabling Developer Mode. This may take a little while (about 15 minutes or so), and will wipe your local information.
    4. When it’s done, it will return to the screen with the red exclamation point. Leave it alone until it reboots into Chrome OS.

    Note that some older Chromebooks have a physical switch that you’ll have to flip in order to turn on Developer Mode. If you aren’t sure, look up instructions for your specific device on enabling Developer Mode.

    Step Two: Install Crouton

    Next, we’re going to install Crouton and get Ubuntu up and running. To do so, follow these instructions:

    Download Crouton from the top of this page (or by clicking here ) and save it in your Downloads folder.

    Press Ctrl+Alt+T to bring up a terminal on your Chromebook.

    At the Terminal, run the following command to enter a Ubuntu shell:

    Next, run the following command to install Crouton:

    If you’re doing this on a Chromebook Pixel, change it to:

    to get touch screen support. Optional: You can also encrypt your new desktop with a password for extra security using the -e flag (since Developer Mode inherently decreases the security of your machine). You can read more about that here .

    Let your computer install Crouton. This might be a good time to grab a cup of tea. When it’s done it’ll ask you for a username and password for your new Ubuntu installation, so enter them when prompted.

    After it’s finished installing, run the following command to start your new desktop environment:

    If you want Ubuntu’s Unity interface instead of the XFCE desktop environment, you’d change instances of “xfce” to “unity” (no quotes) in the above commands, including the last command (which would become “startunity”). You can also install LXDE or KDE if you prefer. See the Crouton GitHub page for more info on what you can do, and our guide to desktop environments for the difference between each one.

    Step Three: Optimize Your Linux Desktop for Your Chromebook

    Now, you can switch back and forth between Chrome OS and Ubuntu using Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Forward (if you’re on an ARM-based Chromebook) or Ctrl+Alt+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Forward (If you’re on an Intel-based Chromebook). In the latter case, you will also need to press Ctrl+Alt+Refresh after pressing Ctrl+Alt+Forward to bring up the desktop. To exit the Linux desktop, just log out of it like you would on a normal PC—you’ll close it completely and go back to Chrome OS (after which you can run sudo startxfce4 again to go back).

    Now that you’re on the Desktop, here are some things you may want to know to optimize your experience:

    • Your desktop won’t come with very many programs installed. You’ll find that even a lot of default Ubuntu tools are left out, so you’ll have to install them yourself using apt-get. If you’re on an ARM-based Chromebook, not all apps will be compatible. Intel users will be much better off.
    • If you’re using XFCE, you should disable the screensaver, which can cause graphics issues in Chrome OS.
    • The Downloads folder in Chrome OS is the same as the Downloads folder on the Linux desktop, so if you download or create a file in one environment, you can put it in the Downloads folder to make it available in the other as well.
    • If you’re on a high resolution display like the Chromebook Pixel, your icons will be very, very tiny. The Crouton wiki has a few options for fixing this, though none are quite perfect. You either deal with a few tinier buttons or you go to a more standard resolution.
    • Since your Chromebook is in Developer Mode, it will take an extra 30 seconds to boot up, since it shows you the Developer Mode message. You can skip this by pressing Ctrl+D.
    • Lastly, if you want to remove your Linux desktop and go back to regular ol’ Chrome OS, you can just reboot your Chromebook and press spacebar when it prompts you to re-enable OS verification. This will remove Crouton and restore Chrome OS in its original state.

    That’s it! Now you have a fully working Linux desktop on top of Chrome OS, and you can switch between them whenever you want with a quick keystroke. This makes those great but seemingly dumbed-down Chromebooks a lot more useful (not to mention tempting).

    I bought Dell Chromebook 11 about 1.5 years ago. Being a university student (at that time), the Chromebook served me well. It had 4 GB RAM and i5 Intel processor, which were way beyond what Chrome OS required. Fast forward to year 2017, its battery is dead and I have been searching for a way to convert it into a more useful machine. Now, Chrome OS, by its nature, isn’t as useful as you would expect it to be. This is even more true for a power user.

    Indeed there are hacky ways to run Ubuntu atop Chrome OS using Crouton but that’s not a real deal. It works really well but I don’t want the dependency on Chrome OS. The other alternative is to completely replace Chrome OS with the operating system of your choice. Awesome, this is what I want but the problem here is you would have to get your hands messy. And this is precisely the purpose of this article. To help you through the process of preparing your Chromebook for flashing a custom firmware i.e. SeaBIOS and making sure it is ready for installation of any other OS. Alright then, let’s get started!

    Check Compatibility

    Before attempting to flash the custom firmware, it is very important to check if your Chromebook is supported by John Lewis’s ROM (SeaBIOS). Head over to the ROM download page located here and look for your Chromebook under “Supported Models Matrix” table (FULL ROM column). If you can see your Chromebook listed under specified column then you should be okay to proceed. In my case, the Dell Chromebook 11 (WOLF) is present.

    Note – This guide might also work for the Chromebook listed under “RW_LEGACY” or “BOOT_STUB”. But I haven’t tested any other Chromebook except for Dell Chromebook 11 (Intel i5 processor).

    Remove Write Protection

    This is the messy part and you’ll be needing screw driver. Chromebooks have a write protection mechanism put in place to avoid flashing its ROM. Write-protect can be disabled jumper/removing a screw but since this jumper/screw is located on the main board, you need to open up the Chromebook.

    Although ripping apart my Dell Chromebook 11 wasn’t difficult (needed to open a dozen on screws) but the difficulty level can vary for your Chromebook. The best way to understand where the jumper/screw is located and how to disable it, visit the Developer Information for Chrome OS Devices web page. Click on your Chromebook model and refer the section “What’s Inside?” section to see relevant information.

    Once you have the necessary information, the next step is to disable jumper/unscrew the screw. Re-assemble the Chromebook and power it on to ensure everything is working. Note that the toughest part is over!

    Enable Developer Mode

    Now that write-protection is disabled, we are free to overwrite the ROM. For doing so, first step is the enable developer mode so as to be able to have necessary permissions required for flashing custom firmware.

    Instead of repeating the entire process of enabling developer mode, I will refer you to the guide written by How-To Geek – How to Enable Developer Mode on Your Chromebook. Come back to this page once you have enabled the Developer Mode successfully.

    Flashing SeaBIOS

    Open the Crosh shell. To open the Crosh shell, press Ctrl+Alt+T anywhere in Chrome OS. The Crosh shell will open in a browser tab. Before moving on, make sure you are NOT in root shell and that the command prompt looks something like the following image.

    The last step is to run the following command.

    The flash script is taken directly from John Lewis’s website. If need be, you can verify the correctness of the script visit the website and look towards the end of the article (just before comments section).

    Once the firmware is flashed, you will notice a BIOS similar to one you’ve been seeing on traditional Windows desktops/laptops. Now on-wards, install Ubuntu or any other linux distro as you normally do.

    In today’s open source roundup: Run Linux on your Chromebook. Plus: Team Fortress 2 for Linux gets an update on Steam. And Samsung dumps Google+ in the Galaxy Note 5

    How to install Linux on a Chromebook

    Chromebook sales have been red hot on Amazon, with various models regularly getting great reviews and comments from Amazon customers. But not everybody is in love with Chrome OS. Some folks prefer to run Linux and Expert Reviews has a helpful how-to that will guide you through the install process.

    Michael Passingham reports for Expert Reviews:

    There are many reasons you might want to install a Linux distro on your Chromebook. You might have an application that you can only run in Linux, you might want to play games on Steam (if you have a higher-end Chromebook with decent specifications) or you simply might want a wider range of applications than Chrome OS can provide.

    The good news is that installing Linux is now very easy thanks to the open-source Crouton tool. The great thing about this method is that you keep Chrome OS and can instantly switch between your Linux and Chrome OS operating systems, without having to boot into them separately.

    Installing Crouton is very simple, although your experience may vary depending on the Chrome OS device you’re currently using. We carried out our testing on an HP Chromebook 11 from 2013. Before you start, ensure any local files on your Chromebook are backed up. Anything else, including installed apps, extensions and Google Drive files are stored in the cloud so you don’t have to worry about using them.

    Part 1: Put your Chromebook in developer mode

    Part 2: Download Crouton

    Part 3: Install your Linux distro of choice

    Part 4: Run and enhance your Chroot

    Other Chromebook owners have already added Linux to their machines, and some of them shared their thoughts in a thread last year on Reddit:

    Rott3npunk: “I’m on an Acer C720 running Debian and it was pretty simple. You do have to remove a screw to flash the bios, which will void your warranty, but at the price that shouldn’t be a big deal. Once you enable seabios and usb boot it’s like installing linux on a normal laptop.

    The only problem I had was that the kernel patch to make the touchpad work wouldn’t work for me, but I updated to 3.17 and everything works fine.

    I would suggest you spend the extra 50-60 dollars on a bigger SSD though, the space goes fast.”

    Donrhummy: “Only if you want to get rid of ChromeOS and install only linux. You can install Linux with ChromeOS using Crouton (officially supported by Google) and no need to remove screws.”

    Tidux: “I’ve got Arch on mine because I wanted the linux-c720 package from the AUR, but it’s much nicer running regular 3.17 – the linux-c720 kernel config was missing silly things like USB serial drivers and the entire ethernet stack, which made using it as a NOC laptop or tethering it impossible. If Arch eventually renders itself unbootable, I’ll go Debian Jessie for the next install.”

    Nathan: “I bought an Acer C720 two weekends ago with the sole intention of putting Linux on it. With a NewEgg pricematch, I paid just under $215 at Microcenter including sales tax. I had an old netbook that I needed to replace.

    Installing Arch wasn’t hard. You do have to void the warranty in order to do so since you have to remove a write protect screw from the motherboard. It’s not hard to do. Then you enable developer mode and change some settings to the firmware defaults to SeaBIOS instead of ChromeOS. From there, it’s simple to boot to a USB install drive and it’s pretty much a normal linux installation from there.

    The keyboard isn’t great. I’d describe it as “mushy”, but I’ve gotten used to it and it’s not so bad, my old netbook just had a pretty good keyboard. There’s a “search” key that’s registered as a super (windows) key in Linux. I swap that with left ctrl since I normally have caps lock as an extra control. The F1-F10 keys are at the top but printed as shortcut keys (brightness, volume control, etc). You can leave them as function keys and use the super key to activate the shortcuts, or vice-versa. There are a few ways you can set up hotkeys such as these. Other than that, be aware there’s no insert/delete/pageup/pagedown/home/end keys. Again, you can configure shortcuts that map to these if you like. Even with all of these problems I got used to the keyboard pretty quickly and program on it happily.

    Other than that, the machine performs incredibly well. The CPU is fast, it runs KDE4 well, I have plenty of software installed and have used only about half of my available space. I get occasional GPU freezes, but that’s not a common issue and I’m pretty sure there’s a way to fix it, I just haven’t tried much yet.

    I get about six hours of battery life depending on screen brightness. The screen itself is very bright, I’m very happy with it.

    All in all I highly recommend.”

    Chocolatemeowcats: “Have you tried TLP with your c720? I get way more than 6 hours.”

    Xphx: “Today I removed ChromeOS and installed Ubuntu Trusty (this is basically the only distribution that does not make you want to rip your hairs out during the setup process) on my Acer CB5. It’s a 13” Chromebook with a good build quality, a Tegra K1 with 4GB memory and a 32GB eMMC. Linux works just as you would expect it to, ChromeOS cannot be started anymore after this installation (until you reset to factory defaults).

    There is nothing to complain about, if you want a cheap laptop that has a good build quality and runs linux, the Acer CB5 is a very nice device. But as with every Chromebook it has a bad display – it is 1080 but still the viewing angles and overall quality are pretty terrible. At least it’s not a glossy screen. For the money, my complaint about the display isn’t valid, since I compare the display to a $2000+ Macbook (which is non-glossy too and has a fantastic quality).”

    Terminalator: “I used to run Slackware on my Samsung CR-48. I loved it until my stepson sat on it.”

    Richeibful: “I’m using Xubuntu thru Crouton on my school-provided Dell Chromebook 10. This way, you can switch between Linux and ChromeOS with a hotkey. Take a look at the instructions and download here[1] . You’re going to need to put it in developer mode[2] first.”

    Mthode: “I’ve installed gentoo on the original arm chromebook. I used it a little bit, but couldn’t get over the keyboard. Love the form factor though.”

    Yuppie: “I put CentOS7 and Arch on my Google CR-48, which only has a 16GB ssd in it and it ended up working rather well. No major issues other than completely bogged down when trying to run a web browser like chrome or firefox. Couldn’t handle youtube or any typical web browsing.”

    There are some Chromebooks with awesome hardware out there, like the beautiful Chromebook Pixel, but they don’t quite hit their full potential with Chrome OS. Here’s how to install Ubuntu and get more out of your Chromebook.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Chrome OS isn’t bad, and you can actually do a lot of work with the great Chrome apps out there. But sometimes, you just need a full desktop to get things done. Enter Ubuntu: with just a few minutes of work, you can get a full-fledged Linux desktop up and running on some solid Chromebook hardware, making for a pretty great laptop.

    We’re going to use a tool called Crouton to install Ubuntu, which uses the chroot command to run Ubuntu on top of Chrome OS, which is already based on Linux. Unlike dual-booting, that means you can switch between Chrome OS and Ubuntu with a quick keyboard shortcut, no reboots necessary, which is awesome. It’s speedy, powerful, and there only when you need it. If you prefer a more traditional dual-boot environment, check out ChrUbuntu instead. Chrubuntu needs you to reboot to switch the OS but it might have a better performance in case of older machines.

    Step One: Enable Developer Mode

    This will wipe your local data, so make sure to back anything up that you don’t have stored in the cloud. To put your Chromebook in Developer Mode:

    1. Press and hold the Esc and Refresh keys together, then press the Power button (while still holding the other two keys). This will reboot your Chromebook into Recovery Mode.
    2. As soon as you see Recovery Mode pop up—the screen with the yellow exclamation point—press Ctrl+D. This will bring up a prompt asking if you want to turn on Developer Mode.
    3. Press Enter to continue, then give it some time. It’ll pop up with a new screen for a few moments, then reboot and go through the process of enabling Developer Mode. This may take a little while (about 15 minutes or so), and will wipe your local information.
    4. When it’s done, it will return to the screen with the red exclamation point. Leave it alone until it reboots into Chrome OS.

    Note that some older Chromebooks have a physical switch that you’ll have to flip in order to turn on Developer Mode. If you aren’t sure, look up instructions for your specific device on enabling Developer Mode.

    Step Two: Install Crouton

    Next, we’re going to install Crouton and get Ubuntu up and running. To do so, follow these instructions:
    Download Crouton from the top of this page (or by clicking here) and save it in your Downloads folder.
    Press Ctrl+Alt+T to bring up a terminal on your Chromebook.
    At the Terminal, run the following command to enter a Ubuntu shell:

    Next, run the following command to install Crouton:

    /Downloads/crouton -t xfce

    If you’re doing this on a Chromebook Pixel, change it to:

    /Downloads/crouton -t touch,xfce

    to get touch screen support.

    Optional: You can also encrypt your new desktop with a password for extra security using the -e flag (since Developer Mode inherently decreases the security of your machine). You can read more about that here.

    Let your computer install Crouton. This might be a good time to grab a cup of tea. When it’s done it’ll ask you for a username and password for your new Ubuntu installation, so enter them when prompted.
    After it’s finished installing, run the following command to start your new desktop environment:

    _ sudo startxfce4_
    If you want Ubuntu’s Unity interface instead of the XFCE desktop environment, you’d change instances of “xfce” to “unity” (no quotes) in the above commands, including the last command (which would become “startunity”). You can also install LXDE or KDE if you prefer. See the Crouton GitHub page for more info on what you can do, and our guide to desktop environments for the difference between each one.

    Step Three: Optimize Your Linux Desktop for Your Chromebook:

    Now, you can switch back and forth between Chrome OS and Ubuntu usingCtrl+Alt+Shift+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Forward (if you’re on an ARM-based Chromebook) or Ctrl+Alt+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Forward (If you’re on an Intel-based Chromebook). In the latter case, you will also need to press Ctrl+Alt+Refresh after pressing Ctrl+Alt+Forward to bring up the desktop. To exit the Linux desktop, just log out of it like you would on a normal PC—you’ll close it completely and go back to Chrome OS (after which you can run sudo startxfce4 again to go back).

    Now that you’re on the Desktop, here are some things you may want to know to optimize your experience:

    Your desktop won’t come with very many programs installed. You’ll find that even a lot of default Ubuntu tools are left out, so you’ll have to install them yourself using apt-get. If you’re on an ARM-based Chromebook, not all apps will be compatible. Intel users will be much better off.

    If you’re using XFCE, you should disable the screensaver, which can cause graphics issues in Chrome OS.
    The Downloads folder in Chrome OS is the same as the Downloads folder on the Linux desktop, so if you download or create a file in one environment, you can put it in the Downloads folder to make it available in the other as well.

    If you’re on a high resolution display like the Chromebook Pixel, your icons will be very, very tiny. The Crouton wiki has a few options for fixing this, though none are quite perfect. You either deal with a few tinier buttons or you go to a more standard resolution.

    Since your Chromebook is in Developer Mode, it will take an extra 30 seconds to boot up, since it shows you the Developer Mode message. You can skip this by pressing Ctrl+D.

    Lastly, if you want to remove your Linux desktop and go back to regular ol’ Chrome OS, you can just reboot your Chromebook and press spacebar when it prompts you to re-enable OS verification. This will remove Crouton and restore Chrome OS in its original state.

    That’s it! Now you have a fully working Linux desktop on top of Chrome OS, and you can switch between them whenever you want with a quick keystroke. This makes those great but seemingly dumbed-down Chromebooks a lot more useful.

    Crouton Install and Management

    Table of Content

    1. Manuals
    2. Installation
      1. Chrome OS Channel
      2. Developer Mode
      3. Chrome Extension
      4. Install Crouton
      5. Useful Helper Commands
    3. Usage
      1. Start Crouton
      2. Switch between Chroot and Chrome OS
      3. Shutdown Chroot
      4. Update Chroot
      5. Delete Options
      6. Backup Chroot
      7. Software Installs
    4. Troubleshooting
      1. Problem with apt (or apt-get)
    • Manuals by Crouton developer David Schneider on GitHub
      • Main Manual
      • Cheat Sheet
      • Tricks
    • Manuals from Ubuntu site
      • Install Ubuntu on Chromebook
    • Various simplified install intros:
      • Install by Whitson Gordon
      • Install by Chris Hoffman
      • Manage by Chris Hoffman
      • Video Tutorial by Robby Payne
    • What to do after install by Andrew

    i. Check Chrome OS channel

    What Chrome OS channel is running on a Chromebook is not essentail for the Crouton install. However, it can become important later since things may be less stable if the developer channel is running. The Chrome OS channel can be checked and changed as follows: go to settings under Chrome OS (bottom right corner of main screen) -> select menu in the top left corner -> about Chrome OS -> detailed build information -> change channel. The resulting change channel window shows which channel is currently active. For more details see here.

    ii. Enable developer mode

    Note this will erase all local data. So back things up first. Instructions for enabling developer mode are here, and the details for specific Chromebooks are given here.

    iii. Install Chrome extension

    For better integraton with Chrome OS install Crouton Integraton extension. It is needed to run crouton within a Chrome OS session rather than in parallel.

    iv. Install Crouton

    Download latest Crouton release from here https://goo.gl/fd3zc which comes form developer’s repository here. For simplicity leave downloaded crouton file in Downloads folder. Note, as of April 2019 there may be changes to this approach due to security updates in Chrome. Here are some updates.

    Open in Chrome browser crosh shell with CTRL + ALT + T and then type

    Now install crouton for the proper linux release specified under -r argument (xenial is the Ubuntu 16.04) along with proper targets. The latter are selected under the -t argument. The names and other details about Ubuntu releases can be looked up on this Ubuntu site. The chroot name can be specified with the -n option (default is name of chosen release, e.g. xenial). If the -e argument is added then the chroot will be encrypted.

    v. Useful helper commands

    Enter chroot from crosh shell

    List targets installed in a chroot

    List available linux releases

    List all available targets

    Add target to an existing chroot with -u option

    Location of chroots

    i. Start Crouton

    Run chroot in same Chrome OS session. This requires the Crouton Integraton extension (see above) along with the xiwi target.

    or run in parallel mode

    ii. Switch between Chroot and Chrome OS

    To switch between chroot and ChromeOS use Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Forward ; or Alt+Tab when in same session.

    iii. Shutdown Chroot

    To shutdown choot, log out or shut down on the Ubuntu side as usual or issue Ctrl+c in crosh tab where you started chroot session.

    iv. Update chroot

    Check if there is a newer crouton version, run on Ubuntu side:

    Then shutdown Ubuntu and run in crosh shell the following command. This will update/upgrade all installed targets.

    v. Delete options

    Currently, it is not easily possible to delete targets due to complicated interdendencies/histories of packages across targets.

    To remove a chroot, one can use the following command(s).

    vi. Backup chroot

    Back up your chroot to a timestamped tarball in the current directory.

    Restore chroot from the most recent timestamped tarball. One can explicitly specify the tarball with -f.

    If your machine is new or powerwashed, one can use the crouton installer to restore a chroot and relevant scripts.

    vii. Install software within Chroot

    Within a Chroot one should update and install software packages via apt or apt-get , see example below. Detailed instructions for using apt or apt-get are available on Ubuntu’s AptGet/Howto. Installing software via Ubuntu’s Software manager should be avoided since it creates often problems. The GDebi Package installer seems to work fine as an alternative.

    i. Problem with apt or apt-get

    If apt update and/or apt install are not working then try the follwing troubleshooting steps. Additional help on this topic can be found here.

    The autoclean command might fix the problem. Sometimes it may only work in a freshly started chroot session. So try restarting it if it fails, or start temporarily a chroot from crosh shell within a chrome browser tab with sudo enter-chroot , and then run update/install from there.

    After running update also try this

    Another reason could be a broken dpkg system. To fix this, run the following commands.

    Reinstalling libcurl3-gnutls has also been reported to help.

    Go to chrome://version and look at the line that says Platform to see. Go to More, Settings, Chrome OS settings, Linux (Beta), click the right arrow and select Remove Linux from Chromebook.

    Table of Contents

    How do I uninstall Linux?

    To remove Linux, open the Disk Management utility, select the partition(s) where Linux is installed and then format them or delete them. If you delete the partitions, the device will have all its space freed. To make good use of the free space, create a new partition and format it. But our work is not done.

    How do I uninstall Ubuntu from my Chromebook?

    Removing Ubuntu Linux from a Chromebook

    1. Use Ctrl+Alt+T for terminal.
    2. Enter command: shell.
    3. Enter command: cd /usr/local/chroots.
    4. Enter command: sudo delete-chroot *
    5. Enter command: sudo rm -rf /usr/local/bin.

    What is Linux on my Chromebook?

    Linux (Beta) is a feature that lets you develop software using your Chromebook. You can install Linux command line tools, code editors, and IDEs on your Chromebook. These can be used to write code, create apps, and more. … Important: Linux (Beta) is still being improved. You might experience issues.

    How do I uninstall a program on my Chromebook?

    Uninstall an app

    1. In the corner of your screen, select the Launcher. Up arrow .
    2. Right-click the app you want to remove. Tip: Or, on your keyboard, press Shift + Search + Increase volume . Or press Shift + Launcher + Increase Volume .
    3. Select Uninstall or Remove from Chrome.
    4. Select Remove.

    How do I remove Linux and install Windows on my computer?

    To remove Linux from your computer and install Windows:

    1. Remove native, swap, and boot partitions used by Linux: Start your computer with the Linux setup floppy disk, type fdisk at the command prompt, and then press ENTER. …
    2. Install Windows.

    How do I switch back from Windows to Linux?

    If you have started Linux from a Live DVD or Live USB stick, just select the final menu item, shutdown and follow the on screen prompt. It will tell you when to remove the Linux boot media. The Live Bootable Linux does not touch the hard drive, so you’ll be back in Windows next time you power up.

    Article post on: howto.suanoncolosence.com

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    How do I enable Linux on my Chromebook?

    Turn on Linux apps

    1. Open Settings.
    2. Click the Hamburger icon in the upper-left corner.
    3. Click Linux (Beta) in the menu.
    4. Click Turn on.
    5. Click Install.
    6. The Chromebook will download the files it needs. …
    7. Click the Terminal icon.
    8. Type sudo apt update in the command window.

    What can I do with Linux on Chromebook?

    The best Linux apps for Chromebooks

    1. LibreOffice: A fully featured local office suite.
    2. FocusWriter: A distraction-free text editor.
    3. Evolution: A standalone email and calendar program.
    4. Slack: A native desktop chat app.
    5. GIMP: A Photoshop-like graphic editor.
    6. Kdenlive: A professional-quality video editor.
    7. Audacity: A powerful audio editor.

    Article post on: howto.suanoncolosence.com

    How do I get Linux on my Chromebook?

    How to Install Linux on Your Chromebook

    1. What You’ll Need. …
    2. Install Linux Apps With Crostini. …
    3. Install a Linux App Using Crostini. …
    4. Get a Full Linux Desktop With Crouton. …
    5. Install Crouton from Chrome OS Terminal. …
    6. Dual-Boot Chrome OS With Linux (for Enthusiasts) …
    7. Install GalliumOS With chrx.

    Should I get Linux on my Chromebook?

    Although much of my day is spent using the browser on my Chromebooks, I also end up using Linux apps quite a bit. … If you can do everything you need to in a browser, or with Android apps, on your Chromebook, you’re all set. And there’s no need to flip the switch that enables Linux app support.

    Should I use Linux on Chromebook?

    Linux apps now can run in a Chromebook’s Chrome OS environment. However, the process can be tricky, and it depends on your hardware’s design and Google’s whims. … Still, running Linux apps on a Chromebook will not replace the Chrome OS. The apps run in an isolated virtual machine without a Linux desktop.

    Article post on: howto.suanoncolosence.com

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    Is Chrome OS better than Linux?

    Google announced it as an operating system in which both user data and applications reside in the cloud. The latest stable version of Chrome OS is 75.0.

    Related Articles.

    LINUX CHROME OS
    It is designed for PC of all companies. It is specifically designed for Chromebook.

    How do I restore my Chromebook to factory settings?

    Factory reset your Chromebook

    1. Sign out of your Chromebook.
    2. Press and hold Ctrl + Alt + Shift + r.
    3. Select Restart.
    4. In the box that appears, select Powerwash. Continue.
    5. Follow the steps that appear and sign in with your Google Account. …
    6. Once you’ve reset your Chromebook:

    How do I get rid of Chrome extensions installed by administrator?

    To remove Chrome Extensions Installed by Your Administrator, follow these steps:

    1. STEP 1: Print out instructions before we begin.
    2. STEP 2: Remove Group Policies.
    3. STEP 3: Reset browsers back to default settings.
    4. STEP 4: Use Rkill to terminate suspicious programs.

    Does Chromebook have right click?

    How To Right Click on a Chromebook. There are two ways to right click on a Chromebook using the touchpad. The first is to tap once on the touchpad using two fingers. This will open the right-click menu over whatever element in focus.

    chroot command in Linux/Unix system is used to change the root directory. Every process/command in Linux/Unix like systems has a current working directory called root directory. It changes the root directory for currently running processes as well as its child processes.
    A process/command that runs in such a modified environment cannot access files outside the root directory. This modified environment is known as “chroot jail” or “jailed directory”. Some root user and privileged process are allowed to use chroot command.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    “chroot” command can be very useful:

    • To create a test environment.
    • To recover the system or password.
    • To reinstall the bootloader.

    Syntax:

    Options:

    • –userspec=USER:GROUP : This option describe the user and group which is to be used. Either name or numeric ID can be used to specify the user and group.
    • –groups=G_LIST : It describe the supplementary groups as g1,g2. gN.
    • –help : Shows the help message, and exit.
    • –version : Gives version information, and exit.

    Example:

    • Step 1: We will create a mini-jail with bash and basic commands only. Let’s create a “jail” directory inside the “home” directory, which will be our new root.
    • Step 2: Create directories inside “$HOME/jail”:
    • Step 3: Copy /bin/bash and /bin/ls into $HOME/jail/bin/ location using cp command:
    • Step 4: Use ldd command to print shared libraries:

    Step 5: Copy required libraries into $HOME/jail/lib64/ location using cp command:

    Similarly, copy the libraries of ls command into $HOME/jail/lib64 location.
    Step 6: Finally, chroot into your mini-jail:

    Now user sees $HOME/jail directory as its root directory. This is a great boost in the security.

    Google Chrome OS is the core of Chromebooks that use Google account to manage all data and apps. This means whatever you have signed in or installed on your Chrome browser using an account, if you have used the same account in the Chrome OS you will get all extensions and apps active in the browser. This means Chromebook Chrome OS is more inclined towards a Cloud ecosystem.

    However, the thing which really bothers, is the Google has designed the Chrome OS in such a way that you cannot remove the owner of the device completely without resetting it. However, we can sign-out the primary account and can mark some other Google account as the primary one without resetting it. This will hide the owners or initial primary account data and will not let access others until the owner account has not signed in to the platform again.

    Signout Primary account on ChromeBook to Add a new one

    As we are using the Google account to sync our data on multiple platforms including the Chromebook running Chrome OS. Thus, we can remove it from any other system.

    Step 1: Open myaccount.google.com on smartphones or any other OS such as Windows, Linux, or macOS. The only thing you need is the browser. Don’t use the same Chromebook machine from where you want to remove/signout the Primary Account.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Step 2: Select the Security option give in the left side panel menu and then click on Manage Devices.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Step 3: Now, you will be able to see all the login devices along with the Google Chrome OS running Chromebook.

    Click one of three dots given on the Chromebook device and select the Signout option.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Confirm the Signing out process…

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Step 4: Go to ChromeBook and you will see the Sign-in error notification. Now, what you have to do simply Sign out the current primary user or owner of your system.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Step 5: Now, if you have only an owner account then that will not be removable, instead just click on the Add person. This option will let you add a new Gmail account and the system will make that one as a Primary account for Chromebook. However, if you have multiple accounts apart from the owner one, then simply click on the arrow icon and select the Remove Account option.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    In this way, we can switch off the Primary owner account of ChromeBook until we don’t want to use it again on the same system.

    However, those users want to completely remove the Owner account before hand over the Chromebook to someone else they have to reset it. Follow the below steps for that.

    July 11, 2019 by Dinsan Francis Updated on: 8:45 am 16 Comments

    Delete Images and Other Files

    You can delete images and other files on a Chromebook by right-clicking and choose Delete. You can also use the keyboard shortcut ALT + BACKSPACE.

    Unable to delete images and videos? Try this

    Did you find photos read-only on your Chromebook? Turns out, you can go to the original file location and delete them.

    Browsing through Google’s official Chromebook forum where I have started contributing more these days, I noticed a people saying “unable to delete images”.

    All those questions on the forum have been answered by the amazing community members, but I am taking a minute here to explain to all my friends here.

    Read-only Audio, Images and Videos

    The Chrome OS Files app, the built-in file manager, shows three different sections called Audio, Images, and Videos which show content from all the sources you have on your Chromebook.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Let’s take the Images section as an example. This will show all the images on your Chromebook regardless of their folder. These are read-only files. Your Chromebook might have some images in the Downloads folder and some in your Play Files folder where Android apps keep their files. You will see all of them here.

    Double-click and open the picture. From there, you can click the pencil icon to edit the image. You can copy the file, use “Get info” to see additional details about the file. If you click “More actions”, you will see all the apps from your Chromebook that can do something using the image (Gmail to send it via image, LightRoom to edit it, etc). You can even right-click an image and set it as a wallpaper.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebookDelete is grayed out

    You cannot, however, delete tor rename the image from here. The delete option will be disabled or grayed out. The reason is, this is just a “view” and not a folder. You will need to go the original folder where the image is saved in, to delete or rename the file.

    The same is applicable to the Audio and Video sections too. So, next time you find an image in the Images section that you want to delete or rename, find the folder where it is saved in, and you are good.

    How to Delete Images

    You now know that you cannot delete files from the recent section. However, after you find out the location of the file, how do you delete it?

    You can either right-click and select Delete, or use the keyboard shortcut ALT + BACKSPACE. Give this a try and let us know how it goes.

    Questions? Let us know in the comments section.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Parallels will soon bring a full-fledged Windows desktop to Chrome OS for enterprise customers but it appears that won’t be only way to skin the proverbial cat. Nesting a virtual machine inside inside another VM on Chrome OS technically isn’t supposed to be possible in the current Stable build of Chrome OS. However, it looks like the Chromium developers have been tinkering under the hood. Our pal Kevin Tofel has reported that a Chromebook user on Twitter shared that he successfully installed Windows 10 in a VM inside the Linux container. As excited as I was to see this development, I wouldn’t be me if I didn’t give it a try myself before sharing the news.

    I just made an interesting discovery on my ASUS C436 #chromebook. Nested (hardware accelerated) KVM is enabled!

    First thing I tried, booting up a #Windows10 #VM inside the #Linux container… and It works! And it’s fast enough to be productive.#ChromeOS #Android #Linux #Win10 pic.twitter.com/9YsTFzpgf6

    I am happy to report that I was able to duplicate Mr. Moneta’s success and we’re going to run through the steps of how I arrived. Now, my Chromebook is in the Canary channel but I did confirm with Mace that his ASUS C436 was in the Stable channel and NOT in developer mode. From the best I can tell from my repository digging, this ability is currently limited to ‘Hatch’ devices which are powered by the Intel Comet Lake CPU family. I’ll be testing on some other devices to verify my suspicion but for now, Comet Lake Chromebooks are the only devices I’ve seen this work successfully. There is some leg work we have to do to get Windows running in a virtual machine but apart from the actually installation process, it really didn’t that long and was fairly straightforward.

    Before we get into it, I feel obligated to issue the usual caveats. While this does not require developer mode or even switching channels, it does utilize the Linux container and somewhat experimental methods that are not officially supported by Chrome OS and its developers. The installation we’re doing is relatively safe and if the container breaks, you can always delete Linux and start over. That said, PROCEED AT YOUR OWN RISK! It is possible that this won’t work well or at all and I don’t recommend trying it unless you know your way around or simply don’t care about bricking your Chromebook. Okay, let’s move on. First, you will need to enable Linux on your Chromebook. To get set up, check out this Command Line article on getting started with Linux on Chrome OS. Make sure you alot at least 25GB to 30GB to Linux when you first set it up so that you have enough room for the Windows installation. As I mentioned above, I don’t think this will work unless you have a Comet Lake device but I will test on some other Chromebooks to verify.

    Next, you’ll need a Windows image to install in the VM. You can get an official image directly from Microsoft here. I chose Windows 10 Home but I suppose you can try whichever version you’d like. Maybe some Windows 98 SE if you happen to have an old installation disk around the house. The file format is .iso and once you’ve downloaded it, you should move it to the Linux folder to prevent any file path conflicts. The Windows 10 Home download was just shy of 5GB so it took a bit to download and transfer. When you’re ready, we’ll move to the Linux terminal to get the VM software installed and ready. Tip: Go to your Linux settings and enable microphone access before moving to the next step. You’ll see why in a minute.

    Open the Linux terminal. This is where we will install all the necessary packages to run Virtual Machine Manager. To install qemu/kvm, the VM manager and all required dependencies, paste the following commands into the terminal and hit enter. It will take a few minutes to install and when it’s done, we will move on to installing Windows.

    If all went as planned, you should find the Virtual Machine Manager in your app list. Open the manager. This is where we will create the VM and direct it to install the Windows image. At the top left of the manager (under the File menu), you should see what looks like a display with a play button on it. Click that button and you will be prompted to create a new virtual machine. Since we’re using an image we downloaded, select the option that says “Local install media” and click forward.

    Click “browse” and then select “browse local” to select the .iso image you moved to the Linux folder. Click forward. You will then be given the option to alot RAM and CPU cores. The default on my Core i5, 8GB Acer was 4GB of RAM and 2 CPU cores. I upped the RAM to 5GB and went ahead and selected all 4 cores because I wanted to see just how well Windows could run if given most of my system resources. Click forward and then you’ll be asked to set your allotted drive space. I had 40GB free in the Linux partition so that’s what I gave up. You would probably be fine with 20GB but remember, this is Windows. You need extra space. Click “finish” and wait for the magic to happen. You will be greeted with the usual Windows setup and it will walk you through every step of the installation. I won’t go into depth on setting up Windows. It’s fairly self explanatory and you can customize your experience however you please. Don’t worry about any wonky resolutions. Once installed, I was able to set Windows to match the native resolution of my external monitor and it worked perfectly.

    Once the installation is complete and everything is set up, you can click the “full screen” icon in the VM manager and you will have a full-blown, Windows desktop where you can install whatever Windows-compatible programs you want. I will say that the experience was much better than I expected. Cortana even works if you enabled microphone access like I mentioned earlier. There are some issues with the mouse cursor rendering twice because both operating systems are competing to display the cursor and you can definitely tell that the virtualized OS struggles here and there when loading or installing applications. Still, this is a solution that’s good enough to allow users to access legacy Windows applications that aren’t too taxing. It’s most certainly not a great experience but it’s better than most other solutions I’ve tested. Long story short, the Linux container is growing more capable by the minute. If developers every decide to turn hyperthreading back on in the container, Windows and other operating systems could offer a near-native experience for users who absolutely need it. Now I’m off to try some other operating systems to see how they run. Stay tuned for more.

    Crouton and Gallium OS turn Chromebooks into Linux laptops.

    J.M. Porup – Jun 19, 2017 12:52 pm UTC

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

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    Chromebooks are one of the most secure devices you can give a non-technical end user, and at a price point few can argue with, but that security comes with a privacy trade off: you have to trust Google, which is part of the NSA’s Prism programme, with your data in the cloud.

    Even those who put their faith in the company’s rusty “don’t be evil” mantra may find Chromebook functionality limiting—if you want more than Google services, Netflix, some other Web apps, and maybe the Android app store, then you’re out of luck.

    Geeky users willing to engage in some entry-level hackery, however, can install Linux on their Chromebook and unleash the Power of Torvalds™.

    Crouton: Linux crunch for your Chrome salad

    Crouton installed in less than half an hour on our 2016-era Acer Chromebook (buy here), and runs in a chroot side-by-side with Chrome OS. The project name is an acronym for “ChRomium Os Universal chrooT envirONment,” according to the witty GitHub README, and currently supports Debian Linux and derivatives like Ubuntu and Kali Linux.

    Trying out Crouton is easy, and worth an evening’s tinkering. Enter developer mode on your Chromebook, which for most users means holding down the Esc and Refresh keys while tapping the power button. Doing so will erase all local data on your Chromebook (in the unlikely event that you have any locally stored data on a cloud-focused device, granted). Hit Ctrl-D, Enter, and wait five minutes or so for the Chromebook to wipe.

    Once in developer mode, your Chromebook will offer a warning message every time you boot-up that the device is now vulnerable. David Schneider, the Crouton maintainer, who works for Google but was unable to get permission to speak to Ars for this article, outlines the security trade offs on the Crouton wiki:

    “Dev mode out of the box does several things that compromise security, including disabling verified boot, enabling VT2 [terminal], and activating passwordless root shell access. This means even without Crouton, if you’re in dev mode, someone can switch to VT2, log in as root and add a keylogger that runs at startup, then switch back without you knowing. If you’re logged in, they can also access the unencrypted contents of your Chrome profile and copy it elsewhere. If an exploit to Chrome is found, verified boot will no longer protect you from persistent compromises. Essentially, dev mode by default is less physically secure than a standard laptop running Linux.”

    You’ve been warned. Once in dev mode, enter your Wi-Fi password and accept the EULA, then select “Browse as Guest.” Head on over to Schneider’s GitHub repo and download Crouton, and follow the instructions.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Open a terminal in Chrome OS. To do so, hit Ctrl-Alt-T in a browser, which will open crosh , the native, stripped-down shell. Type shell to get a real shell, and run sh

    /Downloads/crouton to see install options.

    Crouton defaults to Ubuntu LTS 12.04. A sensible first-time default install might look like:

    /Downloads/crouton -e -t xfce

    This will install Crouton with the xfce desktop environment, with encrypted (-e) filesystem and touchcreen (-t) support. A full range of distro images are available and can be specified with the release (-r) flag. If all you’re after is a Linux command line, you can eschew X and install a headless Linux system using -t core or -t cli-extra .

    Alas, Crouton doesn’t check developer signatures, because bugs, making it difficult to be sure your download hasn’t been MITMed. Hopefully this issue will be fixed soon.

    Once installed, launch Crouton from Chrome OS by opening crosh with a Ctrl-Alt-T, typing shell , followed by enter-chroot startxfce4 . If you’re running an ARM Chromebook, you’ll be limited to F/LOSS software compiled to support that chipset, but Intel Chromebook owners can look forward to hours of distraction playing Steam games. Numerous integration features make it easy to switch back and forth between Chrome OS and your Debian-based chroot.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    When your significant other or school-age child demands their Chromebook back, deleting your hackery is as simple as disabling developer mode. At boot, instead of clicking through the Chrome OS warning page with Ctrl-D, re-enable normal mode by hitting the space bar (see screenshot). This will wipe your changes and restore Chrome OS, and send you running to Amazon for a Chromebook of your very own to hack.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    When you start up a Chromebook, or other Chrome OS device, you’ll notice an area that spans the bottom of the screen containing various icons on the lower-left side. This area is known as the shelf, and it allows users to quickly open their programs. The shelf can be customized by adding or removing shortcuts. To proceed, follow the instructions in the sections below.

    • Add and remove apps.
    • Add and remove websites.

    Adding or removing app shortcuts on the shelf

    Adding a shortcut icon

    1. Press the Search key (magnifying glass) on your keyboard.
    2. A menu should appear similar to the one below.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    1. Click All apps in the lower-right corner.
    2. In the expanded menu, move your cursor over the app you’d like to add to the shelf and tap the touchpad with two fingers simultaneously.
    3. From the drop-down menu that appears, select Pin to shelf.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Removing and shortcut icon

    1. Locate the app you’d like to unpin from the shelf.
    2. Move your cursor over the app and tap the touchpad with two fingers.
    3. From the menu that appears, select Unpin.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Adding or removing website shortcuts on the shelf

    Adding a shortcut icon

    1. Browse to the website or web page you’d like to add to the shelf.
    2. In the upper-right corner, click the icon.
    3. In the drop-down menu that appears, move your mouse cursor over More tools, then clock Add to shelf. which is in the red rectangle below.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    1. In the window that pops up, type a name for the website or webpage and click Add.

    Introduction: Maintaining Your Crouton Linux System

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Hello, guys. If you’ve read my Instructable on installing Linux on your Chromebook, then you know that my Linux username is Insector. Greetings. If you have installed Linux on your Chromebook, then this guide will be hopefully helpful to you. If not, look up How to Install a Linux OS on your Chromebook. I made that one. This is, of course, assuming that you have a Chromebook that you wish to run Linux on. Anyway, this Instructable will tell you how to update your Linux environment, encrypt your Linux environment, back up your Linux environment, and finally, delete your Linux environment *Read with a fearful expression on your face. It makes it much more fun to read.*

    Step 1: Update in Progress

    Eventually, Crouton will update, and this will keep your Linux environment from running properly. Fear not, frail mortal, for the problem is really easy to fix. You will first enter your Crouton Linux system, which can be easily done by running these 2 commands from Crosh:

    shell

    sudo enter-chroot

    This will open your Linux environment right there in Crosh. You can, of course, run the following and navigate to your terminal:

    shell

    sudo startname

    where name is the name of the desktop thingy that you run. Refer to the Instructable I mentioned earlier if you need an explanation of what in the world I’m talking about. Next, you will run:

    sudo croutonversion -u -d -c

    After that does its thing, exit the Linux environment and run:

    /Downloads/crouton -u -n name

    where name is the name of the Linux distro that you use. This will do some crazy stuff, and after what seems like an eternity, your computer will finish. You are now updated and stuff. At this point, I recommend a little dance, but that’s just me.

    Step 2: Encryptionating. Encrypting.

    Encrypting your chroot (fancy word that basically means your Linux environment) will do stuff like make it so that a password and encryption phrase are required to start the Linux environment, and also help protect your Chromebook from any viruses that the Linux environment may get. The command for this is really similar to the one in the previous step:

    /Downloads/crouton -u -e -n name

    where name is the name of the distro. Your computer will print out some stuff, and say to wiggle your mouse, and eventually ask for a password and encryption phrase. That’s all there is to it. Good job. Go buy yourself an ice cream.

    Step 3: Back Up

    Sometimes, bad stuff happens and you lose stuff that matters to you. Some people sit down and cry. Others get addicted to coffee. But not us! Not me, because I’m already a coffee addict, and not you, because you backed up your chroot. To back up your chroot, run this command:

    sudo edit-chroot -b name

    where name is, you guessed it, the name of your chroot, which, if you are like me, will be the name of the distro. Later, to restore this backup, run:

    sudo edit-chroot -r name

    By now you should have the name thing figured out.

    Step 4: Delete!

    You may install a Linux environment that you don’t like. For example, I installed Debian Wheezy with an LXDE desktop. This takes up a good hunk of memory, and it can be frustrating when you run out of memory to use. It’s also possible for the chroot to get a virus. So, if you don’t like it or can’t use it, you can delete. Simply run:

    sudo delete-chroot name

    Where name is the name of the distro. Like I’ve already said several times. Be warned, however. This action is irreversible, but really, really satisfying. Just make sure you save the files you want to keep to a usb stick or something.

    Die, useless chroot!

    Step 5: Final Thoughts and Stuff

    So now you know more than you used to, I hope. I have told you how to do beautiful things, and I’ve told you how to do terrible things. Should you be happy? Sad? You should now be able to update, encrypt, back up, and even delete chroots.

    Ok, so not that beautiful and not that terrible. Still, good luck. Until next time, fare thee well.

    Oh, and don’t forget to comment if you have questions or if I forgot something.

    Thanks for reading.

    Sorry, I don’t know how to end things.

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    Did you make this project? Share it with us!

    The RDP apps on Chrome OS left me wondering if my Chromebook would be useless. Then I found crouton and installed Debian Linux in a chroot to expand my options.

    This is the 2nd post in a 3-part series on using a Chromebook as a power user. Part 1 gave a high-level overview of how I’m using my Chromebook and some basic Chrome OS configuration steps. This post digs deeper to show advanced users how to use crouton to install Debian Linux in a chroot. Part 3 finishes up by configuring LXDE and connecting to a remote FreeBSD desktop running xrdp.

    As discussed in Chromebook for Power Users: Part 1, the primary use for my Chromebook is to act as a dumb terminal to remote my FreeBSD desktop. I run xrdp on the desktop, which allows me to securely connect to an X session using a standard RDP client. That’s why I was disappointed to find that none of the popular RDP clients for Chrome OS were able to connect to xrdp. In an effort to settle for less, I enabled a VNC server and tried connecting. While VNC “worked,” the experience was unacceptable due to keyboard issues related to uppercase/lowercase letters and the shift key. That was a deal breaker for me: if I couldn’t remote my desktop with it, a Chromebook would be almost useless—just an oversized tablet weighed down by an attached keyboard. Luckily, crouton came to the rescue by enabling me to install Debian Linux in a chroot on the Chromebook.

    Getting Started

    Before we begin, there are some critical preparation steps to perform. You’ll probably want to plug in since a few of these steps are battery intensive. First and foremost, install the Chromebook Recovery Utility and launch it to create a restoration disk. If things get ugly, you can use that to recover your Chromebook. Don’t perform any of the following steps until you have a recovery disk on hand. Second, back up any files that aren’t already stored online or on another computer since the next step will wipe the disk. Then turn off your Chromebook using the shut down option on the main menu.

    Now you’re ready to enable Developer Mode. The exact steps may vary, so refer to Developer Information for Chrome OS Devices for specifics regarding your model. For my Toshiba CB35-B3340 13.3″ Chromebook, the following actions taken from step 2 of this article worked:

    1. Hold Esc and Refresh while pressing the Power button to turn the Chromebook on.
    2. On the recovery screen, press Ctrl + D to skip the recovery process.
    3. When prompted, press Enter to turn off OS verification.
    4. On the screen warning that OS verification is off, press Ctrl + D again. You’ll need to press Ctrl + D to bypass this screen every time you boot Chrome OS from this point forward.
    5. Wait for the changes to be applied. You should see a progress bar during this process.

    Installing Debian Linux in a chroot on Chrome OS

    Once you’re logged back in, it’s time to download crouton—just save it to your Downloads folder for now. You may also want to install the crouton extension to enable clipboard synchronization and some other features. Now comes the fun part. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to launch crosh, the Chrome OS developer shell, and type shell to enter a more full-featured Bash shell. You’ll need to pick a Linux release to install (current distro options are Debian, Kali, or Ubuntu) as well as the targets, which are like meta-packages or features installed in the chroot. Use the following commands to view the releases ( -r ) and targets ( -t ) available for your version of crouton:

    I wanted a clean, lightweight install since the goal was simply to remote my desktop. I recommend using the latest stable Debian release, which was jessie at the time of this blog post. I chose the lxde target for a desktop environment and the extension target to sync with Chrome OS. Note that you don’t need to list the dependencies when specifying targets to install. For example, lxde requires gtk-extra while gtk-extra requires x11, so there’s no need to include gtk-extra or x11 in your target list if you’re installing lxde. The command on line 1 below installs the jessie release with the lxde and extension targets, so change those values to whatever you’d like to use. You can also add the -e option to the end of the line to install into an encrypted chroot (yes, it’s a 2nd -e for the crouton command since the 1st is for sh), but I omitted it since no private data will ever be stored in my chroot. The username and password created during this step are for the user inside the Debian chroot.

    Be sure to read the usage tips shown at the end. If your installation fails for any reason, simply delete the chroot using sudo delete-chroot jessie and try again. For the curious, I had 8.7 GB free on my /home partition before the installation and 7.3 GB after, so this chroot used 1.4 GB of disk space.

    Managing Your crouton chroot

    If you prefer to type shorter commands (who doesn’t?), move the crouton script to a folder in your path and make it executable:

    That allows you to omit sh -e

    /Downloads/ when calling the crouton script from this point forward.

    Updates are a simple 2-step process. Enter the chroot using sudo enter-chroot and execute the following command:

    Then from the local machine (not the chroot), you can update the installed targets:

    If you run into trouble or want to dig deeper with it, check out the crouton project home page and crouton wiki. Of course, as long as you’re not storing anything important in the chroot, you can easily delete it and start over with a clean slate.

    Once your chroot is installed, move on to Part 3 in this series to turn LXDE into the perfect environment for remoting a FreeBSD machine.

    If you are a fan of tech gadgets, you probably heard of Chromebook products. These portable devices are a great choice for all businessman and individual users looking for a reliable machine with a stable operating system. The interesting thing to mention is that the Chrome OS is a Linux-based system.

    However, that may not be enough for picky users out there. You may want an actual Linux distro installed on your new device. Perhaps you do not want to erase the default Chromebook OS, but only to add the Linux one.

    Either way, we have the perfect tutorial for you. We will show you how to install Linux on Chromebook in several relatively easy steps. If you are ready, we can start right away!

    What You Need to Do Before Installing Linux on Chromebook

    We should mention that Crouton is our preferred way of installing Linux side by side with the Chrome operating system. The reason why we decided for this option is that you can take advantage of both OSs only if you have them installed at the same time.

    You should make a backup of your Chrome OS before you proceed to install Linux. In case something goes wrong during the process, that will enable you to return to a stable restore point when everything worked properly. You can consider using your Google Drive to save important files that you do not want to lose in the process.

    The first thing we will need to do is to activate the developer mode on your Chromebook. Keep in mind that the process may vary from one machine to another. That is why we advise you to search for a particular guide for your device in case the below tutorial doesn’t work.

    How to Activate Developer Mode on Chromebook

    Your operating system needs to be in recovery mode for this to be possible. On most devices, pressing the Refresh and Esc keys, and the power button together will do the trick.

    Once you enter the recovery mode, simply press Ctrl+D, and the machine will activate the developer mode.

    Please note that the machine will probably take at least 15 minutes to set everything up for use. Any local information it encounters will be erased, and a reboot will be made to enter the developer mode.

    Note: Do not be alarmed if you notice a screen with a red exclamation point. Be patient until the operating system completes the process.

    How to Install Crouton

    The next step is to install Crouton, but do you even know what you are installing? Crouton is an incredible utility that allows you to upgrade, install and remove software on your Chrome OS. The available information indicates that an engineer working in Google developed Crouton, which means you can trust the tool.

    The first thing you want to do is to download Crouton. Head to this page and make sure to choose the latest version.

    Now, press Ctrl+Alt+T to start the Terminal. You will notice a command line, and the next task is to access the Ubuntu shell. Type the following:

    From here, you can install Crouton with the below line:

    Make sure to specify the right folder path to the file.

    The above command may vary depending on the device you are using. On a Chromebook that has the touchscreen feature, use the following line:

    The below command should be used in case you are using the Crouton Integration:

    You will once again need to be patient until the installation process finishes.

    Once that happens, the system will ask you to choose your credentials before starting the process of setting up Ubuntu.

    When the process is completed, you want to use the following command:

    You will notice that your Linux Ubuntu is ready to use on your Chromebook. Please note that this guide explains how to install Xfce desktop environment.

    How to Start Using Linux on Chromebook

    Now that you have the option to use both Ubuntu and Chrome OS on your Chromebook let’s learn a few basics to get you started.

    First, you can switch between the two operating systems by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Alt+Forward or Ctrl+Alt+Forward. The command will depend on the machine you are using as the former is for ARM Chromebooks and the latter for machines that use Intel.

    The crucial thing to note is that you will find a limited range of apps on your Ubuntu system. You can easily install additional apps by using the command line.

    The first command to type is:

    Now, here are some utilities you can consider installing:

    You can also install other software from the official repository if you use the “apt-get install” command followed with the path to the app. We’ve explained more basic commands if you want to be more productive with Ubuntu.

    How to Uninstall Linux on Chromebook

    You tried it, but it didn’t work. Now you want to uninstall Ubuntu on Chromebook and keep your default Chrome OS.

    Open up the terminal and type this command:

    Follow this with these two commands:

    Once you execute all the above, you will uninstall Ubuntu on Chromebook.

    Wrap Up

    Google never hid the fact that they often use Linux and enjoy this operating system. Chromebook uses Chrome OS which is based on Linux. However, if you want the real Ubuntu experience, you may want to install Linux on Chromebook. That is what this guide made possible. We hope that you considered the article useful. If you have any questions, do not hesitate to ask them because we are here to help!

    By Stella | Follow | Last Updated November 25, 2020

    Summary :

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    If there is something wrong with your Chromebook or you want to sell or send your Chromebook, you will need to reset your Chromebook to factory settings. In this post, we will show you how to reset a Chromebook to factory settings and some related issues.

    If you reset your Windows computer by mistake and want to get your lost data back, you can try MiniTool Power Data Recovery, a free file recovery tool from MiniTool Software, to rescue it.

    If you want to recover files from a Mac computer, you can try the free Mac data recovery software: Stellar Data Recovery for Mac.

    When Do You Need to Powerwash/Factory Reset a Chromebook?

    A Chromebook powerwash can erase all files on the hard drive of your Chromebook. So, this action also means to factory reset Chromebook. When do you need to powerwash Chromebook? Here are some common situations:

    • You may want to use your Chromebook as a new one. Then, you need to reset it to factory settings.
    • You may want to sell your Chromebook or give it to others. Then you’d better reset your Chromebook to factory settings to protect your privacy.
    • You receive a message saying Reset this Chrome device.
    • There is something wrong with your user profile or settings.
    • Your Chromebook works abnormally.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Are you bothered by the error message: Chrome OS is missing or damaged. Now, we will show you 3 available solutions in this post.

    Do you know how to reset a Chromebook to factory settings? If you haven’t done this job before, you may don’t know how to do this. In this post, we will show you how to powerwash a Chromebook including the preparations before a Chromebook powerwash.

    Confirmation before Your Reset Your Chromebook

    Turn off the Related Settings

    If your Chromebook doesn’t work normally, you need to turn off some related settings and then check whether the device can work normally again. Here are the things you should try:

    1. Turn off the extensions for your Google Chrome. Here you need to know that you should turn off one extension at a time and check each time whether the device can work normally again. This can help you find out which extension is the real cause of your issue.
    2. Resetting the hardware for your Chromebook can also fix some Chromebook issues.

    If these two methods can’t solve the issue you are facing, you need to powerwash the Chromebook.

    Back up Your Files and Information on the Chromebook

    You know that you will lose all your files and information after you factory reset the Chromebook. If these files are important for you, you’d better back up them in advance.

    The easiest method is to sync your information and settings to your Google Account and back up your files on Chromebook using Google Drive or to an external storage drive.

    After doing these things, you can feel free to reset your Chromebook to factory settings.

    How to Factory Reset Your Chromebook

    Here are two methods that can be used to factory reset a Chromebook. We will show you in the following content. You can select one according to your situation.

    Method 1: Powerwash Chromebook via Login Screen

    1. Sign out of your Chromebook.
    2. Press and hold Ctrl + Alt + Shift + r at the same time.
    3. Click Restart from the pop-out Reset this Chrome device
    4. The device will begin to restart. When you see the login screen, you need to click Powerwash to continue.
    5. Click Continue on the Confirm Powerwash interface to start the factory reset process.

    Method 2: Powerwash Chromebook via Chrome

    1. Open your Google Chrome.

    2. Go to the 3-dot menu > Settings > Advanced.

    3. Scroll down to the Reset settings section and then select Powerwash.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    4. The Restart your device windows will pop up. You need to click the RESTART.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Your Chromebook will restart and the Chromebook powerwash process will begin. After that, you can use your Chromebook as a new one.

    Bottom Line

    Reading here, you should know what to do before resetting a Chromebook to factory settings and how to powerwash a Chromebook using two different methods. Should you have any related issues, you can let us know in the comment.

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    ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    Position: Columnist

    Stella has been working in MiniTool Software as an English Editor for more than 4 years. Her articles mainly cover the fields of data recovery including storage media data recovery and phone data recovery, YouTube videos download, partition management, and video conversions.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    If you want to install Ubuntu on your Chromebook and remove Chrome OS, this tutorial is for you. This is not a dual boot. This will REPLACE ChromeOS with Ubuntu.

    THIS WILL DELETE EVERYTHING FROM YOUR CHROMEBOOK.

    Instructions were taken from these locations:

    What you’ll need:
    – Chromebook (I’m using the Acer C720)
    – Live Linux USB drive (I’m using Ubuntu 18.04)

    Step 1. Enable Developer mode

    Developer mode will wipe your Chromebook back to factory settings so make sure you back up any data not on your Google drive.

    With your Chromebook turned off hold down the ESC and Refresh While keeping them held down, press the power button once.

    Press Ctrl + D to bypass this screen.

    Press Enter at the next screen.

    On the next screen press Ctrl + D to bypass this message.

    You will see a timer counting down in the top right hand corner of the screen. The Chromebook will reboot and you’ll see the screen with the red exclamation mark.

    Developer mode is now enabled, power off the Chromebook.

    Step 2. Modify the Chromebooks BIOS

    By enabling developer mode, your Chromebook will always display the screen with the red exclamation mark on startup. Let’s now modify the BIOS to allow us to install Linux.

    Turn the Chromebook on and press Ctrl + D to bypass the screen with the red exclamation mark.

    Your Chromebook is reset to factory settings so you will need to go through the Chrome OS setup again.

    Press Ctrl + Alt + T to bring up a terminal window tab.

    By Anna Attkisson published 24 January 18

    Chromebooks are easy to use by their very nature. However, that doesn’t mean everything about them is intuitive. As with any piece of tech, every once in a while you run into a glitch that causes a tab or app to stop working properly, especially if your Chromebook is running Android apps.

    But since there is no Ctrl+Alt+Delete option to open the task manager on a Chromebook, as there are on a Windows laptop because there’s no delete button. That doesn’t mean you can’t get to a task manager, however. Here’s how to force close a window.

    1. Open Chrome.

    2. Click the menu button, the stack of three dots.

    3. Select More Tools in the menu.

    4. Click Task Manager.

    5. Select the process or program that you wish to force quit and click End Process on the bottom right of the screen.

    Note: I wrote this about a year and a half ago, but I refer to it all the time. Hopefully the instructions have not changed too much! Enjoy!

    I recently purchased a Chromebook. It’s great, it symbolizes the direction the PC market should head – inexpensive, low-powered ARM processor, defense in depth resistance to malware and simple for non-technical users. And with crouton, it functions quite cleanly as a Debian-based workstation.

    With its simplicity and low price, there are certain key features that are lacking in the stripped down Linux kernel that can make it frustrating for a power-user. Unfortunately, Chromium addons have not or cannot satisfy some tasks that require kernel-level functionality. Even in crouton, you may find your ability limited to the user-space. Those looking for casual additions, recompiling the kernel may seem like daunting over-kill. Instead, compiling and inserting a single module may serve as an apt alternative. In this guide, I will explain how to compile a custom kernel module to add additional functionality to your Chromebook and how to circumvent the built-in security mechanisms that prevent you from adding into the kernel-space.. This guide is specifically written for an ARM-based CPU using kernel 3.10.18 for the CIFS (SMB) module, but can be trivially ported to any other architecture, kernel and module.

    Compiling the Kernel Module

    As mentioned, Chromium OS is a stripped down version of Linux. Therefore, you should be able to compile and dynamically link kernel modules from the stock kernel into Chromium.

    Per Google’s documentation, you must compile the kernel and modules on an x86_64 CPU, even if you will be compiling an ARM or 32-bit x86 module. This is possible thanks to GNU C Compiler’s cross-platform capability. The documentation also specifies using Ubuntu, but it worked just fine on my Debian 8 workstation.

    If you have not already done so, install git, subversion and perform the basic configurations:

    Google manages its various git repositories with wrapper depot_tools, a custom git wrapper. You can clone the associated git repository and set your PATH environmental variable to include the wrapper scripts as follows.

    Next, make a directory where your Chromium OS build will reside, download the Chromium source, and synchronize it to the latest updates. This take around 30 minutes to complete.

    Once completed, you will need to download the cross-platform SDK environment, build the dependencies and enter a chroot(1) environment. This will take another 30 minutes.

    Now that you are inside the chroot(1) environment, you need to specify the hardware configuration for your Chromebook device, either x86-generic, amd64-generic or arm-generic. You can determine your architecture by running uname -m on your Chromebook. For my ARM-based CPU, I did the following:

    Now you must prepare the core packages associated with your board.

    Change directory to

    /trunk/src/third_party/kernel/ and then to whichever subdirectory is associated with your kernel (ie, v3.10 for 3.10.18). You can determine your kernel version by running uname -r on your Chromebook.

    Next, we will need to tell the kernel which hardware platform you are on and start with the base configuration of the kernel. A list the options of base configurations by running find ./chromeos/config . In my case I am using NVIDIA’s Tegra motherboard, which is ./chromeos/config/armel/chromeos-tegra.flavour.config, so I use chromeos-tegra as follows:

    If you are compiling for a non x86_64 CPU, set the architecture and compiler settings as follows:

    This next portion is the same as compiling any other kernel module. Configure the kernel by running make menuconfig

    Select whichever controls you would like to install and save. Once completed you will have a .config file that corresponds to your hardware. Since we are only compiling the kernel modules, you can either run make modules to compile all kernel modules, or make fs/cifs/cifs.ko to build only a specific module. I prefer the former because your module may require other dependencies in other modules, such as with crypto/md4.ko for cifs. You can verify that the file was built for the right architecture by running file fs/cifs/cifs.ko. Great! On to inserting the module!

    ChromiumOS’s Security Mechanisms

    ChromeOS is the official signed release of ChromiumOS, which is what you run in developer mode. Even in developer mode, Google implemented multiple defensive mechanisms to slow down a would-be attacker from gaining access the underlying system. To protect the kernel, Google utilized the Linux Security Module (LSM), which validates files from the root partition against a list of cryptographic hash values stored in the kernel, thereby preventing an attacker from loading a malicious kernel modules. In effect, the only way to insert a kernel module is to have it stored on the root partition. But by default, the root partition is set to read-only, so you cannot simply move a file to the root partition and load it.

    Therefore, we must disable the root partition verification running the following script.

    Now, reboot the machine and from ChromiumOS remount the root partition to be read-writeable, as follows:

    From here, you should be able to simply insert the kernel module with insmod. Now, you can install
    Enjoy!

    The Chromebook isn’t your usual laptop. The main idea behind the Chromebook’s features and design is that access to the Internet is more important than the computer itself.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    With that in mind, it makes sense that Chromebooks aren’t nearly as powerful as desktops or traditional laptops. However, they have some features that allow you to accomplish interesting things. You can set up software that will make your Chromebook’s configuration resemble a laptop.

    In general, the Chromebook is designed to be extremely user-friendly. Everyone can figure out how it works in just a couple of minutes. However, there are some features that many users find difficult to work around.

    For example, you may have a hard time figuring out how to disable the on-screen keyboard feature. This is exactly what this article will look into.

    Disabling the On-Screen Keyboard

    It’s no surprise that the Chromebook comes with a touchscreen. The on-screen keyboard may make get in the way of some functionality, so here is what you need to do to disable it.

    1. Log in and then open your Chromebook menu. Either click on the status area, which is located on the bottom right side of your screen, or press Alt + Shift + S.
      How to delete a chroot in a chromebook
    2. Check if you have the Accessibility feature in your Chromebook menu.

    In case you don’t have the Accessibility feature displayed on your menu, follow the steps below to enable it before you continue:

    1. Click on the Settings option in the lower left corner of your Chromebook menu.
    2. Now, in the Settings for your Chromebook account, click on the three horizontal lines located on the top left corner of your screen.
    3. Find and select the Advanced option from the displayed drop-down menu.
      How to delete a chroot in a chromebook
    4. Within the drop-down menu, select Accessibility.
    5. Toggle the Always show accessibility options in the system menu option to On. How to delete a chroot in a chromebook
    6. The Accessibility option should now be displayed in your Chromebook system menu.

    Now, let’s continue with disabling the on-screen keyboard.

    1. Click on Accessibility and choose the Manage Accessibility Features option.
    2. Scroll down and look for the Keyboard section.
    3. Toggle the Enable on-screen keyboard option to Off.

    How to delete a chroot in a chromebook

    After you have done the last step, your keyboard will no longer appear on your screen when you are typing.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Can you use Windows apps on a Chromebook?

    The short answer is “yes”, but things aren’t entirely straightforward.

    You can simply download and install an Android app called CrossOver. The CrossOver app serves as a Windows emulator, allowing you to use and download Windows apps from it.

    However, since Chromebooks aren’t designed for this, some apps are likely to crash or not run at all. If you need Windows apps for your work or for entertainment, you can expect some annoyance. The technology will presumably improve in future releases.

    What apps does the Chromebook support?

    The Chromebook allows its users to install a variety of different apps that will make their user experience easier. The goal is to make it similar to the experience of using a computer or regular laptop.

    Originally, the Chromebook was designed and optimized only for apps developed by Google, such as Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Drive, etc. However, this limits users in terms of their creativity and the work that they can do on the device, so Google needed to work on their Chromebook system.

    They had to allow apps from different platforms to be installed on this device. Nowadays, Chromebook users can not only install and use Google’s programs, but they can also use Android apps.

    With that in mind, you have to go through the Google Play Store to get to the apps you need. Sometimes, this presents a unique set of challenges. For example, Chromebook’s operating system doesn’t support the Microsoft Office suite, so you won’t be able to use some of the programs that you are used to, such as Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, etc. But you can find good Android apps that can serve as a replacement.

    Unfortunately, not all Chromebook laptops support Android applications. Keep this in mind when you go shopping, especially if you’re thinking of buying a used Chromebook.

    Can you temporarily disable the physical keyboard on a Chromebook?

    Based on research, this doesn’t seem to be possible without unplugging the actual cable for the keyboard. Unless you want to void a warranty and have to disassemble your Chromebook every time, it’s not worth it.

    Customize Your Chromebook Software

    Although the Chromebook isn’t as nearly as powerful as a regular laptop, it does allow you to experiment. With some research and patience, you can install apps that will let you use it for almost anything. If necessary, it’s simple to get the on-screen keyboard out of the way.

    But the bottom line is this. If you need a laptop for serious work, the Chromebook shouldn’t be your first choice – at least, it’s not there yet.

    Not for the new Chromebook enthusiast.

    What is Arch Linux?

    Arch Linux is a Linux distribution meant for computers with x86_64 processors. Arch Linux adheres to the KISS principle and is focused on simplicity, modernity, pragmatism, user centrality, and versatility.

    To put it simply, Arch Linux is a computer operating system designed to be able to be portable and it is a good choice for installing on a device with little memory, like a Chromebook

    1. 1. A small screwdriver
    2. 2. An internet connection
    3. 3. A USB pendrive/SD card/memory stick/hard drive of at least 1 GB of space, and with nothing on it that you care about, as all data will be removed
    4. 4. I reccomend doing this on a Chromebook with a hard drive size of at least 16 GB
    5. 5. A bit of patience

    Step One: Enable developer mode on your Chromebook

    Developer mode is a Chromebook mode that allows users to do potentially destructive things, or to simply experiment with the newest un-released features.

    Just a note: Make sure you have an internet connection.

    Press the escape (esc) key, the refresh (little circular arrow or F3) button, and the power button at the same time

    Once the recovery mode screen pops up (the one with the big yellow exclamation point or the one that says insert recovery medium), press ctrl+d

    Once the computer prompts you, press ctrl+d again.

    The computer will tell you that ChromeOS verification is off. Press ctrl+d to continue, and wait. ChromeOS will automatically enable developer mode from there.

    Once the computer reboots, select “enable debug tools.”

    The computer will reboot, at which point you will have to log in again, and you will need your internet connection.

    Creating an Arch Linux bootable device from ChromeOS

    Note: This method seems relatively unorthodox, but, surprisingly enough, it works exactly the same as it would if you used another tool on Windows such as Rufus. It could even work better, because it automatically chooses the settings needed to boot from SeaBIOS.

    The first thing that you need to make a bootable device from your Chromebook, the easy way, is to install a program called Chromebook Recovery Utility. You can download it from the Web Store.

    You can download the Arch Linux ISO file (from a U.S. Arch download mirror) from here: https://america.mirror.pkgbuild.com/iso/latest/

    I recommend downloading the ISO file to your Downloads folder.

    Next, after the file is downloaded, find the file wherever you saved it and rename it.

    Click the left arrow key until you get to the end of the name, the part that says it is .iso

    Delete the .iso part, and replace it with .bin

    Now, go to your Chromebook Recovery Utility app.

    Click on the cog wheel in the top right hand corner of the app’s window (next to the x) and select the option that says somethign along the line of “use your own recovery image”

    Select the .bin file that you made.

    Follow the instructions that the app suggests from there.

    Removing the write protect screw

    Power off your Chromebook. This is crucial, because if you do not power off your Chromebook, you could fry the motherboard an then the Chromebook won’t work.

    Take the cover that hides the internal stuff of your Chromebook off. You know, the plastic cover held in by screws on the bottom of your Chromebook.

    Locate the write-protect screw of your Chromebook. The screw’s location depends on the model of your Chromebook. To find it, you can do a simple Google search. For example, you can search “Where is the write-protect screw of my Acer Chromebook 11?” Generally, however, it is the largest screw that you can see on your motherboard, and is positioned over a copper piece.

    After you have removed the write-protect screw, put your Chromebook back together.

    After you have put your Chromebook back together, power on your Chromebook and sign in again. Press ctrl+alt+F2 (F2 is the little arrow at the top of your keyboard that points to the right.)

    Sign in as user “chronos,” and enter your password.

    Now, go into super user mode (sudo su) and hit enter.

    Enter the following command:

    And write-protect should be turned off, assuming that you have removed the write-protect screw.

    To get back to ChromeOS, press ctrl+alt+F2 (which is the little arrow at the top of you rkeyboard that points to the right)

    Flashing UEFI firmware (allows you to boot Arch)

    IMPORTANT: This will delete all data, including Chrome OS. Only proceed if you wish to do this.

    This process is potentially destructive, and it can brick (ruin) your device. Make sure you check the “Supported Devices” list on MrChromebox.Tech (which can be viewedhere

    Press ctrl+alt+t in order to open a Crosh terminal session.

    Enter your password that you chose for “root” when you created it.

    Once you log in to your shell, type the following commands:

    Once the menu pops up, choose “Install/Update UEFI (Full ROM) Firmware”

    Follow the instructions that pop up.

    Installing Arch Linux

    Now that you have flashed the UEFI BIOS, you can continue with the next steps, that is, if you have not bricked your device. It is extremely difficult to unbrick a device, and shall not be discussed here

    Insert the boot stick that you made and power on your Chromebook.

    Hit the escape key when the screen shows a picture of a rabbit.

    Select “boot menu”

    Select “General USB Flash Disk” or whatever the external device is named.

    Note: SD cards do not seem to boot for some reason.

    Boot into Arch Linux, and select the first option that is shown on the Arch installer menu.

    In the nest section, the code to install it to your disk will be shown and included. Please note that it takes a while to do, and is a bit difficult, and it can be highly destructive if not done properly.

    How To Install Arch Linux to Chromebook Memory and Such

    To install Arch Linux, use the following code. This will include installation of a GUI, which, by default, is not enabled in Arch.

    All of the bolded text is the code required to install Arch Linux.

    (which will be called mmcblk with a number at the end.)

    The command that you enter next will enter the Arch Linux IWD (iNet Wireless Daemon) menu